Volume 53, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2451-828x
  • E-ISSN: 2451-8298
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



With the aim of improving a Chinese language program by incorporating defensible curricula, this study surveyed 213 stakeholders to arrive at a panoramic profile of the program’s needs. A mixed-methods research design with multiple types of data triangulation was employed to achieve a balanced quantitative and qualitative exploration of these needs. To redress a lack of comprehensive studies of Chinese learning needs in higher education, this study investigated: (a) program components that were perceived differently by students and teachers; (b) whether, how, and why lower-level learners diverged from upper-level ones with regard to communicative skills and instructional-approach preferences; and (c) any possible insights for program improvement from both micro- and macro- perspectives. In addition to discussing this study’s reliability and validity, the researchers offer recommendations for potential program restructuring and for Chinese language instruction more generally. The paper concludes with implications for future studies, and how its findings might be utilized for program sustainability and improvement.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Brown, J. D.
    (2009) Foreign and second language needs analysis. InM. H. Long & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), Handbook of language teaching (pp.269–293). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444315783.ch16
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444315783.ch16 [Google Scholar]
  2. (2014) Mixed methods research for TESOL. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (2016) Introducing needs analysis and English for specific purposes. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. W.
    (1991) Motivation: Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning, 41(4), 469–512. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1991.tb00690.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1991.tb00690.x [Google Scholar]
  5. Goldberg, D., Looney, D., & Lusin, N.
    (2015) Enrollments in languages other than English in United States institutions of higher education, Fall 2013. RetrievedDecember 23, 2016fromhttps://apps.mla.org/pdf/2013_enrollment_survey.pdf.
  6. Harney, A.
    (2015) U.S. students losing interest in China as dream jobs prove elusive. RetrievedOctober 17, 2017fromhttps://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-usa-students/u-s-students-losing-interest-in-china-as-dream-jobs-prove-elusive-idUSKBN0M82MU20150312
  7. Hsu, C. -C., & Sandford, B. A.
    (2007) The Delphi technique: Making sense of consensus. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 12(10), 1–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Huang, C.
    (2014) A needs analysis for Chinese language teaching at a university in the United States. Language Learning in Higher Education, 4(2), 395–422. 10.1515/cercles‑2014‑0021
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2014-0021 [Google Scholar]
  9. Iwai, T., Kondo, K., Lim, D. S., Ray, G. E., Shimizu, H., & Brown, J. D.
    (1999) Japanese language needs analysis 1998–1999. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center. RetrievedOctober 26, 2016fromscholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/8950/1/NW13.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jean, G., & Simard, D.
    (2011) Grammar teaching and learning in L2: Necessary but boring?Foreign Language Annals, 44(3), 467–494. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2011.01143.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2011.01143.x [Google Scholar]
  11. Jiang, S., Wang, H., & Tschudi, S.
    (2014) Intercultural learning on the web: Reflections on practice. InD. M. Chun (Ed.), Cultura-inspired intercultural exchanges: Focus on Asian and Pacific languages (pp.127–144). Honolulu, HI: National Foreign Language Center.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Johnson, R. B., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Turner, L. A.
    (2007) Toward a definition of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 112–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kells, H. R.
    (1983) Self-study processes: A guide for postsecondary institutions. New York/London: American Council on Education, Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Long, M. H.
    (2005a) Methodological issues in learner needs analysis. InM. H. Long (Ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp.19–76). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667299.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667299.002 [Google Scholar]
  15. (2005b) Overview: A rationale for needs analysis and needs analysis research. InM. H. Long (Ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp.1–16). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667299
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667299 [Google Scholar]
  16. Looney, D., & Lusin, N.
    (2018) Enrollments in languages other than English in United States institutions of higher education, Summer 2016 and Fall 2016: Preliminary report. RetrievedJune 3, 2018fromhttps://www.mla.org/content/download/83540/2197676/2016-Enrollments-Short-Report.pdf.
  17. Loughran, J.
    (2007) Researching teaching education practices: Responding to the challenges, demands, and expectations of self-study. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(1), 12–20. 10.1177/0022487106296217
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487106296217 [Google Scholar]
  18. Loughran, J., & Northfield, J.
    (1998) A framework for the development of self-study practice. InM. L. Hamilton (Ed.), Reconceptualizing teaching practice: Self-study in teacher education (pp.7–18). London: Falmer.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lunenberg, M., Zwart, R., & Korthagen, F.
    (2010) Critical issues in supporting self-study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1280–1289. 10.1016/j.tate.2009.11.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.11.007 [Google Scholar]
  20. Lynch, B.
    (1992) Evaluating a program inside and out. InJ. C. Alderson and A. Beretta (Eds.), Evaluating second language education (pp.61–95). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524575.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524575.005 [Google Scholar]
  21. Norris, J., Brown, J. D., Hudson, T., & Yoshioka, J.
    (1998) Designing second language performance assessments. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Patton, M. Q.
    (2008) Utilization-focused evaluation. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Richards, J. C.
    (2017) Curriculum approaches in language teaching. InE. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learningVolIII. (pp.117–131). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S.
    (2014) Approaches and methods in language teaching. 3rd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Serafini, E. J., Lake, J. B., & Long, M. H.
    (2015) Needs analysis for specialized learner populations: Essential methodological improvements. English for Specific Purposes, 40, 11–29. 10.1016/j.esp.2015.05.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2015.05.002 [Google Scholar]
  26. Sung, K., & Tsai, H.
    (2013) Investigating students’ needs in a Chinese language program. GSTF International Journal on Education (Jed), 1(2), 47–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Wang, H.
    (2011) Chinese for business professionals: Workplace needs and business Chinese textbooks. Global Business Languages, 16, 26–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (2013) Attaining sustainable growth of a business Chinese program through utilization-focused evaluation. Global Business Languages, 18, 130–144.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Yousuf, M. I.
    (2007) Using experts’ opinions through Delphi technique. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 12(4), 1–8.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error