Volume 55, Issue 3
  • ISSN 2451-828x
  • E-ISSN: 2451-8298
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Immersion-style bilingual school programs have proven to be effective ways for children’s acquisition of additional languages. However, such programs seem to be scarce across the world in comparison to the value people attach to bilingual skills and bilingual education. Through a case study of a successful Mandarin bilingual program in western Canada, the study hopes to explore the factors that contribute to the success of such programs in North America. The study points to the importance of government language policy environments, the attitude of local school boards, the commitment and active involvement of parents, and the availability and recruitment of quality teachers as key factors for the success of a bilingual school program.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Adams, E., Jones, T., & Ellis, C.
    (2014) Autoethnography: Understanding Qualitative Research. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baker, C.
    (2011) Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (5th ed.). Multilingual matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Berry, J.
    (2011) Integration and Multiculturalism: Ways towards Social Solidarity. Papers on Social Representations, 20, 2.1–2.21.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Berry, J. W., Kalin, R. and Taylor, D. M.
    (1977) Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M.
    (2000) Narrative Inquiry: Experience and Story in Qualitative Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Clandinin, D. J. & Rosiek, J.
    (2007) Mapping a Landscape of Narrative Inquiry: Borderland Spaces and Tensions. InClandinin, J. (Ed.). Handbook of Narrative Inquiry: mapping a methodology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.35–77. 10.4135/9781452226552.n2
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452226552.n2 [Google Scholar]
  7. Creswell, J. W.
    (2007) Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage Publication.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cummins, J.
    (1992) Heritage language teaching in Canadian schools. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 24: 3, 281–286. 10.1080/0022027920240306
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0022027920240306 [Google Scholar]
  9. Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S.
    (1994) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Sage Publication, Thousand Oaks, CA.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. ECBEA
    ECBEA (2007) Talk to the world: Edmonton’s Chinese (Mandarin) bilingual program the first 25 years. Edmonton: Edmonton Chinese Bilingual Education Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. ECBEA
    ECBEA (2018) About the Program. Retrieved fromwww.ecbea.org/about-the-program/
  12. Fortier, D.
    (2009) Official languages policies in Canada: a quiet revolution. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 105–106 (1): 69–98.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Genesee, F.
    (1983) Bilingual education of majority language children: The immersion experiments in review. Applied Psycholinguistics, 4, 1–46. 10.1017/S0142716400001739
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400001739 [Google Scholar]
  14. (1985) Second language learning through immersion: A review of U.S. programs. Review of Educational Research, 55(4), 541–561. 10.3102/00346543055004541
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543055004541 [Google Scholar]
  15. Hamel, J.
    (1993) Case study methods. Newbury Park: Sage. 10.4135/9781412983587
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412983587 [Google Scholar]
  16. Harding, K.
    (2012, Nov.18th). Bold strokes on language. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from: www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/bold-strokes-on-language/article709141/
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Holliday, A.
    (2002) Doing and Writing Qualitative Research. Sage Publications
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hyun, J.
    (2005) Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling: Career Strategies for Asians. Harper Collins.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jaschik, S.
    (2017, February27). Professors and Politics: What the Research Says. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved fromhttps://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/02/27/research-confirms-professors-lean-left-questions-assumptions-about-what-means
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Johnstone, R.
    (2000) Context-sensitive assessment of modern languages in primary (elementary) and early secondary education: Scotland and the European experience. Language Testing. 17 (2), 123–143. 10.1177/026553220001700202
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026553220001700202 [Google Scholar]
  21. Kharkhurin, A. V.
    (2009) The role of bilingualism in creative performance on divergent thinking and invented alien creatures tests. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 43(1), 59–71. 10.1002/j.2162‑6057.2009.tb01306.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2009.tb01306.x [Google Scholar]
  22. Lee, J. C.
    (1984) Chinese-English bilingual education: parental attitudes and bilingual schooling. (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Alberta, Edmonton.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Liu, W.
    (2016a) The international mobility of Chinese students: A cultural perspective. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 46(4), 41–59. 10.47678/cjhe.v46i4.186143
    https://doi.org/10.47678/cjhe.v46i4.186143 [Google Scholar]
  24. (2016b) The changing pedagogical discourses in China: The case of the foreign language curriculum change and its controversies. English Teaching: Practice and Critique. 15(1), 74–90.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2020) Language Teaching Methodology as a Lived Experience: An Autoethnography from China. The RELC Journal. doi:  10.1177/0033688220920371
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688220920371 [Google Scholar]
  26. Merriam, S.
    (1998) Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Moczulski, J. P.
    (2018 November9). TDSB votes to officially cut ties with Confucius Institute. The Global and Mail. Retrieved fromhttps://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/toronto-school-board-votes-to-sever-ties-to-confucius-institute/article21376636/
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Munk School of Global Affairs & Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada
    Munk School of Global Affairs & Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada (2013) Canada’s Asia Challenge: Creating Competence for the Next Generation of Canadians. A Report of the Asia Competence Task Force. RetrievedSep. 10, 2014, from: www.asiapacific.ca/sites/default/files/filefield/asia_competence_tf_-_final_revised_report.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  29. O’Bryan, K. G., Reitz, J. Z., & Kuplowska, O. M.
    (1976) Non-official languages: a study in Canadian multiculturalism. Ottawa: Thorn Press Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Paradise, J. F.
    (2009) China and International Harmony: The Role of Confucius Institutes in Bolstering Beijing’s Soft Power. Asian Survey, 49 (4): 647–669. 10.1525/as.2009.49.4.647
    https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2009.49.4.647 [Google Scholar]
  31. Peal, E. & Lambert, W. E.
    (1962) The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 76 (27), 1–23. 10.1037/h0093840
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0093840 [Google Scholar]
  32. Ricciardelli, L. A.
    (1992) Bilingualism and cognitive development in relation to threshold theory. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 21(4), 301–316. 10.1007/BF01067515
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01067515 [Google Scholar]
  33. Ruiz, R.
    (1988) Orientations in language planning. InS. L. McKay and S. C. Wong. (Eds.) Language Diversity: Problem or Resource. (New York: Newbury House), 3–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Saouab, A.
    (1993) Canadian multiculturalism. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Research Branch, Supply and Services Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Stake, R.
    (1995) The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Statistics Canada
    Statistics Canada (2016) Population and Dwelling Count. Retrieved fromhttps://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/rt-td/population-eng.cfm
  37. Statistics Canada
    Statistics Canada (2018, Nov.8). Immigration and ethnocultural diversity: Key results from the 2016 Census. Retrieved fromhttps://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/171025/dq171025b-eng.htm
  38. Tavares, A.
    (2000) From Heritage to International Languages: Globalism and Western Canadian Trends in Heritage Language Education. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 32(3): 156–171.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. van Manen, M.
    (1990) Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. London, ON, Canada: Althouse Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Yin, R. K.
    (1984) Case Study Research: Design and Methods (1st ed). Beverly Hills: SAGE Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. (1993) Applications of case study research. Beverly HIlls: SAGE Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (1994) Case Study Research: Design and Methods (2nd ed). Beverly Hills: SAGE Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. (2013) Case Study Research: Design and Methods (5th ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error