1887
image of The word order of negation in the history of Basque
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This article investigates word order changes in negated periphrastic constructions in the history of Basque. A number of linguistic variables are argued to correlate with these changes: the negative particle is increasingly focalized in main clauses, the innovative pattern  – allows for more syntactic flexibility than the conservative one, and the word order changes do not progress at equal rates in all clause subtypes. Genre issues are also considered, including the hypothesis that the loss of the conservative order of main clauses occurs first in texts close to oral language. Moreover, it is argued that eastern dialects are more innovative than western dialects and that efforts towards standardization of the language have slowed down this case of word order change.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/dia.19024.sal
2021-02-01
2021-05-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Azkue, Resurrección Ma
    1923Morfología vasca, vol.1–3. Bilbo/Bilbao: La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bailey, Charles-James N.
    1973Variation and linguistic theory. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barðdal, Jóhanna
    2008Productivity: Evidence from case and argument structure in Icelandic. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cal.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cal.8 [Google Scholar]
  4. Black, Paul E.
    2006Dictionary of algorithms and data structures. Gaithersburg: National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bybee, Joan
    2002 Main clauses are innovative, subordinate clauses are conservative: Consequences for the nature of constructions. InJoan Bybee & Michael Noonan (eds.), Complex sentences in grammar and discourse: Essays in honor of Sandra A. Thompson, 1–17. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.110.02byb
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.110.02byb [Google Scholar]
  6. Camino, Iñaki
    1997Aezkoako euskararen azterketa dialektologikoa. Pamplona/Iruñea: Nafarroako Gobernua.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Campbell, Lyle
    2013Historical linguistics: An introduction (3rd edition). Cambridge: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cherchi, Marcello
    1999Georgian. München/Newcastle: Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Collins, Daniel E.
    2001Reanimated voices: Speech reporting in a historical-pragmatic perspective. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.85
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.85 [Google Scholar]
  10. Cramer, Harold
    1946Mathematical methods of statistics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cristofaro, Sonia
    2003Subordination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Crowley, Terry & Claire Bowern
    2010An introduction to historical linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dahl, Östen
    1979 Typology of sentence negation. Linguistics17. 79–106. 10.1515/ling.1979.17.1‑2.79
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1979.17.1-2.79 [Google Scholar]
  14. 2010 Typology of negation. InLaurence R. Horn (ed.), The expression of negation, 9–38. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. De Rijk, Rudolf P. G.
    1996 Focus and quasifocus on the Basque negative statements. International Journal on Basque Studies [RIEV] 41(1). 63–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 2008Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge/London: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Devos, Maud & Johan van der Auwera
    2013 Jespersen cycles in Bantu: Double and triple negation. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics34(2). 205–274. 10.1515/jall‑2013‑0008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jall-2013-0008 [Google Scholar]
  18. Dixon, Robert M. W.
    2010Basic linguistic theory, vol. 3: Further grammatical topics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dryer, Matthew S.
    2013 Negative morphemes. InMartin Haspelmath & Matthew S. Dryer (eds.), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. wals.info/chapter/112
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Elordieta, Arantzazu
    2001Verb movement and constituent permutation in Basque. Utrecht: Landelijke Onderzoekschool Taalwetenschap.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Eriksen, Pål K.
    2011 ‘To not be’ or not ‘to not be’: The typology of negation of non-verbal predicates. Studies in Language35(2). 275–310. 10.1075/sl.35.2.02eri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.35.2.02eri [Google Scholar]
  22. Etxepare, Ricardo
    2003 Negation. InJosé I. Hualde & Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A grammar of Basque, 516–564. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Euskara Institutua
    Euskara Institutua 2013Euskal klasikoen corpusa. Donostia/San Sebastián: University of the Basque Country. www.ehu.eus/ehg/kc/
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Euskaltzaindia
    Euskaltzaindia 1990Euskal gramatika: Lehen urratsak III (lokailuak). Bilbo/Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Euskaltzaindia
    Euskaltzaindia 1997Euskal gramatika: Lehen urratsak II (2nd edition). Bilbo/Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Euskaltzaindia
    Euskaltzaindia 1999Euskal Herriko hizkuntz atlasa: Ohiko euskal mintzamoldeen antologia. Bilbo/Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Euskaltzaindia
    Euskaltzaindia 2002Euskal gramatika laburra: Perpaus bakuna. Bilbo/Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Euskaltzaindia
    Euskaltzaindia 2016Euskararen herri hizkeren atlasa VII: Lexikoa, izen morfologia, sintaxia. Bilbo/Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Gaminde, Iñaki
    2001Mungia berbarik berba. Bilbo/Bilbao: Mungiako Udala.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Givón, Thomas
    1979On understanding grammar. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Glare, Peter G.
    1968Oxford Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. González, Maria
    2008Euskal Herriko prentsa: XVIII. mendetik 1945era. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Gorrotxategi, Joakin, Iván Igartua & Joseba A. Lakarra
    2018 Sarrera: Hizkuntzaren historiaz. InJoakin Gorrotxategi, Iván Igartua & Joseba A. Lakarra (arg.), Euskararen historia, 11–22. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Haspelmath, Martin
    2011 The indeterminacy of word segmentation and the nature of morphology and syntax. Folia Linguistica45(1). 31–80. 10.1515/flin.2011.002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flin.2011.002 [Google Scholar]
  35. Haspelmath, Martin & Andrea D. Sims
    2013Understanding morphology (2nd edition). London/New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203776506
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203776506 [Google Scholar]
  36. Hengeveld, Kees
    1998 Adverbial clauses in the languages of Europe. InJohan van der Auwera (ed.), Eurotyp, vol. 3: Adverbial constructions in the languages of Europe, Part 1, 335–420. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110802610.335
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110802610.335 [Google Scholar]
  37. Hock, Hans H.
    1986Principles of historical linguistics. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110871975
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110871975 [Google Scholar]
  38. Hölzl, Andreas
    2018 Constructionalization areas: The case of negation in Manchu. InEvie Coussé, Peter Andersson & Joel Olofsson (eds.), Grammaticalization meets Construction Grammar, 241–276. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cal.21.c9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cal.21.c9 [Google Scholar]
  39. Idiatov, Dmitry
    2015 Clause-final negative markers in Bobo and Samogo: Parallel evolution and contact. Journal of Historical Linguistics5(2). 235–266. 10.1075/jhl.5.2.02idi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhl.5.2.02idi [Google Scholar]
  40. Joseph, Brian D. & Richard D. Janda
    2003 On language, change, and language change – or, of history, linguistics, and historical linguistics. InBrian D. Joseph & Richard D. Janda (eds.), The handbook of historical linguistics, 3–180. London: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756393
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756393 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kroch, Anthony S.
    2001 Syntactic change. InMark Baltin & Chris Collins (eds.), The handbook of contemporary syntactic theory, 699–729. London: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756416.ch22
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756416.ch22 [Google Scholar]
  42. Lafitte, Pierre
    1944Grammaire basque (navarro-labourdin littéraire). Bayonne/Baiona: Ikas & Elkar.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Laitinen, Lea
    2004 Grammaticalization and standardization. InOlga Fischer, Muriel Norde & Harry Perridon (eds.), Up and down the cline – The nature of grammaticalization, 247–262. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.59.13lai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.59.13lai [Google Scholar]
  44. Laka, Itziar
    1990 Negation in syntax: On the nature of functional categories and projections. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 1991 Sentence negation in Basque. InJoseba A. Lakarra & Iñigo Ruiz (eds.), Memoriae L. Mitxelena magistri sacrum, vol.2, 899–926. Donostia/San Sebastián: Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lakarra, Joseba A.
    1986 Bizkaiera zaharra euskalkien artean. International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology [ASJU]20(3). 639–682.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 1996Refranes y sentencias (1596): Ikerketak eta edizioa. Bilbao/Bilbo: Euskaltzaindia.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 1997 Euskararen historia eta filologia: Arazo zahar, bide berri. International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology [ASJU]31(2). 447–535.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Lance, Godfrey N. & William T. Williams
    1967 Mixed-data classificatory programs I – Agglomerative systems. Australian Computer Journal1(1). 15–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. LaPolla, Randy J.
    1994 On the change to verb-medial word order in Proto-Chinese: Evidence from Tibeto-Burman. InHajime Kitamura, Tatsuo Nishida & Yasuhiko Nagano (eds.), Current issues in Sino-Tibetan linguistics, 98–104. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lehmann, Christian
    1988 Towards a typology of clause linkage. InJohn Haiman & Sandra A. Thompson (eds.), Clause combining in grammar and discourse, 181–226. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.18.09leh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.18.09leh [Google Scholar]
  52. Martinez-Areta, Mikel
    2011 Euskararen hitz hurrenkeraren garaikaketa baterako materialak. Oihenart26. 343–379.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Matsuda, Kenjirô
    1998 On the conservatism of embedded clauses. Theoretical and Applied Linguistics at Kobe Shoin1. 1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Michael, Lev & Tania Granadillo
    (eds.) 2014Negation in Arawak languages. Leiden/Boston: Brill. 10.1163/9789004257023
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004257023 [Google Scholar]
  55. Miestamo, Matti
    2005Standard negation: The negation of declarative verbal main clauses in a typological perspective. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Miestamo, Matti, Anne Tamm & Beáta B. Wagner-Nagy
    (eds.) 2015Negation in Uralic languages. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.108
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.108 [Google Scholar]
  57. Mitxelena, Koldo
    1960Historia de la literatura vasca. Madrid: Ediciones Minotauro.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 1978 Miscelánea filológica vasca I. Fontes Linguae Vasconum29. 205–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Mosegaard, Maj-Britt & Jacqueline Visconti
    (eds.) 2014The diachrony of negation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.160
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.160 [Google Scholar]
  60. Mounole, Céline & Joseba A. Lakarra
    2018 Euskara arkaikoa. InJoakin Gorrotxategi, Iván Igartua & Joseba A. Lakarra (arg.), Euskararen historia, 345–468. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Oihartzabal, Beñat
    1985 Behako bat ezezko esaldieri. Euskera30(2). 103–115.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 2003 Relatives. InJosé I. Hualde & Jon Ortiz de Urbina (eds.), A grammar of Basque, 762–823. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Ortiz de Urbina, Jon
    1987 Operator movement and verb second phenomena in Basque. International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology [ASJU]21(2). 321–355.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 1999 Ezezko perpausetako fokalizazioaren inguruan. Enseiukarrean14. 185–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Osa, Eusebio
    1990 Euskararen hitzordena: Komunikazio zereginaren arauera. Vitoria-Gasteiz: University of the Basque Country dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Payne, John R.
    1985 Negation. InTimothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, vol. 1: Clause structure, 197–242. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Pearson, Karl
    1895 Notes on regression and inheritance in the case of two parents. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London58. 240–242. 10.1098/rspl.1895.0041
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspl.1895.0041 [Google Scholar]
  68. Reguero, Urtzi
    2013 Word order. InMikel Martinez-Areta (ed.), Basque and Proto-Basque: Language-internal and typological approaches to linguistic reconstruction, 429–485. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 2017 Goi-nafarrera arkaiko eta zaharra: Azterketa eta testuak. Vitoria-Gasteiz: University of the Basque Country dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Salaberri Izko, Iker
    2018 Ezeztapenaren hurrenkera euskal egitura perifrastikoetan: Hurbilpen diakroniko-tipologikoa. Fontes Linguae Vasconum125. 55–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Salaberri Muñoa, Patxi
    2002Iraupena eta lekukotasuna: Euskal literatura idatzia 1900 arte. Donostia/San Sebastián: Elkar.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Salaberri Zaratiegi, Patxi
    2018 Euskara Erdi Aroan. InJoakin Gorrotxategi, Iván Igartua & Joseba A. Lakarra (arg.), Euskararen historia, 287–344. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Santazilia, Ekaitz
    2017Orye, lagunac: Euskara nafarraren aztarnak XVI. mendeko hiru sorginkeria auzibidetan. International Journal on Basque Studies [RIEV]62(2). 374–406.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Sarasola, Ibon
    1976Historia social de la literatura vasca. Madrid: Akal.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Schneider, Edgar W.
    2002 Investigating variation and change in written documents. InJack Chambers, Peter Trudgill & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 67–96. London: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Schwegler, Armin
    1983 Predicate negation and word order change: A problem of multiple causation. Lingua61. 297–334. 10.1016/0024‑3841(83)90001‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(83)90001-3 [Google Scholar]
  77. Stockwell, Robert P. & Donka Minkova
    1991 Subordination and word order change in the history of English. InDieter Kastovsky (ed.), Historical English syntax, 367–408. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110863314.367
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110863314.367 [Google Scholar]
  78. Tate, Robert F.
    1954 Correlation between a discrete and a continuous variable: Point-biserial correlation. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics25(3). 603–607. 10.1214/aoms/1177728730
    https://doi.org/10.1214/aoms/1177728730 [Google Scholar]
  79. Theil, Henri
    1966Applied economic forecasting. Amsterdam/Chicago: North Holland Publishing Company, Rand McNally.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Thompson, Sandra A., Robert E. Langacker & Shin Ja J. Hwang
    2007 Adverbial clauses. InTimothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, vol. 2: Complex constructions (2nd edition), 237–300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511619434.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511619434.005 [Google Scholar]
  81. Trask, Robert L.
    1997The history of Basque. London/New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Ulibarri, Koldo
    2010Viva Jesus dotrina: Edizioa eta azterketa. International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology [ASJU]44(2). 41–154.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Villasante, Luis
    1979Historia de la literatura vasca (2nd edition). Burgos: Editorial Aranzazu.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Willis, David, Christopher Lucas & Anne Breitbarth
    (eds.) 2013The history of negation in the languages of Europe and the Mediterranean, vol. 1: Case studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Wright, Raymond E.
    1995 Logistic regression. InLaurence G. Grimm & Paul R. Yarnold (eds.), Reading and understanding multivariate statistics, 217–244. Washington: American Psychological Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Zipf, George K.
    1949Human behavior and the principle of least effort: An introduction to human ecology. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Zuazo, Koldo
    1988Euskararen batasuna. Bilbo/Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia, University of the Basque Country.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 2008Euskalkiak: Euskararen dialektoak. Donostia/San Sebastián: Elkar.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Zuazo, Koldo & Urtzi Goiti
    2016Uribe kosta, Txorierri eta Mungialdeko euskara. Bilbo/Bilbao: University of the Basque Country.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Zwicky, Arnold M. & Geoffrey K. Pullum
    1983 Cliticization vs. inflection: English N’T. Language59(3). 502–513. 10.2307/413900
    https://doi.org/10.2307/413900 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/dia.19024.sal
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/dia.19024.sal
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error