1887
Volume 50, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1810-7478
  • E-ISSN: 2589-5230

Abstract

Abstract

This study compared dynamic formant trajectories and corresponding ultrasound tongue data of the diphthong /ou/ in Taiwan Mandarin and Beijing Mandarin speakers. Results of the Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMM) analyses showed that both groups of speakers produced a clearly diphthongal /ou/, which contrasts with previous auditory-based accounts that /ou/ in Taiwan Mandarin may be monophthongal. The two dialects, however, had rather different phonetic realizations: Taiwan Mandarin had a significantly lower realization for the nucleus of /ou/ than its Beijing counterpart; Taiwan Mandarin also had a significantly more fronted realization for the offglide than Beijing Mandarin. The articulatory patterns mostly corresponded to the acoustic results, in that while tongue dorsum raising was found for all speakers in this study, an additional tongue dorsum fronting gesture was observed for the majority of the Taiwan Mandarin speakers. Together, the results suggest that the less studied dialectal variation in Mandarin vowels may be a promising line of investigation, particularly with parallel acoustic and articulatory data collection.

Available under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/consl.00032.cha
2024-05-21
2024-06-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/consl.00032.cha.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/consl.00032.cha&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abete, Giovanni
    2018 On a dynamic threshold for the perception of diphthongization. LINCOM Studies in Theoretical Linguistics (LSTL) 60: Production and Perception Mechanisms of Sound Change, ed. byDaniel Recasens and Fernando Sánchez-Miret, 21–38. München: Lincom.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chang, Yung-hsiang Shawn, and Chilin Shih
    2015 Place contrast enhancement: The case of the alveolar and retroflex sibilant production in two dialects of Mandarin. Journal of Phonetics501:52–66. 10.1016/j.wocn.2015.02.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2015.02.001 [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen, Wei-Rong
    2021Align Wave. MATLAB Central File Exchange. RetrievedDecember 1, 2021, fromhttps://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/50473-align-wave
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chen, Wei-Rong, Douglas Whalen, and Christine Shadle
    2019 F0-induced formant measurement errors result in biased variabilities. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America145.5:360–366. 10.1121/1.5103195
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5103195 [Google Scholar]
  5. Davidson, Lisa
    2006 Comparing tongue shapes from ultrasound imaging using smoothing spline analysis of variance. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America120.1:407–415. 10.1121/1.2205133
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2205133 [Google Scholar]
  6. Duanmu, San
    2000The Phonology of Standard Chinese. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Eshky, Aciel, Joanne Cleland, Manuel Sam Ribeiro, Eleanor Sugden, Korin Richmond, and Steve Renals
    2021 Automatic audiovisual synchronization for ultrasound tongue imaging. Speech Communication1321:83–95. 10.1016/j.specom.2021.05.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2021.05.008 [Google Scholar]
  8. Fon, Janice
    2020 The phonetic realizations of the Mandarin phoneme inventory: The canonical and the variants. Speech Perception, Production and Acquisition: Multidisciplinary Approaches in Chinese Languages, ed. byHuei-Mei Liu, Feng-Ming Tsao and Ping Li, 11–36. Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑15‑7606‑5_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-7606-5_2 [Google Scholar]
  9. Fon, Janice, Jui-mei Hung, Yi-hsuan Huang, and Hui-ju Hsu
    2011 Dialectal variations on syllable-final nasal mergers in Taiwan Mandarin. Language and Linguistics12.2:273–311.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fox, Robert, and Ewa Jacewicz
    2009 Cross-dialectal variation in formant dynamics of American English vowels. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America126.5:2603–2618. 10.1121/1.3212921
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3212921 [Google Scholar]
  11. Garcia, Damien
    2010 Robust smoothing of gridded data in one and higher dimensions with missing values. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis54.4:1167–1178. 10.1016/j.csda.2009.09.020
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csda.2009.09.020 [Google Scholar]
  12. Heyne, Matthias, and Donald Derrick
    2015 Using a radial ultrasound probe’s virtual origin to compute midsagittal smoothing splines in polar coordinates. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America138.6:509–514. 10.1121/1.4937168
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4937168 [Google Scholar]
  13. Hualde, José Ignacio, Marissa Barlaz, and Tatiana Luchkina
    2021 Acoustic differentiation of allophones of /aɪ/ in Chicagoland English: Statistical comparison of formant trajectories. Journal of the International Phonetic Association52.2:197–227. 10.1017/S0025100320000158
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100320000158 [Google Scholar]
  14. Hualde, José Ignacio, Tatiana Luchkina, and Christopher D. Eager
    2017 Canadian raising in Chicagoland: The production and perception of a marginal contrast. Journal of Phonetics651:15–44. 10.1016/j.wocn.2017.06.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2017.06.001 [Google Scholar]
  15. Huang, Yi-hsuan, and Janice Fon
    2008 Dialectal variations in tonal register and declination pattern of Taiwan Mandarin. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Speech Prosody, ed. byPlnio A. Barbosa, Sandra Madureira and Cesar Reis, 605–608. Campinas: Editora RG/CNPq. 10.21437/SpeechProsody.2008‑137
    https://doi.org/10.21437/SpeechProsody.2008-137 [Google Scholar]
  16. Jacewicz, Ewa, Robert Allen Fox, and Joseph Salmons
    2011 Regional dialect variation in the vowel systems of typically developing children. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research54.2:448–470. 10.1044/1092‑4388(2010/10‑0161)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2010/10-0161) [Google Scholar]
  17. Kubler, Cornelius
    1985 The influence of Southern Min on the Mandarin of Taiwan. Anthropological Linguistics27.2:156–176.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Li, Aijun, and Xia Wang
    2003 A contrastive investigation of Standard Mandarin and accented Mandarin. Paper presented atthe 8th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (EUROSPEECH 2003), Geneva, Switzerland. 10.21437/Eurospeech.2003‑647
    https://doi.org/10.21437/Eurospeech.2003-647 [Google Scholar]
  19. Lin, Yen-huei
    2007The Sounds of Chinese. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lindblom, Björn, and Johan Sundberg
    1971 Acoustical consequences of lip, tongue, jaw, and larynx movement. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America50.4:1166–1179. 10.1121/1.1912750
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1912750 [Google Scholar]
  21. Mayr, Robert, and Hannah Davies
    2011 A cross-dialectal acoustic study of the monophthongs and diphthongs of Welsh. Journal of the International Phonetic Association41.1:1–25. 10.1017/S0025100310000290
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100310000290 [Google Scholar]
  22. Mielke, Jeff
    2017Tongue_ssanova. R Function Package. RetrievedNovember 1, 2022, fromhttps://phon.wordpress.ncsu.edu/lab-manual/ultrasound-and-video/working-with-data/
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Niedzielski, Nancy
    1999 The effect of social information on the perception of sociolinguistic variables. Journal of Language and Social Psychology18.1:62–85. 10.1177/0261927X99018001005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X99018001005 [Google Scholar]
  24. Noiray, Aude, Khalil Iskarous, and Douglas H. Whalen
    2014 Variability in English vowels is comparable in articulation and acoustics. Laboratory Phonology5.2:271–288. 10.1515/lp‑2014‑0010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lp-2014-0010 [Google Scholar]
  25. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2013R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing (Version 3.6.1) [Computer software]. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sóskuthy, Márton
    2017Generalised Additive Mixed Models for Dynamic Analysis in Linguistics: A Practical Introduction. RetrievedFebruary 1, 2023 from doi:https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.1703.0533910.48550/arXiv.1703.05339
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.1703.05339 [Google Scholar]
  27. The MathWorks, Inc
    The MathWorks, Inc 2019MATLAB (Version 2019a) [Computer software]. RetrievedFebruary 10, 2023, fromhttps://www.mathworks.com/
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tiede, Mark
    2015GetContours, Software Supporting Tongue Contour Extraction from Ultrasound Images. RetrievedNovember 1, 2022, fromhttps://github.com/mktiede/Get​Contours
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Torgerson, Richard
    2005 A Comparison of Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin Tone Register: An Acoustic Analysis of Three Native Speech Styles. MA Thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. van Rij, Jacolien, Martijn Wieling, R. Harald Baayen, and Hedderik van Rijn
    2015itsadug: Interpreting Time Series and Autocorrelated Data Using GAMMs [R package]. RetrievedFebruary 1, 2023, fromhttps://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/itsadug/index.html
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Wang, Gaowu, Xugang Lu, and Jianwu Dang
    2008 A study of Mandarin Chinese using X-Ray and MRI. Journal of Chinese Phonetics21:51–58.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Wang, Yuedong
    2011Smoothing Splines: Methods and Applications. Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman & Hall/CRC. 10.1201/b10954
    https://doi.org/10.1201/b10954 [Google Scholar]
  33. Wieling, Martijn
    2018 Analyzing dynamic phonetic data using generalized additive mixed modeling: A tutorial focusing on articulatory differences between L1 and L2 speakers of English. Journal of Phonetics701:86–116. 10.1016/j.wocn.2018.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2018.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  34. Wieling, Martijn, Fabian Tomaschek, Denis Arnold, Mark Tiede, Franziska Bröker, Samuel Thiele, Simon N. Wood, and R. Harald Baayen
    2016 Investigating dialectal differences using articulography. Journal of Phonetics591:122–143. 10.1016/j.wocn.2016.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2016.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  35. Williams, Daniel, and Paola Escudero
    2014 A cross-dialectal acoustic comparison of vowels in Northern and Southern British English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America136.5:2751–2761. 10.1121/1.4896471
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4896471 [Google Scholar]
  36. Wood, Simon N.
    2011 Fast stable restricted maximum likelihood and marginal likelihood estimation of semiparametric generalized linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series B)73.1:3–36. 10.1111/j.1467‑9868.2010.00749.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9868.2010.00749.x [Google Scholar]
  37. 2017Generalized Additive Models: An Introduction with R (2nd edition). Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman & Hall/CRC, Taylor & Francis Group. 10.1201/9781315370279
    https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315370279 [Google Scholar]
  38. Wu, Chen-huei
    2011 The Evaluation of Second Language Fluency and Foreign Accent. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois.
  39. Ximenes, Arwen, Jason Shaw, and Chris Carignan
    2017 A comparison of acoustic and articulatory methods for analyzing vowel differences across dialects: Data from American and Australian English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America142.1:363–377. 10.1121/1.4991346
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4991346 [Google Scholar]
  40. Yu, Jue, Aijun Li, and Xia Wang
    2004 A contrastive investigation of diphthongs between Standard Mandarin and Shanghai accented Mandarin. Paper presented at theFirst International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages, Beijing, China.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Yuan, Jiahong, and Mark Liberman
    2008 Speaker identification on the SCOTUS corpus. Journal of Acoustical Society of America123.5:3878. 10.1121/1.2935783
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2935783 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/consl.00032.cha
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/consl.00032.cha
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): acoustic; articulatory; dialect; diphthong; Mandarin; ultrasound; 中文; 方言; 構音; 聲學; 超音波; 雙母音
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error