1887
Volume 48, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1810-7478
  • E-ISSN: 2589-5230
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The verb ‘to have’ in standard Mandarin is typically followed by a noun. can also take a VP as its complement (‘ + VP’) in several varieties of Mandarin. However, the function associated with it is still under debate: ‘ + VP’ has been analyzed as expressing past tense, perfective aspect, perfect aspect, or realis mood. This paper assesses these analyses by conducting a corpus-based investigation of ‘ + VP’ on the PTT platform and by looking at different morphosyntactic environments in which it is used. The data favor analyzing ‘ + VP’ as expressing an assertive modality meaning (the situation is considered true in the real world by the speaker). This analysis corroborates with the high frequency of ‘ + VP’ in assertive environments (e.g., after factual verbs in embedded clauses, with attitudinal adverbs of truth value, among others). Conversely, taking ‘ + VP’ as indicating past tense or perfective aspect is challenged by the present data, and the perfect aspect analysis cannot explain all the environments in which ‘ + VP’ is used. This paper provides new insights regarding the morphosyntactic use of ‘ + VP’ and sheds light on the meaning this construction encodes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/consl.21046.col
2022-11-29
2023-01-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bhat, D. N. Shankara
    1999The Prominence of Tense, Aspect, and Mood. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/slcs.49
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.49 [Google Scholar]
  2. Biq, Yung-O, and Chu-Ren Huang
    2016 Adverbs. A Reference Grammar of Chinese, ed. byChu-Ren Huang and Dingxu Shi, 315–352. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139028462.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139028462.013 [Google Scholar]
  3. Boulin, Myriam
    2017Now and xianzai: A contrastive study of two deictic adverbs. Language in Contrast17.1:1–17. 10.1075/lic.17.1.01bou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lic.17.1.01bou [Google Scholar]
  4. Bouscaren, Janine
    1991Linguistique Anglaise – Initiation à une Grammaire de L’énonciation [English Linguistics – Introduction to an Utterance-centered Grammar]. Paris: Ophrys.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bouscaren, Janine, and Jean Chuquet
    1987Grammaire et Textes Anglais – Guide pour L’analyse Linguistique [English Grammar and Texts – Toolkit for Linguistic Analysis]. Paris: Ophrys.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brooks, Joseph Daniel
    2018 Realis and irrealis: Chini verb morphology, clause chaining, and discourse. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.
  7. Cai, Ya-wen
    2011 Syntax and Semantics of You + VP in Taiwan Mandarin. MA thesis, National Chengchi University, Taipei.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chen, Xiuwen, and Claire Saillard
    2011 Prospective and posterior aspect in Mandarin Chinese: On the aspectual value of modals yao and hui. Paper presented at the7th Conference of the European Association of Chinese Linguistics (EACL-7), Ca’Foscari University, Venice.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chen, Yamuna
    2010 The Temporal and Aspectual Properties of the “You + VP” Construction in Mandarin Chinese. MA thesis, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cheng, Robert Liang-Wei
    1997 Tense interpretation of four Taiwanese modal verbs. Taiwanese and Mandarin Structures and Their Development Trends in Taiwan: Temporal and Spatial Relations, Questions and Negatives in Taiwanese and Mandarin, vol.31, 19–36. Taipei, Yuan-Liu.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cheng, Ying
    2004 Hanyu ‘you’ de yufahua [The grammaticalization of ‘you’ in Mandarin]. Journal of National Hsinchu Teacher’s College111:163–202.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chung, Siaw-Fong, Meng-Hsien Shih, Hui-Wen Liu, Chi-ling Lee, and Yueh-hui Vanessa Chiang
    2021 The use of hēi diào (‘to turn black’) and its related [V diào] forms in social media: A corpus-based study. International Review of Pragmatics13.2:125–152. 10.1163/18773109‑01302001
    https://doi.org/10.1163/18773109-01302001 [Google Scholar]
  13. Collart, Aymeric
    2018a When time is a fact: A semantic and time-relational analysis of ‘You + VP’ in Taiwan Mandarin. Paper presented at the19th Chinese Lexical Semantics Workshop (CLSW-19), National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2018b Same interpretation, different process? The case of verbal -le and You + VP in Taiwan Mandarin. Paper presented at thejoint conference 17th International Conference on the Processing of East Asian Languages and 9th Conference on Language, Discourse, and Cognition (ICPEAL 17 – CLDC 9), National Taiwan University, Taipei.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Comrie, Bernard
    1976Aspect: An Introduction to the Study of Verbal Aspect and Related Problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 1985Tense. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139165815
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165815 [Google Scholar]
  17. Gärtner, Uta
    2005 Is the Myanmar language really tenseless?Studies in Burmese Linguistics, ed. byJustin Watkins, 105–124. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Giridhar, Puttushetra Puttuswamy
    1994Mao Naga Grammar. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Givón, T.
    2001Syntax: An Introduction, vol.11. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/z.syn1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.syn1 [Google Scholar]
  20. Iljic, Robert
    2009 Grammaticalization of the notion of ‘passing’ in Chinese (aspectual values). Bulletin of SOAS72.3:513–524. 10.1017/S0041977X0999005X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X0999005X [Google Scholar]
  21. 2010 Holisticity, discontinuity, class in Chinese aspect. Language Research46.2:147–198.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jing, Sun
    2005 A Study on “You + VP” Structure in Mandarin Chinese. MA Thesis, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Khoo, Yong Kang, and Jingxia Lin
    2020 A corpus-based investigation of yŏu in Singapore Mandarin: The case for an existential perfect marker. From Minimal Contrast to Meaning Construct, ed. byQi Su and Weidong Zhan, 101–118. Beijing: Peking University Press. 10.1007/978‑981‑32‑9240‑6_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9240-6_8 [Google Scholar]
  24. Klein, Wolfgang
    1994Time in Language. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Li, Charles N., and Sandra A. Thompson
    1981Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Li, Chris Wen-Chao
    2004 Conflicting notions of language purity: The interplay of archaizing, ethnographic, reformist and xenophobic purism in the perception of Standard Chinese. Language & Communication24.2:97–133. 10.1016/j.langcom.2003.09.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2003.09.002 [Google Scholar]
  27. Lin, Jo-Wang
    2007 Predicate restriction, discontinuity property and the meaning of the perfective marker guo in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics16.3:237–257. 10.1007/s10831‑007‑9013‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-007-9013-5 [Google Scholar]
  28. Liu, Chin-Ting Jimbo
    2011 Motivations for grammaticalization: A case study of the realis marker you in Taiwan Mandarin. Paper presented at the12th Chinese Lexical Semantics Workshop (CLSW-11), National Taiwan University, Taipei.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Liu, Chin-Ting Jimbo, and Li-mei Chen
    2017 Processing conjunctive entailment of disjunction. Language and Linguistics18.2:269–295.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Liu, Tsun-Jui
    2014 PTT Corpus: Construction and Applications. MA thesis, National Taiwan University, Taipei.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Liu, Tsun-Jui, Shu-Kai Hsieh, and Laurent Prévot
    2013 Observing features of PTT neologisms: A corpus-driven study with N-gram model. Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Conference on Computational Linguistics and Speech Processing (ROCLING 2013), ed. byJui-Feng Yeh, 250–259. Kaohsiung: The Association for Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing (ACLCLP).
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lock, Graham
    1989 Aspects of variation and change in the Mandarin Chinese spoken in Singapore. Australian Journal of Linguistics9.2:277–294. 10.1080/07268608908599423
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268608908599423 [Google Scholar]
  33. Lyons, John
    1977Semantics, vol.21. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Macaulay, Monica
    1996A Grammar of Chalcatongo Mixtec. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Michael, Lev
    2014 The Nanti reality status system: Implications for the typological validity of the realis/irrealis contrast. Linguistic Typology18.2:251–288. 10.1515/lingty‑2014‑0011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingty-2014-0011 [Google Scholar]
  36. Mithun, Marianne
    1999The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Okell, John
    1969A Reference Grammar of Burmese. London: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Palmer, Frank R.
    2001Mood and Modality (2nd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139167178
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139167178 [Google Scholar]
  39. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2018R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing [Computer software]. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ross, Malcolm, and Stacy Fang-ching Teng
    2005 Formosan languages and linguistic typology. Language and Linguistics6.4:730–781.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Shyu, Shu-ing
    2016 Information structure. A Reference Grammar of Chinese, ed. byChu-Ren Huang and Dingxu Shi, 518–576. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139028462.018
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139028462.018 [Google Scholar]
  42. Shyu, Shu-ing, and Ya-chun Chuang
    2015 Approximating to the event boundary, (counter)factuality and approximative cha(yi)dian. Analyzing Language as Material, ed. byMing-Yu Tseng, 97–120. Kaohsiung: National Sun Yat-sen University press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Smith, Carlota S.
    1997The Parameter of Aspect (2nd edition). Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 10.1007/978‑94‑011‑5606‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-5606-6 [Google Scholar]
  44. Stefanowitsch, Anatol, and Stefan Th. Gries
    2003 Collostructions: Investigating the interaction of words and constructions. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics8.2:209–243. 10.1075/ijcl.8.2.03ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.8.2.03ste [Google Scholar]
  45. 2005 Covarying collexemes. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory1.1:1–43. 10.1515/cllt.2005.1.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2005.1.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  46. Tang, Ting-Chi, Shu-Min Chang, and Yuan-Ping Liao
    2010 Taiwan bentu yuyan yufa yanjiu de guiji: Fulaoyu pian [A study of the research history for the grammar of Taiwanese languages: Southern-Min dialects]. Journal of Taiwanese Languages and Literature5.2:81–102.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Teng, Shou-hsin
    2002 Defining Taiwanese Mandarin. Education and Society in Plurilingual Contexts, ed. byDaniel W. C. So and Gary M. Jones, 230–240. Brussels: VUB Brussels University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Tsai, Wei-Tien Dylan
    2002You ‘have’ in Taiwan Mandarin and dialects – on the social and historical aspects of grammatical theories. Tsinghua Journal of Chinese Studies32.2:495–528.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Tsao, Feng-fu
    1998 Taiwan Minnanyu zhong yu shimao youguan de yuci ‘u’, ‘φ’ he ‘a’ shixi [On Three Aspect – Related Morphemes u, φ and a in Taiwanese Southern Min]. Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies28.3:299–334.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Tsao, Feng-fu, and Ying Cheng
    1995 Tan Minnanyu ‘u’ de wuzhong yongfa ji qijian de guanxi [The five usages of u in Taiwanese Southern Min and their relation]. Studies in Chinese Linguistics111:155–168.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Tseng, Hsin-I.
    2003 The Syntax Structures of Contemporary Taiwanese Mandarin. MA thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Vittrant, Alice
    2005 Burmese as a modality-prominent language. Studies in Burmese Linguistics, ed. byJustin Watkins, 143–161. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wang, Wen-jet, Chia-jung Chen, Chia-ming Lee, Chien-yu Lai, and Hsin-hung Lin
    2019Articut: Chinese Word Segmentation and POS Tagging System (Version 1.0.8) [R package]. RetrievedDecember 10, 2019, fromhttps://api.droidtown.co
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Wen, Huiping
    2002You ‘(y) avoir’ grammatical dans le mandarin de Taïwan [Grammatical you ‘to have’ in Taiwan Mandarin]. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale31.2:279–292.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Wickham, Hadley
    2020rvest: Easily Harvest (Scrape) Web Pages (Version 0.3.6) [R package]. RetrievedJuly 27, 2020, fromhttps://CRAN.R-project.org/package=rvest
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Wu, Jiun-Shiung, and Zhi-Ren Zheng
    2019 Towards a unified semantics for ū in ū + situation in Taiwan Southern Min: A modal-aspectual account. Chinese Lexical Semantics, 19th Workshop, CLSW 2018, LNAI, ed. byJia-Fei Hong, Qi Su and Jiun-Shiung Wu, 408–422. Berlin: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Xiao, Richard, and Tony McEnery
    2004Aspect in Mandarin Chinese: A Corpus-based Study. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/slcs.73
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.73 [Google Scholar]
  58. Xu, Hongzhi
    2019 The experiential aspect of Mandarin Chinese (-guo): Semantics and pragmatics. Lingua2291:102714. 10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102714
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102714 [Google Scholar]
  59. Yang, Wenquan, and Yuwen Dong
    2003 Yuyan bianyi: Hanyu ‘you + VP’ ju jianxi [Language variation: ‘you + VP’ in Mandarin]. Yuwen Jianshe Tongxun751:27–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Zeitoun, Elizabeth
    2007A Grammar of Mantauran (Rukai). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Zeitoun, Elizabeth, and Lillian M. Huang
    1997 Toward a typology of tense, aspect and modality in the Formosan languages: A preliminary study. Chinese Languages and Linguistics IV: Typological Studies of Languages in China, ed. byChiu-yu Tseng, 595–618. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/consl.21046.col
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/consl.21046.col
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error