1887
Volume 37, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0176-4225
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9714
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes
  • The distribution, reconstruction and varied fates of topographical deixis in Trans-Himalayan (Sino-Tibetan)

    Implications for the reconstruction of an early Trans-Himalayan environment

  • Author(s): Mark W. PostORCID icon
  • Source: Diachronica, Volume 37, Issue 3, Sep 2020, p. 368 - 409
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.19018.pos
    • Received : 27 Mar 2019
    • Accepted : 12 Apr 2020
    • Version of Record published : 03 Aug 2020

Abstract

Abstract

Topographical deixis refers to a variety of spatial-environmental deixis, in which typically distal reference to entities is made in terms of a set of topographically-anchored referential planes: most often, , or . This article reviews the genealogical and geographic distribution of topographical deixis in Trans-Himalayan (Sino-Tibetan) languages, reviews the conditions in which topographical deixis in Trans-Himalayan languages may be gained or lost, and concludes that (a) topographical deixis is overwhelmingly found in languages spoken in montane environments, and (b) topographical deixis most likely reconstructs to a deep level within Trans-Himalayan. The language spoken at that level – whose precise phylogenetic status cannot yet be specified – was overwhelmingly likely to have been spoken in a montane environment.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/dia.19018.pos
2020-08-03
2020-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allen, Nicholas Justin
    1975Sketch of Thulung grammar. Ithaca: Cornell University East Asia Series.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson, Stephen R. & Edward L. Keenan
    1985 Deixis. InTimothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description volume III: Grammatical categories and the lexicon, 259–308. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andvik, Erik E.
    2010A grammar of Tshangla. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/ej.9789004178274.i‑490
    https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004178274.i-490 [Google Scholar]
  4. Arokianathan, S.
    1987Tangkhul Naga grammar. Mysore: Central Institute for Indian Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baclawski, Kenneth P.
    2012 Deictic elements in Hyow and Kuki-Chin. Dartmouth College, B.A. thesis.
  6. Barnard, Joseph Terence Owen
    1934A handbook of the Răwang dialect of the Nung language. Rangoon: Superintendent of Government Printing and Stationery.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bartee, Ellen
    2007 A grammar of Dongwang Tibetan. University of California, Doctoral dissertation.
  8. Benedict, Paul K.
    1972Sino-Tibetan: A conspectus. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511753541
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753541 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bhattacharya, Pramod Chandra
    1977A descriptive analysis of the Boro language. Gauhati: Department of Publication, Gauhati University.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bickel, Balthasar
    2001 Deictic transposition and referential practice in Belhare.’ Journal of Linguistic Anthropology10(2). 224–247. 10.1525/jlin.2000.10.2.224
    https://doi.org/10.1525/jlin.2000.10.2.224 [Google Scholar]
  11. Blench, Roger & Mark W. Post
    2014 Re-thinking Sino-Tibetan phylogeny from the perspective of North East Indian languages. InNathan Hill & Tom Owen-Smith (eds.), Trans-Himalayan linguistics: Historical and descriptive linguistics of the Himalayan area, 71–104. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 2011Declassifying Eastern Himalayan languages: Reconsidering the evidence. Unpublished ms.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bodt, Timotheus A.
    2017 Grammar of Duhumbi (Chugpa). Universität Bern, Doctoral dissertation.
  14. Bodt, Timotheus A. & Ismael Lieberherr
    2015 First notes on the phonology and classification of the Bangru language of India. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area38(1). 66–123. 10.1075/ltba.38.1.03bod
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltba.38.1.03bod [Google Scholar]
  15. Borchers, Dörte
    2008A grammar of Sunwar: Descriptive grammar, paradigms, texts, and glossary. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Boro, Krishna
    2017 A grammar of Hakhun Tangsa. University of Oregon, Doctoral dissertation.
  17. Bradley, David
    1979Proto-Loloish. London: Curzon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 1997 Tibeto-Burman languages and classification. InDavid Bradley (ed.), Tibeto-Burman languages of the Himalayas, 1–72. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 2002 The subgrouping of Tibeto-Burman. InChristopher I. Beckwith (ed.), Medieval Tibeto-Burman languages, 73–112. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 2003 Deictic patterns in Lisu and Southeastern Tibeto-Burman. InDavid Bradley, Randy J. LaPolla, Boyd Michailovsky & Graham Thurgood (eds.), Language variation: Papers on variation and change in the Sinosphere and in the Indosphere in honour of James A. Matisoff, 219–236. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Brassett, Cecilia, Philip Brassett & Meiyan Lu
    2006The Tujia language. Munich: Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. van Breugel, Seino
    2014A grammar of Atong. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004258938
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004258938 [Google Scholar]
  23. Burling, Robbins
    1965Hill farms and padi fields: Life in mainland Southeast Asia. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 1983 The Sal languages. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area7(2). 1–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2004The Language of the Modhipur Mandi (Garo). Volume I: Grammar. New Delhi: Bibliophile South Asia.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Caughley, Ross
    2000Dicitonary of Chepang: A Tibeto-Burman language of Nepal. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Chelliah, Shobhana L.
    1997Meithei. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110801118
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110801118 [Google Scholar]
  28. Coupe, Alec
    2007A grammar of Mongsen Ao. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110198522
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110198522 [Google Scholar]
  29. Das Gupta, Kamalesh
    1977A phrase book in Miju. Shillong: Government of Arunachal Pradesh Research Department.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. DeLancey, Scott
    2012 On the origins of Bodo-Garo. InGwendolyn Hyslop, Stephen Morey & Mark Post (eds.), North East Indian linguistics volume 4, 3–20. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press India.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Denwood, Philip
    1999Tibetan. Amsterdam, Benjamins. 10.1075/loall.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/loall.3 [Google Scholar]
  32. Ding, Picus Sizhi
    2014A grammar of Prinmi: Based on the central dialect of Northwest Yunnan, China. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004279773
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004279773 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dirksmeyer, Tyko
    2008 Spatial deixis in Chintang: Aspects of a grammar of space. Universität Leipzig, M.A. Thesis.
  34. Dixon, R. M. W.
    1972The Dyirbal language of North Queensland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139084987
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139084987 [Google Scholar]
  35. Doornenbal, Marius
    2009 A grammar of Bantawa: Grammar, paradigm tables, glossary and texts of a Rai language of Eastern Nepal. Leiden University, Doctoral dissertation.
  36. van Driem, George
    1993A grammar of Dumi. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110880915
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110880915 [Google Scholar]
  37. 1998Dzongkha. Leiden: Leiden University Research School CNWS.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 2001Languages of the Himalayas: An ethnolinguistic handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region, containing an introduction to the symbiotic theory of language. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 2014 Trans-Himalayan. InNathan W. Hill & Thomas Owen-Smith (eds.), Trans-Himalayan linguistics: Historical and descriptive linguistics of the Himalayan area, 11–40. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ebert, Karen
    1997A grammar of Athpare. Munich: Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 2003 Kiranti languages: An overview. InGraham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 505–517. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Evans, Jonathan
    2004 Reconstruction of Proto-Qiang verb inflection. InYing-Chin Lin, Fang-Min Hsu, Chun-Chih Lee, Jackson Tian-Shin Sun, Hsiu-Fang Yang & Dah-An Ho (eds.), Studies on Sino-Tibetan languages: Papers in honor of Professor Hwang-Cherng Gong on his seventieth birthday, 201–238. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Forker, Diana
    2019 Elevation as a category of grammar: Sanzhi Dargwa and beyond. Linguistic Typology23(1): 59–106. 10.1515/lingty‑2019‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingty-2019-0001 [Google Scholar]
  44. Gawne, Lauren
    2016A sketch grammar of Lamjung Yolmo. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Genetti, Carol
    2007A grammar of Dolokha Newar. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110198812
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110198812 [Google Scholar]
  46. Giridhar, P. P.
    1980Angami grammar. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 1994Mao Naga grammar. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Goswami, Dipjyoti
    2017 Lexical nominalization and the extended functions of the demonstrative kəra² in Rera, a Northern Naga Language. Payap University, M.A. Thesis.
  49. Grollmann, Selin
    2018A grammar of Bjokapakha. Unpublished ms.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hammarström, Harald, Robert Forkel & Martin Haspelmath
    2018Glottolog 3.3. Accessed2018-08-07, glottolog.org
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hansson, Inga-Lill
    2003 Akha. InGraham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 236–252. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Hargreaves, David
    2003 Kathmandu Newar (Nepal Bhasa). InGraham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla, (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 371–384. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 2004 Directional prefixes in Kathmandu Newar. InAnju Saxena (ed.), Himalayan languages: Past and present, 273–284. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110898873.273
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110898873.273 [Google Scholar]
  54. Häsler, Katrin Louise
    1999 A grammar of the Tibetan Dege (Sde dge) Dialect. Universität Bern, Doctoral dissertation.
  55. Hesselmeyer, George
    1868 The hill tribes of the northern frontier of Assam. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal4. 192–208.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Hildebrandt, Kristine A.
    2004 A grammar and glossary of the Manange language. InCarol Genetti (ed.), Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal: Manange and Sherpa, 3–189. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Hyslop, Gwendolyn
    2017A Grammar of Kurtöp. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004328747
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004328747 [Google Scholar]
  58. Jacques, Guillaume
    2004 Phonologie et morphologie du Japhug (rGyalrong). Université de Paris VII – Denis Diderot, Doctoral dissertation.
  59. 2015 The genetic position of Chinese. InRint Sybesma (ed.), Encyclopedia of Chinese language, 297–306. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Jacquesson, François
    2015An introduction to Sherdukpen language. Bochum: Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Kato, Atsuhiko
    2003 Pwo Karen. InGraham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan Languages, 633–648. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Khaling, Mosyel Syelsaangthyel & Teshangran Tontang
    2019 ‘This’ and ‘that’ in Uipo. Paper presented at the52nd International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, University of Sydney.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. King, John Timothy
    2009A grammar of Dhimal. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Konnerth, Linda
    2014 A grammar of Karbi. University of Oregon, Doctoral dissertation.
  65. Kurabe, Keita
    2017 Jinghpaw. InRandy LaPolla & Graham Thurgood (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 993–1010. 2nd edn.London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Landi, Victor
    2005The Meyors and their language. Itanagar: Arunachal Pradesh Directorate of Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. LaPolla, Randy J.
    1994 Parallel grammaticalizations in Tibeto-Burman languages: Evidence of Sapir’s “drift”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area17. 61–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 2016 Once again on methodology and argumentation in linguistics: Problems with the arguments for recasting Sino-Tibetan as “Trans-Himalayan”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area39(2). 282–297. 10.1075/ltba.39.2.03lap
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltba.39.2.03lap [Google Scholar]
  69. 2017 Dulong. InGraham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan Languages, 635–645. 2nd edn.London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. LaPolla, Randy J. & Chenglong Huang
    2003A grammar of Qiang: With annotated texts and glossary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197273
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197273 [Google Scholar]
  71. Li, Charles N. & Sandra A. Thompson
    1981Mandarin Chinese: A functional grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Li, Xuping
    2018A grammar of Gan Chinese. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9781501507328
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501507328 [Google Scholar]
  73. Lidz, Liberty
    2010 A descriptive grammar of Yongning Na. University of Texas, Doctoral dissertation.
  74. Lieberherr, Ismael
    2017 A grammar of Bulu Puroik. Universität Bern, Doctoral dissertation.
  75. Lieberherr, Ismael & Timotheus Adrianus Bodt
    2018 Sub-grouping Kho-Bwa based on shared core vocabulary. Himalayan Linguistics16(2). 26–63. 10.5070/H916232254
    https://doi.org/10.5070/H916232254 [Google Scholar]
  76. Lustig, Anton
    2010A grammar and dictionary of Zaiwa. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004190160
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004190160 [Google Scholar]
  77. MacDonald, Laura
    1990A grammar of Tauya. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110846027
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110846027 [Google Scholar]
  78. Mackenzie, Alexander
    1884History of the relations of the government with the hill tribes of the north-east frontier of Bengal. Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Manson, Kenneth
    2010 A grammar of Kayan, a Tibeto-Burman language. La Trobe University, Doctoral dissertation.
  80. Matisoff, James A.
    1973The grammar of Lahu. (University of California Publications in Linguistics 75.) Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 1982 Conjugal bliss: An Indo-Aryan word-family ‘pair’/’yoke’/’join’ in Tibeto-Burman. South Asian Review6(3). 42–50. 10.1080/02759527.1982.11933090
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02759527.1982.11933090 [Google Scholar]
  82. 1991 Sino-Tibetan linguistics: Present state and future prospects. Annual Review of Anthropology20. 469–504. 10.1146/annurev.an.20.100191.002345
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.20.100191.002345 [Google Scholar]
  83. 2003Handbook of Proto-Tibeto-Burman: System and philosophy of Sino-Tibetan reconstruction. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 2015 Re-examining the genetic position of Jingpho: Putting flesh on the bones of the Jingpho/Luish relationship. InNicholas. J. Enfield & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Languages of mainland Southeast Asia: The state of the art, 111–151. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 2015The Sino-Tibetan etymological dictionary and thesaurus. Berkeley: University of California.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Matthews, Stephen & Virginia Yip
    1994Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Michailovsky, Boyd
    1988La langue Hayu. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 2015 On Limbu directionals and locative expressions. InMark W. Post, Stephen Morey & Scott DeLancey (eds.), Language and culture in northeast India and beyond: In honor of Robbins Burling, 114–125. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Modi, Yankee
    2013 The nearest relatives of the Tani group. Paper presented at the19th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Canberra, Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 2017 A Grammar of Milang. Universität Bern, Doctoral dissertation.
  91. Mulder, Mijke
    . Forthcoming 2019 A descriptive grammar of Muklom Tangsa. La Trobe University, Doctoral dissertation.
  92. Noonan, Michael & Kristine A. Hildebrandt
    2017 Chantyal. InGraham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 494–515. 2nd edn.London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Nyori, Tai
    1993History and culture of the Adis. New Delhi: Omsons Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Okell, John
    1969A reference grammar of colloquial Burmese [2Volumes]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Opgenort, Jean Robert
    2004A grammar of Wambule. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 2005A grammar of Jero: With a historical comparative study of the Kiranti languages. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Peiros, Ilia
    1997 Lolo-Burmese linguistic archaeology. Mon-Khmer Studies: A Journal of Southeast Asian Languages27. 233–248.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Peterson, David A.
    2017 Hakha Lai. InGraham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 258–276. 2nd edn.London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Plaisier, Heleen
    2007A grammar of Lepcha. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Post, Mark W.
    2007 A grammar of Galo. La Trobe University, Doctoral dissertation.
  101. 2011 Topographical deixis and the Tani languages of north-east India. InGwendolyn Hyslop, Stephen Morey & Mark W. Post (eds.), North East Indian Linguistics Volume 3, 137–154. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press India. 10.1017/UPO9788175968875.011
    https://doi.org/10.1017/UPO9788175968875.011 [Google Scholar]
  102. 2017The Tangam language: Grammar, lexicon and texts. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004344884
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004344884 [Google Scholar]
  103. 2019 Topographical deixis in Trans-Himalayan (Sino-Tibetan) languages. Transactions of the Philological Society117(2). 234–255. 10.1111/1467‑968X.12155
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-968X.12155 [Google Scholar]
  104. Post, Mark W. & Yankee Modi
    2011 Language contact and the genetic position of Milang (Eastern Himalaya). Anthropological Linguistics53(3). 215–258. 10.1353/anl.2011.0014
    https://doi.org/10.1353/anl.2011.0014 [Google Scholar]
  105. Post, Mark W. & Kanno Tage
    2013 Apatani phonology and lexicon, with a special focus on tone. Himalayan Linguistics12(1). 17–75.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Poudel, Kedar Prasad
    2006Dhankute Tamang grammar. Munich: Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Pulu, Jatan
    1978Idu phrase-book. Shillong: Director of Information and Public Relations, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Rutgers, Roland
    1998 Yamphu: Grammar, texts and lexicon (Leiden University Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region v.2) Leiden University, Doctoral dissertation.
  109. Sagart, Laurent, Guillaume Jacques, Yunfan Lai, Robin J. Ryder, Valentin Thouzeau, Simon J. Greenhill & Johann-Mattis List
    2019 Dated language phylogenies shed light on the ancestry of Sino-Tibetan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesof the United States of America116(21): 10317–10322. doi:  10.1073/pnas.1817972116
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1817972116 [Google Scholar]
  110. Sangdong, David
    2012 A grammar of the Kadu (Asak) language. La Trobe University, Doctoral dissertation.
  111. Sawada, Hideo
    2012 On the composition of noun phrases in Lhaovo. Paper presented at the45th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, Singapore, Nanyang University.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Schackow, Diana
    2015A grammar of Yakkha. Berlin: Language Science Press. 10.26530/OAPEN_603340
    https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_603340 [Google Scholar]
  113. Schorer, Nicolas
    2016The Dura language: Grammar and phylogeny. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004326408
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004326408 [Google Scholar]
  114. Shafer, Robert
    1947 Hruso. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies12(1). 184–196. 10.1017/S0041977X00079994
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00079994 [Google Scholar]
  115. So-Hartmann, Helga
    2009A descriptive grammar of Daai Chin. Berkeley: Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Solnit, David B.
    1997Eastern Kayah Li: Grammar, texts, glossary. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Sreedhar, M. V.
    1980A Sema grammar. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Sun, Hongkai, Guangkun Liu, Fengxiang Li, Ela Thurgood & Graham Thurgood
    2009A grammar of Anong: Language death under intense contact. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Sun, Tianshin Jackson
    1994 Linguistic characteristics of the Tani (Mirish) branch of Tibeto-Burman. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academica Sinica65(1). 175–220.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 2000 Parallelisms in the verb morphology of Sidaba rGyalrong and Lavrung in rGyalrongic. Language and Linguistics1(1). 161–190.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Tayeng, Aduk
    1983A phrase book in Padam. Shillong: Director of Research (Philology), Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Tournadre, Nicolas, Lhakpa Norbu Sherpa, Gyurme Chodrak & Guillaume Oisel
    2009Sherpa-English and English-Sherpa dictionary, with literary Tibetan and Nepali equivalents. Kathmandu: Vajra Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Watters, David E.
    2002A grammar of Kham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486883
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486883 [Google Scholar]
  124. Wheatley, Julian K.
    2017 Burmese. InGraham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 856–876. 2nd edn.London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Widmer, Manuel
    2016 A descriptive grammar of Bunan. Universität Bern, Doctoral dissertation.
  126. Wiersma, Grace Claire
    1990 A study of the Bai (Minjia) language along historical lines. University of California, Doctoral dissertation.
  127. Willett, Thomas L.
    1991 A reference grammar of Southeastern Tepehuan. Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas at Arlington, Doctoral dissertation.
  128. Williams, Nicholas
    2008 Directionals in Mru. Dartmouth College, B.A. Thesis.
  129. Willis, Christina M.
    2007 A descriptive grammar of Darma: An endangered Tibeto-Burman language. University of Texas at Austin, Doctoral dissertation.
  130. Wright, Jonathan Michael
    2009 Hkongso grammar sketch. Dallas International University, M.A. Thesis.
  131. Yaku, Redv́mwàng & Rvwàng Shànshér Lèga Gomidi
    2016Rvwàng Kàrutóng Nv̀mlat Bok [Rvwàng grammar: A beginning and intermediate grammar]. Draft manuscript. Rvwàng Shànshér Lèga Gomidi [Rawang Bible Committee].
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Zemp, Marius
    2013 A historical grammar of the Tibetan dialect spoken in Kargil (Purik). Universität Bern, Doctoral dissertation.
  133. Zhang, Menghan, Shi Yan, Wuyun Pan & Li Jin
    2019 Phylogenetic evidence for Sino-Tibetan origin in northern China in the Late Neolithic. Nature569(7754). 112–115. 10.1038/s41586‑019‑1153‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1153-z [Google Scholar]
  134. Zhang, Sihong
    2013 A reference grammar of Ersu, a Tibeto-Burman language of China. James Cook University, Doctoral dissertation.
  135. Zhu, Yanhua
    2017 Zaiwa. InGraham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 877–884. 2nd edn.London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/dia.19018.pos
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/dia.19018.pos
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error