Volume 56, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2451-828x
  • E-ISSN: 2451-8298
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



As Chinese-as-an-additional-language (CAL) practitioners actively seek to bridge the language-culture divide in class instruction and curriculum, various strategies have been adopted to integrate cultural components into traditionally defined “language courses” or vice versa. However, many such strategies follow a “monolingual approach” that views L1 primarily as a source of interference in second language acquisition (SLA). Recognizing the importance of L1 use in additional-language classrooms, this paper proposes to apply the theory of translanguaging as the underlying pedagogy of CAL courses that holistically integrate language, culture, and intercultural learning. This approach fully recognizes students as multilingual and multicultural learners by judiciously and strategically combining L1 and L2 in order to maximize the growth of students’ overall linguacultural proficiency. The paper presents two course examples to discuss the implementation and benefits of this approach: a course on Chinese calligraphy for students with intermediate proficiency in the Chinese language and a course on Sino-US intercultural communication for students with advanced proficiency. These courses demonstrate that the translanguaging approach facilitates in-depth intellectual inquiries and critical thinking and encourages Chinese language learning in an interdisciplinary, intercultural, and interactive context. The paper concludes by extending the vision of translanguaging to the overall CAL curriculum and discussing its implication for the field.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages)
    ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages) (2010) Use of the target language in the classroom. RetrievedJune 6, 2020, fromhttps://www.actfl.org/news/position-statements/use-the-target-language-the-classroom
  2. Auerbach, E.
    (1993) Reexamining English only in the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 27 (1), 9–32. doi:  10.2307/3586949
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586949 [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, C.
    (2001) Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Third edition. Bristol, UK; Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brown, H. D.
    (2000) Principles of language learning and teaching. Fourth edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Butzkamm, W.
    (2003) We only learn language once. The role of the mother tongue in FL classrooms: death of a dogma. Language Learning Journal, 28 (1), 29–39. doi:  10.1080/09571730385200181
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571730385200181 [Google Scholar]
  6. Canagarajah, S.
    (2013) Translingual practice: Global Englishes and cosmopolitan relations. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203120293
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203120293 [Google Scholar]
  7. Cook, V.
    (1999) Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 33 (2), 185–209. doi:  10.2307/3587717
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587717 [Google Scholar]
  8. (2001) Using the first language in the classroom. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 57 (3), 402–423. doi:  10.3138/cmlr.57.3.402
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.57.3.402 [Google Scholar]
  9. Creese, A. , & Blackledge, A.
    (2010) Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching?The Modern Language Journal, 94 (1), 103–115. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2009.00986.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00986.x [Google Scholar]
  10. (2015) Translanguaging and identity in educational settings. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 35 , 20–35. 10.1017/S0267190514000233
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190514000233 [Google Scholar]
  11. Curdt-Christiansen, X. L. , & Sun, B.
    (2016) Nurturing bilingual learners: Challenges and concerns in Singapore. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 19 (6), 689–705. 10.1080/13670050.2016.1181606
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1181606 [Google Scholar]
  12. Dujmovic, M.
    (2007) The use of Croatian in the EFL classroom. Metodicki Obzori 2 (1), 91–101.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fei, Y. , & Weekly, R.
    (2020) Examining the parameters of translanguaging in the context of Chinese bilinguals’ discourse practices. International Journal of Multilingualism. doi:  10.1080/14790718.2020.1742721
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2020.1742721 [Google Scholar]
  14. García, O. , Johnson, S. , & Seltzer, K.
    (2017) The translanguaging classroom: Leveraging student bilingualism for learning. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. García, O. , & Li, W.
    (2014) Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137385765
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765 [Google Scholar]
  16. (2018) Translanguaging. In Chapelle, C. A. (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of applied linguistics (1–7). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. doi:  10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1488
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1488 [Google Scholar]
  17. García, O. , & Lin, A. M. Y.
    (2017) Translanguaging in bilingual education. In García, O. & Lin, A. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of language and education: Bilingual and multilingual education, 117–130. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑02258‑1_9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02258-1_9 [Google Scholar]
  18. Heller, M.
    (1999) Linguistic minorities and modernity: A sociolinguistic ethnography. London, England: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hornberger, N. H. , & Link, H.
    (2012) Translanguaging and transnational literacies in multilingual classrooms: A biliteracy lens. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15 (3), 261–278. doi:  10.1080/13670050.2012.658016
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2012.658016 [Google Scholar]
  20. Krashen, S. D. , & Terrell, T. D.
    (1988) The natural approach. London: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Larsen–Freeman, D.
    (2000) Techniques and principles in language teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lee, J. H.
    (2012) Implications for language diversity in instruction in the context of target language classrooms: Development of a preliminary model of the effectiveness of teacher code-switching. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 11 (4), 137–160.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lee, J. H. , & Macaro, E.
    (2013) Investigating age in the use of L1 or English-only instruction: Vocabulary acquisition by Korean EFL learners. The Modern Language Journal, 97 (4), 887–901. doi:  10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2013.12044.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12044.x [Google Scholar]
  24. Lewis, G. , Jones, B. , & Baker, C.
    (2012) Translanguaging: Origins and development from school to street and beyond. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18 (7), 641–654. doi:  10.1080/13803611.2012.718488
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2012.718488 [Google Scholar]
  25. Li, W.
    (2018) Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics, 39 (1), 9–30. doi:  10.1093/applin/amx039
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx039 [Google Scholar]
  26. Li, W. & Zhu, H.
    (2011) Moment analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics, 43 (5), 1222–1235. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035 [Google Scholar]
  27. Li, X. , Heugh, K. , O’Neill, F. , Scarino, A. , Song, Y. , & Crichton, J.
    (2016) Developing English language and intercultural learning capabilities – Case study 1: the English language project, University of South Australia, RetrievedSeptember 16, 2020, fromhttps://apo.org.au/node/74376
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Li, Y.
    (2011) A broader interdisciplinary approach to calligraphy-related course development: Towards an integrated Chinese curriculum. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 46 (3), 49–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Li, Y. , Wen, X. , & Xie, T.
    (2014) CLTA 2012 survey of college-level Chinese language programs in North America. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 49 (1), 1–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lu, C.
    (2014) Teaching and/or learning Chinese as an additional language: Challenging terminology and proposed solutions. Education Matters, 2 (1), 141–150.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Macaro, E.
    (2001) Analysing student teachers? Codeswitching in foreign language classrooms: Theories and decision making. The Modern Languages Journal, 85 (4), 531–548. doi:  10.1111/0026‑7902.00124
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00124 [Google Scholar]
  32. (2009) Teacher use of codeswitching in the Second Language classroom: Exploring optimal use. In Turnbull, M. & Dailey-O’Cain, J. (Eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (35–49). Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691972‑005
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691972-005 [Google Scholar]
  33. MacDonald, C.
    (1993) Using the target language. Cheltenham: Mary Glasgow.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Mattioli, G.
    (2004) On native language and intrusion making do with words. The English Teaching Forum, 42 (4), 20–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. May, S.
    (Ed.) (2013) The multilingual turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL and bilingual education. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203113493
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203113493 [Google Scholar]
  36. Miles, R.
    (2004) Evaluating the use of L1 in the English language classroom. School of Humanities. Centre for English Language Studies Department of English. University of Birmingham.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. MLA
  38. Morain, G.
    (1997) A perspective on cultural perspectives. In Rosenbusch, M. H. (Ed.), Bringing the standards into the classroom: A teacher’s guide (2nd ed.) (35–37). Ames: Iowa State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Nation, P.
    (2003) The role of the first language in foreign language learning. The Asian EFL Journal, 5 (2), 1–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, Yonkers, NY
    National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, Yonkers, NY (2006) Standards for foreign language learning in the 21st century.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Ortega, L.
    (2013) SLA for the 21st century: Disciplinary progress, transdisciplinary relevance, and the bi/multilingual turn. Language Learning, 63 (Suppl. 1), 1–24. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2012.00735.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00735.x [Google Scholar]
  42. Palmer, D. K. , Martínez, R. A. , Mateus, S. G. , & Henderson, K.
    (2014) Reframing the debate on language separation: Toward a vision for translanguaging pedagogies in the dual language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 98 (3), 757–772. doi:  10.1111/modl.12121
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12121 [Google Scholar]
  43. Rolin-Ianziti, J. , & Varshney, R.
    (2008) Students’ views regarding the use of the first language: An exploratory study in a tertiary context maximising target language use. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 65 (2), 249–273. doi:  10.3138/cmlr.65.2.249
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.65.2.249 [Google Scholar]
  44. Romaine, S.
    (1995) Bilingualism. Second edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Schweers, W. Jr.
    (1999) Using L1 in the L2 classroom. English Teaching Forum, 37 (2), 6–9 and 13.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Tian, L. , & Macaro, E.
    (2012) Comparing the effect of teacher codeswitching with English-only explanations on the vocabulary acquisition of Chinese vocabulary students: A lexical focus-on-form study. Language Teaching Research, 16 (3): 367–391. doi:  10.1177/1362168812436909
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168812436909 [Google Scholar]
  47. Wang, D.
    (2019a) Multilingualism and translanguaging in Chinese language classrooms. Palgrave Macmillan. doi:  10.1007/978‑3‑030‑02529‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02529-8 [Google Scholar]
  48. (2019b) Translanguaging in Chinese foreign language classrooms: students and teachers’ attitudes and practices, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22 (2): 138–149. doi:  10.1080/13670050.2016.1231773
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1231773 [Google Scholar]
  49. Wang, W. , & Curdt-Christiansen, X. L.
    (2019) Translanguaging in a Chinese–English bilingual education programme: A university-classroom ethnography. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22 (3), 322–337. doi:  10.1080/13670050.2018.1526254
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1526254 [Google Scholar]
  50. Williams, C.
    (1994) Arfarniad o ddulliau dysgu ac addysgu yng nghyddestun addysg uwchradd ddwyiei- thog [An evaluation of teaching and learning methods in the context of bilingual secondary education] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wales, Bangor.
  51. Zhang, Q. , Osborne, C. , Shao, L. , & Lin, M.
    (2020) A translanguaging perspective on medium of instruction in the CFL classroom. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1–14. doi:  10.1080/01434632.2020.1737089
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1737089 [Google Scholar]
  52. Zheng, B.
    (2019) Translanguaging in a Chinese immersion classroom: An ecological examination of instructional discourses. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1–16. doi:  10.1080/13670050.2018.1561642
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1561642 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error