Volume 49, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1810-7478
  • E-ISSN: 2589-5230
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Given relevant experimental evidence and language universals, this paper investigates the adaptation patterns of English stops in Taiwan Mandarin and argues in favor of the substantial existence of the perceptual phase in loanword adaptation, counter to Paradis & Tremblay’s (2009) phonological view on a similar issue. The statistically based results from a corpus of established loanwords support the view that interpretation of foreign stops is largely conditioned by a handful of perceptual factors, i.e., syllable position, aspiration and voicing, sonority, and the masking effect of [s]. These effects serve as part of the perceptual cues and function with the structural constraints at the level of perception, which generates an underlying representation that awaits evaluation at the level of production.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alderete, John
    1995 Faithfulness to prosodic heads. Manuscript, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bauer, Robert S., and Paul K. Benedict
    1997Modern Cantonese Phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110823707
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110823707 [Google Scholar]
  3. Beckman, Jill
    1997 Positional faithfulness, positional neutralization, and Shona vowel harmony. Phonology14.11:1–46. 10.1017/S0952675797003308
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675797003308 [Google Scholar]
  4. 1998 Positional Faithfulness. Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
  5. Bickford, Anita C., and Rick Floyd
    2006Articulatory Phonetics: Tools for Analyzing the World’s Languages. Dallas: SIL International.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boersma, Paul
    1998 Functional Phonology: Formalizing the Interactions between Articulatory and Perceptual Drives. Doctoral dissertation, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.
  7. 2007 Some listener-oriented accounts of h-aspiré in French. Lingua1171:1989–2054. 10.1016/j.lingua.2006.11.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2006.11.004 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2009 Cue constraints and their interaction in phonological perception and production. Phonology in Perception, ed. byPaul Boersma and Silke Hamann, 55–110. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110219234.55
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110219234.55 [Google Scholar]
  9. Boersma, Paul, and Bruce Hayes
    2001 Empirical tests of the gradual learning algorithm. Linguistic Inquiry32.11:45–86. 10.1162/002438901554586
    https://doi.org/10.1162/002438901554586 [Google Scholar]
  10. Boersma, Paul, and Silke Hamann
    2009 Loanword adaptation as first-language phonological perception. Loan Phonology, ed. byAndrea Calabrese and W. Leo Wetzels, 11–58. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.307.02boe
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.307.02boe [Google Scholar]
  11. Broselow, Ellen
    2004 Language contact phonology: Richness of the stimulus, poverty of the base. Proceedings of the North-Eastern Linguistic Society, ed. byKeir Moulton and Matthew Wolf, 341:1–22. Amherst, MA: Graduate Linguistic Student Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 2009 Stress adaptation in loanword phonology: Perception and learnability. Phonology in Perception, ed. byPaul Boersma and Silke Hamann, 191–234. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110219234.191
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110219234.191 [Google Scholar]
  13. Byrd, Dani
    1993 54,000 American stops. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics831:97–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Calabrese, Andrea
    1988 Towards a Theory of Phonological Alphabets. Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
  15. 1995 A constraint-based theory of phonological markedness and simplification procedures. Linguistic Inquiry26.21:373–463.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 2009 Perception, production and acoustic inputs in loanword phonology. Loan Phonology, ed. byAndrea Calabrese and W. Leo Wetzels, 59–113. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.307.03cal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.307.03cal [Google Scholar]
  17. Casali, Rod
    1996 Resolving hiatus. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
  18. Cho, Taehong, and Peter Ladefoged
    1999 Variation and universals in VOT: Evidence from 18 languages. Journal of Phonetics27.21:207–229. 10.1006/jpho.1999.0094
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1999.0094 [Google Scholar]
  19. Connelly, Mark
    1994 Phonological Markedness and Second Language Error Interpretation. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
  20. Crystal, Thomas H., and Arthur S. House
    1988 The duration of American-English stop consonants: An overview. Journal of Phonetics16.31:285–294. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30503‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30503-0 [Google Scholar]
  21. Davidson, Lisa, and Rolf Noyer
    1997 Loan phonology in Huave: Nativization and the ranking of faithfulness constraints. The Proceedings of the 15th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, ed. byBrian Agbayani and Sze-Wing Tang, 65–79. Stanford, CA: Center Study Language and Information.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dong, Xiaoli
    2012 What Borrowing Buys Us: A Study of Mandarin Loanword Phonology. Doctoral dissertation, Utrecht University, Utrecht.
  23. Dupoux, Emmanuel, Kazuhiko Kakehi, Yuki Hirose, Christophe Pallier, and Jacques Mehler
    1999 Epenthetic vowels in Japanese: A perceptual illusion?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance251:1568–1578.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gbéto, Flavien
    2000Les Emprunts Linguistiques D’origine Européene en Fon [Linguistic Borrowings of European Origin in Fon]. Kölin: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Glewwe, Eleanor
    2021 The phonological determinants of tone in English loanwords in Mandarin. Phonology381:203–239. 10.1017/S0952675721000154
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675721000154 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hardcastle, William J.
    1973 Some observations on the tense-lax distinction in initial stops in Korean. Journal of Phonetics11:263–272. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)31390‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)31390-7 [Google Scholar]
  27. He, Mosi, and Jaining He
    2022 Integration of perceptual similarity with faithful mapping of phonological contrast in loanword adaptation: Mandarin Chinese adaptation of English stops. Journal of Language, Teaching, and Research13.31:541–549. 10.17507/jltr.1303.10
    https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.1303.10 [Google Scholar]
  28. Hsiao, Yuchao, and Mingchang Lu
    2005 A corner of loanword phonology: From ‘fuck’ to ‘Amita Buddha’. Paper presented at the9th International & 23rd National Conference on Chinese Phonology, Providence University, Taichung.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hsieh, Feng-fan, Michael Kenstowicz, and Xiaomin Mou
    2009 Mandarin adaptation of coda nasals in English loanwords. Loan Phonology, ed. byAndrea Calabrese and W. Leo Wetzels, 131–154. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.307.05hsi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.307.05hsi [Google Scholar]
  30. Hui, Yang, and Mira Oh
    2015 Adaptation of English stops into Mandarin Chinese. Linguistic Research32.21:403–417.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ito, Junko, and Armin Mester
    1995 Japanese phonology. The Handbook of Phonological Theory, ed. byJohn A. Goldsmith, 817–838. Cambridge, MA & Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jacobs, Haike, and Carlos Gussenhoven
    2000 Loan phonology: Perception, salience, the lexicon and OT. Optimality Theory: Phonology, Syntax, and Acquisition, ed. byJoost Dekkers, Frank van der Leeuw and Jeroen van de Weijer, 193–210. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kang, Yoonjung
    2003 Perceptual similarity in loanword adaptation: English postvocalic word-final stops in Korean. Phonology201:219–273. 10.1017/S0952675703004524
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675703004524 [Google Scholar]
  34. Keating, Patricia, Wendy Linker, and Marie Huffman
    1983 Patterns in allophone distribution for voiced and voiceless stops. Journal of Phonetics111:277–290. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30827‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30827-7 [Google Scholar]
  35. Kenstowicz, Michael
    2001 The role of perception in loanword phonology. Lingustique Africaine201:1–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 2003a Salience and similarity in loanword adaptation: A case study from Fijian. Manuscript, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 2003b The role of perception in loanword phonology. A review ofLes emprunts linguistiques d’origine europénne en FonbyFlavien Gbéto, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag 2000 Studies in African Linguistics321:95–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kim, Hyunsoon
    2009 Korean adaptation of English affricates and fricatives in a feature-driven model of loanword adaptation. Loan Phonology, ed. byAndrea Calabrese and W. Leo Wetzels, 155–180. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.307.06kim
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.307.06kim [Google Scholar]
  39. Klatt, Dennis H.
    1975 Voice onset time, frication, and aspiration in word-initial consonant clusters. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research181:686–706. 10.1044/jshr.1804.686
    https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.1804.686 [Google Scholar]
  40. LaCharité, Darlene, and Carole Paradis
    2005 Category preservation and proximity versus phonetic approximation in loanword adaptation. Linguistic Inquiry361:223–258. 10.1162/0024389053710666
    https://doi.org/10.1162/0024389053710666 [Google Scholar]
  41. Ladefoged, Peter
    2001A Course in Phonetics (4th edition). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Lin, Yen-Hwei
    2007 Loanword adaptation of English vowels in standard Mandarin. NACCL-18: Proceedings of the 18th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, ed. byJanet Xing, 331–342. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 2008a Variable vowel adaptation in Standard Mandarin loanwords. Journal of East Asian Linguistics171:363–380. 10.1007/s10831‑008‑9031‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-008-9031-y [Google Scholar]
  44. 2008b Patterned vowels variation in Standard Mandarin loanword adaptation: Evidence from a dictionary corpus. NACCL-20: Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, ed. byMarjorie Chan and Hana Kang, 175–184. Columbus, Ohio: East Asian Studies Center, The Ohio State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Lisker, Leigh, and Arthur Abramson
    1964 A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: Acoustical measurements. Word201:384–422. 10.1080/00437956.1964.11659830
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1964.11659830 [Google Scholar]
  46. Lombardi, Linda
    1996 Positional Faithfulness and the Phonology of Voice Assimilation in Optimality Theory. MA Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 1999 Positional faithfulness and voicing assimilation in Optimality Theory. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory171:267–302. 10.1023/A:1006182130229
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006182130229 [Google Scholar]
  48. Lotz, John, Arthur Abramson, Louis Gerstman, and Willaim Nemser
    1960 The perception of English stops by speakers of English, Spanish. Hungarian, and Thai: A tape-cutting experiment. Language and Speech3.21:71–77. 10.1177/002383096000300202
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002383096000300202 [Google Scholar]
  49. Lü, Mingchang
    2013 Modeling salience and prosody in loanword adaptation: Cases of English [ɹ] in Mandarin. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics39.21:1–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 2017 Where Variation Vanishes: Constructing the Stochastic Perception Grammar for English Loanwords in Taiwan Mandarin. Doctoral dissertation, National Chengchi University, Taipei.
  51. Maddieson, Ian
    1997 Phonetic universals. Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, ed. byJohn Laver and William Hardcastle, 619–639. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Mar, Li-Ya, and Hanyong Park
    2012 Tonal adaptation of English loanwords in Mandarin: The role of perception and factors of characters. Poster presented at the162nd Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Kansas City, MO. Available (May 2021) athttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/230860079
    [Google Scholar]
  53. McCarthy, John and Alan Prince
    1995 Faithfulness and reduplicative identity. University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 18: Papers in Optimality Theory, ed. byJill Beckman, Laura Walsh Dickey and Suzanne Urbanczyk, 249–384. Amherst: GLSA.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Miao, Ruiqin
    2005 Loanword Adaptation in Mandarin Chinese: Perceptual, Phonological and Sociolinguistic Factors. Doctoral dissertation, Stony Brook University, New York.
  55. Padgett, Jaye
    1995 Feature classes. University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 18: Papers in Optimality Theory, ed. byJill Beckman, Laura Walsh Dickey and Suzanne Urbanczyk, 385–419. Amherst: GLSA.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Paradis, Carole
    1996 The inadequacy of filters and faithfulness in loanword adaptation. Current Trends in Phonology, ed. byJacques Durand and Bernard Laks, 509–534. Salford: University of Salford Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Paradis, Carole, and Antoine Tremblay
    2009 Nondistinctive features in loanword adaptation. Loan Phonology, ed. byAndrea Calabrese and W. Leo Wetzels, 211–224. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.307.09par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.307.09par [Google Scholar]
  58. Paradis, Carole, and Darlene LaCharité
    1997 Preservation and minimality in loanword adaptation. Journal of Linguistics33.11:379–430. 10.1017/S0022226797006786
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226797006786 [Google Scholar]
  59. Paradis, Carole, and Jean-Francois Prunet
    2000 Nasal vowels as two segments: Evidence from borrowings. Language761:324–357. 10.1353/lan.2000.0117
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2000.0117 [Google Scholar]
  60. Peperkamp, Sharon
    2005 A psycholinguistic theory of loanword adaptations. BLS301:341–352. 10.3765/bls.v30i1.919
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v30i1.919 [Google Scholar]
  61. Peperkamp, Sharon, and Emmanuel Dupoux
    2002 Loanword adaptations: Three problems for phonology (and a psycholinguistic solution). Paper presented at theNorth American Phonology Conference (Naphs), Concordia University, Montreal.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 2003 Reinterpreting loanword adaptations: The role of perception. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, ed. byM. J. Solé, D. Recasens and J. Romero, 367–370. Barcelona: Causal Productions.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Peperkamp, Sharon, Inga Vendelin, and Kimihiro Nakamura
    2008 On the perceptual origin of loanword adaptations: Experimental evidence from Japanese. Phonology251:129–164. 10.1017/S0952675708001425
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675708001425 [Google Scholar]
  64. Prince, Alan, and Paul Smolensky
    2004Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470759400
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470759400 [Google Scholar]
  65. Ran, Qi Bin, and Feng Shi
    2007 VOT analysis of stops in mono-syllables of Standard Chinese. Nankai Linguistics101:21–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Randolph, Mark
    1989 Syllable-based Constraints on Properties of English Sounds. Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
  67. Rodd, Joe, Hans Rutger Bosker, Louis Ten Bosch, and Mirjam Ernestus
    2019 Deriving the onset and offset times of planning units from acoustic and articulatory measurements. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America145.21:161–167. 10.1121/1.5089456
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5089456 [Google Scholar]
  68. Schütz, Albert J.
    1978 English loanwords in Fijian. Fijian Language Studies: Borrowing and Pidginization, ed. byAlbert J. Schütz, 41:1–50. Suva: Bulletin of the Fiji Museum.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Shinohara, Shigeko, Seong-Rim Ji, Tomohiko Ooigawa, and Takahito Shinya
    2011 The limited role of perception in Korean loanword adaptation: The Korean three-way laryngeal categorization of Japanese, French, English and Chinese plosives. Lingua121.91:1461–1484. 10.1016/j.lingua.2011.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2011.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  70. Silverman, Daniel
    1992 Multiple scansions in loanword phonology: Evidence from Cantonese. Phonology91:289–328. 10.1017/S0952675700001627
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675700001627 [Google Scholar]
  71. Steriade, Donca
    1993 Positional neutralization. Paper presented at the24th Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 2001 Directional asymmetries in place assimilation: A perceptual account. The Role of Speech Perception in Phonology, ed. byElizabeth Hume and Keith Johnson, 219–250. San Diego: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 2008 The phonology of perceptibility effects: The P-map and its consequences for constraint organization. The Nature of the Word: Studies in Honor of Paul Kiparsky, ed. byKristin Hanson and Sharon Inkelas, 151–180. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/9780262083799.003.0007
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262083799.003.0007 [Google Scholar]
  74. Yip, Moira
    1993 Cantonese loanword phonology and optimality theory. Journal of East Asian Linguistics1.11:261–291.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 2002 Necessary but not sufficient: Perceptual loanword influences in loanword phonology. The Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan6.11:4–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 2006 The symbiosis between perception and grammar in loanword phonology. Lingua1161:950–975. 10.1016/j.lingua.2005.05.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2005.05.007 [Google Scholar]
  77. Zuraw, Kie, and Sharon Peperkamp
    2015 Aspiration and the gradient structure of English prefixed words. Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Science, ed. byBarbora Skarabela, Mitsuhiko Ota, Judit Fazekas and Lovisa Wihlborg, 1–5. Glasgow, UK: the University of Glasgow.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error