Volume 55, Issue 3
  • ISSN 2451-828x
  • E-ISSN: 2451-8298
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



As an important form of second language input, videos have been given much attention by both language teachers and SLA researchers. Second language learning videos typically come in two forms: live-action videos (with human actors in realistic settings) and animation videos. In this paper, we report on an empirical study on the relative merits of these two kinds of videos for beginning learners of Chinese. A total of 82 participants took part in this research as students in a Beginners’ Chinese Language course at a university in Singapore. Each participant attended four learning sessions, two of which being based on live-action videos and another two on animation videos. Post-tests showed that the efficacy of the two kinds of videos differed between students who had had richer community exposure to Mandarin before attending the course and students who did not have such exposure. The former group performed significantly better than the latter after attending live-video sessions. However, students in the latter group reported a preference for animation videos during the post-interviews due to the more well-controlled quality of the soundtracks (i.e., less noisy background).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alhamami, M.
    (2016) Vocabulary Learning through audios, images, and videos: Linking Technologies with Memory. CALL-EJ, 17(2), 87–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allan, M.
    (1985) Teaching English with Video. Harlow, Essex: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Allison, T., Puce, A., and McCarthy, G.
    (2000) Social perception from visual cues: role of the STS region. Trends in cognitive sciences, 4(7), 267–278. 10.1016/S1364‑6613(00)01501‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01501-1 [Google Scholar]
  4. Altman, R.
    (1988) The video connection: integrating video into language teaching. USA: Houghton Mifflin.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ardo, Z. and Simpson, J.
    (1990) English for management via European satellite television. IATEFL BESIG Newsletter, 3/90.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Arifani, Y.
    (2020) Cartoon video-assisted learning: An investigation into the acquisition of EFL children’s incidental vocabulary. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 21(2), 17–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bakony, I.
    (1989) Education films, TV films and authentic video films in learning foreign languages. Paper given at the7th Conference on Video Applications in Education and Training, Veszprém, Hungary.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bello-Bravo, J., Tamò, M., Dannon, E. A., & Pittendrigh, B. R.
    (2017) An assessment of learning gains from educational animated videos versus traditional extension presentations among farmers in Benin. Information Technology for Development, 24(2), 224–244. 10.1080/02681102.2017.1298077
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02681102.2017.1298077 [Google Scholar]
  9. Blais, C., Jack, R. E., Scheepers, C., Fiset, D., and Caldara, R.
    (2008) Culture shapes how we look at faces. PLoS ONE, 3(8). 10.1371/journal.pone.0003022
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003022 [Google Scholar]
  10. Candlin, J., Charles, D. and Willis, J.
    (1982) Video in English Language Teaching: an inquiry. Birmingham: University of Aston.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Caplan, E. A. S.
    (2003) The Effects of Animated Textual Instruction on Learners’ Written Production of German Modal Verb Sentences. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses; 2002; Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dunkling, L.
    (1985) English teaching with video. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Goldin-Meadow, S.
    (2003) Hearing gesture: How our hands help us think. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Haw, K., and Hadfield, M.
    (2011) Video in social science research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence. 10.4324/9780203839119
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203839119 [Google Scholar]
  15. Heikkilä, J., Lonka, E., Ahola, S., Meronen, A., and Tiippana, K.
    (2017) Lip reading ability and its cognitive correlates in typically developing children and children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60(3), 485–493. 10.1044/2016_JSLHR‑S‑15‑0071
    https://doi.org/10.1044/2016_JSLHR-S-15-0071 [Google Scholar]
  16. Helm, F.
    (2015) The practices and challenges of telecollaboration in higher education in Europe. Language Learning & Technology, 19(2), 197–217. llt.msu.edu/issues/june2015/helm.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Herbert, H. C.
    (1996) Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hirata, Y., & Kelly, S. D.
    (2010) Effects of lips and hands on auditory learning of second-language speech sounds. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(2), 298–310. 10.1044/1092‑4388(2009/08‑0243)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0243) [Google Scholar]
  19. Hoffman, E. A., and Haxby, J. V.
    (2000) Distinct representations of eye gaze and identity in the distributed human neural system for face perception. Nature neuroscience, 3(1), 80–84. 10.1038/71152
    https://doi.org/10.1038/71152 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hsieh, Y.
    (2019) Effects of video captioning on EFL vocabulary learning and listening comprehension. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33(5–6), 567–589. 10.1080/09588221.2019.1577898
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2019.1577898 [Google Scholar]
  21. Jensen, E. D. and Thora, V.
    (1978) Video in Foreign Language Teaching. System, 6, 1, 25–9. 10.1016/0346‑251X(78)90019‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(78)90019-2 [Google Scholar]
  22. Joseph, A. and Baskaran, G.
    (2011) Integrating Video in English Language Teaching. Language in India, Vol.11Issue4, p342.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Karasic, V., & Vedantham, A.
    (2015) Video Creation Tools for Language Learning: Lessons Learned. InD. Dixon & C. Fuchs. (Eds.), Researching Language Learner Interactions Online: From Social Media to MOOCs, (pp.107–128). CALICO. repository.upenn.edu/library_papers/87
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Krashen, S. D.
    (1985) The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications, New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lin, L.
    (2010) A video-based CALL program for proficient and less-proficient L2 learners’ comprehension ability, incidental vocabulary acquisition. Educational Media International, 47(3), 199–216. 10.1080/09523987.2010.518812
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2010.518812 [Google Scholar]
  26. Lin, L. -Y. and Chen, C. -S.
    (2006) The influence of the country-of-origin image, product knowledge and product involvement on consumer purchase decisions: An empirical study of insurance and catering services in Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 23. 248–265. 10.1108/07363760610681655
    https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760610681655 [Google Scholar]
  27. Long, M.
    (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory. InGass, S. & Madden, C. (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp.377–393). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Magasic, M.
    (2017) Learning through watching: Streaming video in L2 English. The JALT CALL Journal, 13(3), 199–209. 10.29140/jaltcall.v13n3.219
    https://doi.org/10.29140/jaltcall.v13n3.219 [Google Scholar]
  29. Mohammed, A. A.
    (2019) Integration of Video in Teaching Grammar to EFL Arab Learners. CALL-EJ, 20(1), 135–153.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Montero-Perez, M.
    (2020) Incidental vocabulary learning through viewing video. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42(4), 749–773. 10.1017/S0272263119000706
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263119000706 [Google Scholar]
  31. Montero-Perez, M. and Rodgers, M. P. H.
    (2019) Video and language learning. Pages403–406 | Published online: 29 Jul 2019. doi: 10.1080/09571736.2019.1629099?src=recsys
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1629099?src=recsys [Google Scholar]
  32. Peters, E., and Webb, S.
    (2018) Incidental vocabulary acquisition through viewing L2 television and factors that affect learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(3), 551–577. 10.1017/S0272263117000407
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263117000407 [Google Scholar]
  33. Pica, T.
    (1983) Adult acquisition of English as a second language under different conditions of exposure. Language Learning, 33(4), 465–497. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1983.tb00945.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1983.tb00945.x [Google Scholar]
  34. Pisarenko, V.
    (2017) Teaching a foreign language using videos. Social Sciences, 6(4), 125. 10.3390/socsci6040125
    https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040125 [Google Scholar]
  35. Pujadas, G. and Muñoz, C.
    (2019) Extensive viewing of captioned and subtitled TV series: a study of L2 vocabulary learning by adolescents, The Language Learning Journal, 47: 4, 479–496, doi:  10.1080/09571736.2019.1616806
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1616806 [Google Scholar]
  36. Rahmatian, Rouhollah & Armiun, Novid
    (2011) The Effectiveness of Audio and Video Documents in Developing Listening Comprehension Skill in a Foreign Language. International Journal of English Linguistics. Vol.1(1):115–125. 10.5539/ijel.v1n1p115
    https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v1n1p115 [Google Scholar]
  37. Rodgers, M. P. H. & S. Webb
    (2017) The effects of captions on EFL learners’ comprehension of English-language television programs. CALICO Journal34, No.1: 20–38. 10.1558/cj.29522
    https://doi.org/10.1558/cj.29522 [Google Scholar]
  38. Rodgers, M. P., & Webb, S.
    (2019) Incidental vocabulary learning through viewing television. ITL – International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 171(2), 191–220. 10.1075/itl.18034.rod
    https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.18034.rod [Google Scholar]
  39. Roohani, A., Jafarpour, A., and Zarei, S.
    (2015) Effects of Visualisation and Advance Organisers in Reading multimedia-based Texts. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies – Vol21(2): 47–62. 10.17576/3L‑2015‑2102‑04
    https://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2015-2102-04 [Google Scholar]
  40. Sadato, N., Okada, T., Honda, M., Matsuki, K. I., Yoshida, M., Kashikura, K. I. and Yonekura, Y.
    (2005) Cross-modal integration and plastic changes revealed by lip movement, random-dot motion and sign languages in the hearing and deaf. Cerebral Cortex, 15(8), 1113–1122. 10.1093/cercor/bhh210
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhh210 [Google Scholar]
  41. Smith and Dai-O’Brien
    (2017) Open up the classroom: The use of film excerpts and video clips in lower levels language courses. InCases on Audio-visual media in language education. Edited byXiang, C. H.IGI Global.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Smith, D., McLaughlin, T., and Brown, I.
    (2012) 3-D computer animation vs. live-action video: Differences in viewers’ response to instructional vignettes. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 12(1), 41–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Summerfield, Q.
    (1992) Lip reading and audio-visual speech perception. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 335(1273), 71–78. 10.1098/rstb.1992.0009
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1992.0009 [Google Scholar]
  44. Sundberg, P. A.
    (1998) “Animation in CALL: Learning to think in the fourth dimension”. Paper Presentation inCALICO ’98 Symposium.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Teng, M.
    (2019) The effects of video caption types and advance organizers on incidental L2 collocation learning. Computers & Education. 142. 103655. 10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103655
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103655 [Google Scholar]
  46. Wagner, E.
    (2013) An investigation of how the Channel of input and access to test questions affect L2 listening test performance. Language Assessment Quarterly, 10(2), 178–195. 10.1080/15434303.2013.769552
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2013.769552 [Google Scholar]
  47. Webster, M. A., Kaping, D., Mizokami, Y., and Duhamel, P.
    (2004) Adaptation to natural facial categories. Nature, 428(6982), 557–561. 10.1038/nature02420
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02420 [Google Scholar]
  48. Xiang, C. H.
    (2017) Cases on Audio-Visual media in language education. IGI Global.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Yeldham, M.
    (2018) Viewing L2 captioned video: What’s in it for the listener?Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(4), 367–389). 10.1080/09588221.2017.1406956
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1406956 [Google Scholar]
  50. Young, A. W., and Bruce, V.
    (2011) Understanding person perception. British journal of psychology, 102(4), 959–974. 10.1111/j.2044‑8295.2011.02045.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02045.x [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error