1887
Volume 52, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2451-828x
  • E-ISSN: 2451-8298
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This study examines how native English speakers perceive and produce intonation and tone in Mandarin statements and unmarked questions. The results showed, as predicted, that English speakers had less difficulty perceiving intonation and sentence-final tone when the pitch movement of both was in the same direction than when it was not. On the production side, English speakers performed much better at producing tone than intonation. The intelligibility of their question intonation was especially compromised, likely due to their narrow pitch range. The English speakers also consistently produced more final rising pitch in Mandarin unmarked questions, suggesting phonological influence from their native language. Findings highlight the role of language experience in language learning, and the importance of pedagogical awareness.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/csl.52.1.02luo
2017-08-18
2019-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Backman, N.
    (1979) Intonation errors in second language pronunciation of eight Spanish-speaking adults learning English. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin, 4(2), 239–266.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barlow, J. S.
    (1998) Intonation and second language acquisition: A study of the acquisition of English intonation by speakers of other languages (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Hull, Kingston.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Boersma, P. , & Weenink, D.
    (2013) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (Version 5.3.56). Retrieved fromwww.praat.org.
  4. Bolinger, D.
    (1989) Intonation and its uses. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Broselow, E. , Hurtig, R. R. , & Ringen, C.
    (1987) The perception of second language prosody. In G. Ioup & S. Weinberger (Eds.), Interlanguage phonology: The acquisition of a second language sound system (pp.350–361). Cambridge, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Celce-Murcia, M. , Brinton, D. , & Goodwin, J. M.
    (1996) Teaching pronunciation: A reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chao, Y. R.
    (1968) A grammar of spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chen, G. T.
    (1974) The pitch range of English and Chinese speakers. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 2, 159–171.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chun, D. M.
    (2002) Discourse intonation in L2: From theory and research to practice (Vol.1). John Benjamins Publishing. doi: 10.1075/lllt.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.1 [Google Scholar]
  10. Connell, B. A. , Hogan, J. T. , & Rozsypal, A. J.
    (1983) Experimental evidence of interaction between tone and intonation in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Phonetics (11), 337–351.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cruz-Ferreira, M.
    (1987) Non-native interpretive strategies for intonational meaning: An experimental study. Sound Patterns in Second language Acquisition, 103–120.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. DeFrancis, J. F.
    (1963) Beginning Chinese. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Derwing, T. , & Munro, M.
    (2005) Second language accent and pronunciation teaching: A research-based approach. TESOL Quarterly, 379–397. doi: 10.2307/3588486
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588486 [Google Scholar]
  14. Grice, M. , & Baumann, S.
    (2007) An introduction to intonation – functions and models. In J. Trouvain & U. Gut (Eds.), Non-native prosody: Phonetic description and teaching practice (pp.25–51). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gussenhoven, C. , & Chen, A. J.
    (2000) Universal and language-specific effects in the perception of question intonation. In Y. Baozong , Taiyi Huang , & Xiaofang Tang (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th international conference on spoken language processing ICSLP (pp.91–94). Beijing: China Military Friendship Publish.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gut, U. , Trouvain, J. , & Barry, W. J.
    (2007) Bridging research on phonetic descriptions with knowledge from teaching practice – the case of prosody in non-native speech. In J. Trouvain & U. Gut (Eds.), Non-native prosody: Phonetic description and teaching practice (pp.3–21). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hadding-Koch, K. , & Studdert-Kennedy, M.
    (1964) An experimental study of some intonation contours. Phonetica, 11, 175–185. doi: 10.1159/000258338
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000258338 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hirschberg, J. , & Ward, G.
    (1995) The interpretation of the high-rise question contour in English. Journal of Pragmatics, 24(4), 407–412. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(94)00056‑K
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(94)00056-K [Google Scholar]
  19. Ho, A. T.
    (1976) Mandarin tones in relation to sentence intonation and grammatical structure. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. House, D.
    (2003) Perceiving question intonation: The role of pre-focal pause and delayed focal peak. In M. Solé , D. Recasens , & J. Romero (Eds.), Proceedings of the international congress of phonetic sciences (pp.755–758). Barcelona, Spain.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jilka, M.
    (2007) Different manifestations and perceptions of foreign accent in intonation. In J. Trouvain & U. Gut (Eds.), Non-native prosody: Phonetic description and teaching practice (pp.77–96). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kratochvil, P.
    (1998) Intonation in Mandarin Chinese. In D. Hirst & A. Di Cristo (Eds.), Intonation systems: A survey of twenty languages (pp.417–431). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lee, O. J.
    (2005) The prosody of questions in Beijing Mandarin (Unpublished doctoral Dissertation). Ohio State University, Ohio.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lepetit, D.
    (1989) Cross‐linguistic influence in intonation: French/Japanese and French/English. Language Learning, 39(3), 397–413. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1989.tb00598.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1989.tb00598.x [Google Scholar]
  25. Liang, J. , & van Heuven, V. J.
    (2007) Chinese tone and intonation perceived by L1 and L2 listeners, In C. Gussenhoven & T. Riad (Eds.), Tones and tunes: Experimental studies in word and sentence prosody (pp.27–61). Berlin / NewYork: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110207576.1.27
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110207576.1.27 [Google Scholar]
  26. Lieberman, P.
    (1965) On the acoustic basis of the perception of intonation by linguists. Word-Journal of the International Linguistic Association, 21(1), 40–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lin, M. C.
    (2004) On production and perception of boundary tone in Chinese intonation. Paper presented atInternational symposium on tonal aspects of languages: With emphasis on tone languages, Beijing, China.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Liu, F. , & Xu, Y.
    (2005) Parallel encoding of focus and interrogative meaning in Mandarin intonation. Phonetica, 62(2–4), 70–87. doi: 10.1159/000090090
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000090090 [Google Scholar]
  29. Ma, J. K. , Ciocca, V. , & Whitehill, T. L.
    (2006) Effect of intonation on Cantonese lexical tones. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120(6), 3978–3987. doi: 10.1121/1.2363927
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2363927 [Google Scholar]
  30. Major, R. C.
    (2001) Foreign accent: The ontogeny and phylogeny of second language phonology. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. McGory, J. T.
    (1997) Acquisition of intonational prominence in English by Seoul Korean and Mandarin Chinese speakers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Ohio
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mennen, I.
    (2004) Bi-directional interference in the intonation of Dutch speakers of Greek. Journal of Phonetics, 32(4), 543–563. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2004.02.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2004.02.002 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2007) Phonological and phonetic influences in non-native intonation. In J. Trouvain & U. Gut (Eds.), Non-native prosody: Phonetic description and teaching practice (pp.53–76). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ohala, J. J.
    (1984) An ethological perspective on common cross-language utilization of F0 of voice. Phonetica, 41(1), 1–16. doi: 10.1159/000261706
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000261706 [Google Scholar]
  35. Pierrehumbert, J. , & Hirschberg, J.
    (1990) The meaning of intonational contours in the interpretation of discourse. In P. Cohen , J. Morgan , & M. Pollack (Eds.), Intentions in communication (pp.271–311). MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Rasier, L. , & Hiligsmann, P.
    (2007) Prosodic transfer from L1 to L2: Theoretical and methodological issues. Nouveaux cahiers de linguistique française, 28, 41–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Scherer, K. R. , Ladd, D. R. , & Silverman, K. E.
    (1984) Vocal cues to speaker affect: Testing two models. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 76(5), 1346–1356. doi: 10.1121/1.391450
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.391450 [Google Scholar]
  38. Schneider, W. , Eschman, A. , & Zuccolotto, A.
    (2012) E-Prime user’s guide. Pittsburgh: Psychology Software Tools, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Shen, N. S.
    (1986) Tone, stress, and intonation in Mandarin Chinese (doctoral dissertation). University of California, Berkeley.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. (1990) The prosody of Mandarin Chinese. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Shen, X. S.
    (1989) Toward a register approach in teaching Mandarin tones. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, 24(3), 27–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tseng, C. Y.
    (1981) An acoustic phonetic study on tones in Mandarin Chinese. Brown University.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. (2003) On the role of intonation in the organization of Mandarin Chinese speech prosody. Paper presented atEurospeech / INTERSPEECH, Geneva, Switzerland.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Ueyama, M.
    (2000) Prosodic transfer: An acoustic study of L2 English vs. L2 Japanese. PhD dissertation, University of California Los Angeles.
  45. Ueyama, M. , & Jun, S. A.
    (1996) Focus realization of Japanese English and Korean English intonation. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 110–125.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Ultan, R.
    (1978) Some general characteristics of interrogative systems. Universals of Human Language, 4, 211–248.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Vaissière, J.
    (2005) Perception of Intonation, In D. B. Pisoni & R. E. Remez (Eds.), The handbook of speech perception (pp.236–263). MA: Blackwell, Malden. doi: 10.1002/9780470757024.ch10
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757024.ch10 [Google Scholar]
  48. Vance, T. J.
    (1976) An experimental investigation of tone and intonation in Cantonese. Phonetica, 33(5), 368–392. doi: 10.1159/000259793
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000259793 [Google Scholar]
  49. Visceglia, T. & Fodor, J. D.
    (2006) Fundamental frequency in Mandarin and English: Comparing first- and second-language speakers. In C. Lleoa (Ed.), Interfaces in multilingualism: Acquisition and representation (pp.27–59). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/hsm.4.03vis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hsm.4.03vis [Google Scholar]
  50. Wang, P. , & Shi, F.
    (2010) The undulating scale of interrogative sentence intonation of Beijing Mandarin. Nankai Linguistics, 2, 004.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wells, J. C.
    (2006) English intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Willems, N.
    (1982) English intonation from a Dutch point of view. Walter de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110853469
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110853469 [Google Scholar]
  53. Yang, C. , & Chan, M. K.
    (2010) The perception of Mandarin Chinese tones and intonation by American learners. Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association, 45(1), 7–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Yuan, J. H.
    (2004) Intonation in Mandarin Chinese: Acoustics, perception, and computational modeling (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Cornell University, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. (2006) Mechanisms of question intonation in Mandarin. In Q. Huo , B. Ma , E -S. Chng , & H. Li (Eds), Chinese spoken language processing (pp.19–30). Springer. doi: 10.1007/11939993_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/11939993_7 [Google Scholar]
  56. (2011) Perception of intonation in Mandarin Chinese. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130 (6), 4063–4069. doi: 10.1121/1.3651818
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3651818 [Google Scholar]
  57. Zeng, X. L. , Martin, P. , & Boulakia, G.
    (2004) Tones and intonation in declarative and interrogative sentences in Mandarin. Paper presented atInternational symposium on tonal aspects of languages: With emphasis on tone languages, Beijing, China.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Zhang, Y. H. , & Yuan, J. H.
    (2011) A cross‐linguistic study of intonation: English learners’ production of Mandarin intonation. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129 (4), 2681–2681. doi: 10.1121/1.3588990
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3588990 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/csl.52.1.02luo
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/csl.52.1.02luo
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error