1887
image of Loanwords vs relics
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

One of the major issues in historical and contact linguistics is how to distinguish between inherited and acquired vocabulary in a given language: both traditional historical linguistics and modern contact linguistics are in this respect eventually forced to resort to inferences. The aim of this paper is to propose a diagnostic test to aid in the identification of putative substratum relics in the lexicon. The method for this test consists in juxtaposing and comparing word families in the source and recipient language. We use the example of Yiddish-Slavic language contact, in which contact-induced changes are still relatively transparent. We employ wordnets – digital networks of lexical entities connected by lexico-semantic relations – in order to visually “map” lexical and semantic relations of transferred lexemes within the recipient language onto the source language. The method allows us to combine contemporary empirical data with historical analysis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/dia.19047.gel
2021-03-15
2021-05-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Auer, Peter
    2014 Language mixing and language fusion: When bilingual talk becomes monolingual. InJuliane Bester Dilger, Cynthia Dermarkar, Stefan Pfänder & Achim Rabus (eds.), Congruence in contact-induced language change, 294–333. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110338454.294
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110338454.294 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bakker, Peter & Yaron Matras
    2013Contact languages: A comprehensive guide. Boston, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614513711
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614513711 [Google Scholar]
  3. Beider, Alexander
    2001A dictionary of Ashkenazic given names: Their origins, structure, pronunciation, and migrations. Bergenfield: Avotaynu, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 2013 Reapplying the language tree model to the history of Yiddish. Journal of Jewish Languages1(1). 77–121. 10.1163/22134638‑12340003
    https://doi.org/10.1163/22134638-12340003 [Google Scholar]
  5. 2015Origins of Yiddish dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198739319.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198739319.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bellmann, Günter
    1971Slavoteutonica. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110827460
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110827460 [Google Scholar]
  7. Betz, Werner
    1959 Lehnwörter und Lehnprägungen im Vor- und Frühdeutschen. InFriedrich Maurer & Friedrich Stroh (eds.), Deutsche Wortgeschichte, 127–147. Berlin: Schmidt. 10.1515/9783111336145.127
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111336145.127 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bielfeldt, Hans Holm
    1982Die slawischen Wörter im Deutschen: Ausgew. Schriften 1950–1978. Leipzig: Zentralantiquariat der Dt. Demokrat. Republik.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bin-Nun, Jechiel
    1973Jiddisch und die deutschen Mundarten: Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des ostgalizischen Jiddisch. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110930269
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110930269 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bond, Francis, Arkadiusz Janz, Marek M. Maziarz & Ewa K. Rudnicka
    2019 Testing Zipf’s meaning-frequency law with wordnets as sense inventories. InChristiane Fellbaum, Piek Vossen, Ewa Rudnicka, Marek Maziarz & Maciej Piasecki (eds.), Proceedings of the Tenth Global Wordnet Conference: July 23–27, 2019, Wrocław (Poland), 342–352. Wrocław: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Brückner, Aleksander
    1927Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego. vol. 1–2. Kraków: Krakowska Spółka Wydawnicza.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Coetsem, Frans van
    1988Loan phonology and the two transfer types in language contact. Dordrecht: Foris. 10.1515/9783110884869
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110884869 [Google Scholar]
  13. 1995 Outlining a model of the transmission phenomenon in language contact. Leuvense Bijdragen84. 63–85.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2000A general and unified theory of the transmission process in language contact. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Eisenberg, Peter
    2011Das Fremdwort im Deutschen. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110235654
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110235654 [Google Scholar]
  16. Fellbaum, Christiane
    1998 A semantic network of English: The mother of all WordNets. Computers and the Humanities32. 209–220. 10.1023/A:1001181927857
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1001181927857 [Google Scholar]
  17. 2014 Large-scale lexicography in the digital age. Journal of Lexicography27(4). 378–395. doi:  10.1093/ijl/ecu018
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecu018 [Google Scholar]
  18. Fisiak, Jacek
    1970 The semantics of English loanwords in Polish. Studia Anglica Posnaniensia2. 41–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gajek, Michał
    2013 The diaphoneme ei|ai as a reflex of the Old Slavic vowel ě in Yiddish. InOndřej Bláha, Robert Dittmann & Lenka Uličná (eds.), Knaanic language: Structure and historical background, 92–107. Praha: Academia.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 2019Mechanizmy integracji jidyszyzmów w polszczyźnie w świetle badań lingwistyki kontaktów językowych. Warsaw: University of Warsaw doctoral thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gardani, Francesco
    2020 Borrowing matter and pattern in morphology. An overview. Morphology30. 263–282. doi:  10.1007/s11525‑020‑09371‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11525-020-09371-5 [Google Scholar]
  22. Geller, Ewa
    2013 Knaanic glosses as code-switching phenomenon. InOndřej Bláha, Robert Dittmann & Lenka Uličná (eds.), Knaanic language: Structure and historical background, 108–128. Praha: Academia.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2015Sejfer-derech ejc ha chajim. Przewodnik po drzewie żywota. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Muzeum im. Jana III Sobieskiego w Wilanowie.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Geller, Ewa, Michał Gajek, Agata Reibach & Zuzanna Łapa
    2020 Applicability of wordnet architecture in lexical borrowing studies. International Journal of Lexicography. doi:  10.1093/ijl/ecaa013
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/ecaa013 [Google Scholar]
  25. Głaz, Andrzej, David S. Danaher & Przemysław Łozowski
    (eds.) 2013The linguistic worldview: Ethnolinguistics, cognition, and culture. London: Versita. doi:  10.2478/9788376560748
    https://doi.org/10.2478/9788376560748 [Google Scholar]
  26. Grant, Anthony P.
    2015 Lexical borrowing. InJohn R. Taylor (ed.), The Oxford handbook of the word, 441–461. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Grzegorczykowa, Renata
    2015 Co to jest językowy obraz świata i dlaczego warto go badać?Poradnik językowy (1). 7–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Haspelmath, Martin & Uri Tadmor
    2009Loanwords in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110218442
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218442 [Google Scholar]
  29. Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva
    2005Language contact and grammatical change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511614132
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614132 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kerler, Dov-Ber
    1999The origins of Modern Literary Yiddish. Oxford: Clarednon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kupfer, Franciszek & Tadeusz Lewicki
    1956Źródła hebrajskie do dziejów Słowian i niektórych innych ludów środkowej i wschodniej Europy. Wrocław: Zakład im. Ossolińskich.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. McConvell, Patrick & Felicity Meakins
    2005 Gurindji Kriol: A mixed language emerges from code-switching. Australian Journal of Linguistics25(1). 9–30. doi:  10.1080/07268600500110456
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268600500110456 [Google Scholar]
  33. Matras, Yaron
    2009Language contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511809873
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511809873 [Google Scholar]
  34. Matras, Yaron & Peter Bakker
    (eds.) 2003The mixed language debate: Theoretical and empirical advances. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110197242
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197242 [Google Scholar]
  35. Matras, Yaron & Janet Sakel
    (eds.) 2007Grammatical borrowing in cross-linguistic perspective. De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110199192
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199192 [Google Scholar]
  36. Moskovich, Wolf
    2013 From Leshon Kna’an to Yiddish: Some case studies. InOndřej Bláha, Robert Dittmann & Lenka Uličná (eds.), Knaanic language: Structure and historical background, 191–199. Praha.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Muysken, Pieter
    2000Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Myers-Scotton, Carol
    2002Contact linguistics: Bilingual encounters and grammatical outcomes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  39. 2006Multiple voices: An introduction to bilingualism. Malden: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Nagórko, Alicja
    2007Lexikologie des Polnischen. Hildesheim, Zürich, New York: Georg Olms Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Neuberg, Simon
    1999Pragmatische Aspekte der jiddischen Sprachgeschichte am Beispiel der ‘Zenerene’. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Noonan, Michael
    2013 Genetic classification and language contact. InThe handbook of language contact, 48–65. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Poplack, Shana
    2018Borrowing: Loanwords in the speech community and in the grammar. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Stria, Ida
    2018 Linguistic worldview in multilingual groups as an indicator of developing a communal identity: The case of Esperanto. Etnolingwistyka30. 215–229.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Thomason, Sarah Grey
    2001Language contact: An introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 2009 How to establish substratum influence. InYasuhiko Nagano (ed.), Issues in Tibeto-Burman historical linguistics, 319–328. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology. doi:  10.15021/00002571
    https://doi.org/10.15021/00002571 [Google Scholar]
  47. Thomason, Sarah Grey & Terrence Kaufman
    1988Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520912793
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520912793 [Google Scholar]
  48. Timm, Erika
    2005Historische jiddische Semantik. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag. 10.1515/9783110945034
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110945034 [Google Scholar]
  49. Weinreich, Max
    1956 Yiddish, Knaanic, Slavic: The basic relationships. InMorris Halle (ed.), For Roman Jakobson: Essays on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday, 11 October 1956, 622–633. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. [1973] 2008History of the Yiddish language. (Ed.) Paul Glasser & Shlomo Noble. New Haven: Yale University Press. [English translation byShlomo Noble and Joshua A. Fishman of Weinreich, Max 1973 Gešixte fun der jidišer šprax. Vol.1–4. New York: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wexler, Paul
    1987Explorations in Judeo-Slavic linguistics. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 2002Two-tiered relexification in Yiddish Jews, Sorbs, Khazars, and the Kiev-Polessian dialect. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110898736
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110898736 [Google Scholar]
  53. Winford, Donald
    2005 Contact-induced changes: Classification and processes. Diachronica22(2). 373–427. 10.1075/dia.22.2.05win
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.22.2.05win [Google Scholar]
  54. 2013 Contact and borrowing. InRaymond Hickey (ed.), The handbook of language contact, 170–187. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Woodworth, Cherie
    2010 Where did the East European Jews come from? An explosive debate erupts from old footnotes. Kritika: Explorations in Russian & Eurasian history11. 105–123.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Zenner, Eline & Gitte Kristiansen
    2014New perspectives on lexical borrowing: Onomasiological, methodological and phraseological innovations. Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Zenner, Eline, Dirk Speelman & Dirk Geeraerts
    2014 Core vocabulary, borrowability and entrenchment: A usage-based onomasiological approach. Diachronica31(1). 74–105. 10.1075/dia.31.1.03zen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.31.1.03zen [Google Scholar]
  58. Astravukh, Alyaksandar
    2008Idysh-belaruski sloŭnik. Minsk: Medysont.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Beinfeld, Solon & Harry Bochner
    2013Comprehensive Yiddish-English dictionary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Doroszewski, Witold
    1958–1965Słownik języka polskiego. Vol.1–11. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Harkavy, Alexander
    1928Yiddish-English-Hebrew dictionary. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Linde, Samuel Bogumił
    1807–1814Słownik języka polskiego. Vol.1–5. Warszawa.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Mark, Yudel & Judah A. Joffe
    (eds.) 1961Grojser verterbux fun der jidišer šprax. Vol.1–4. New York: Yiddish Dictionary Committee.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Słownik polszczyzny XVI wieku
    Słownik polszczyzny XVI wieku 1966–2016 Vol.1–37. Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków, Gdańsk, Łódź: Zakład Narodowy Imienia Ossolińskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Instytut Badań Literackich PAN.
  65. Stuchkoff, Nahum
    1950Der ojcer fun der jidišer šprax. New York: YIVO.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Urbańczyk, Stanisław & Ewa Deptuchowa
    (eds.) 1953–2014Słownik staropolski. Vol.1–11. Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków, Gdańsk, Łódź: Zakład Narodowy Imienia Ossolińskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Digital Yiddish library
    Digital Yiddish library. https://ocr.yiddishbookcenter.org/accounts/login/ (5August 2020).
  68. EYDES Evidence of Yiddish documented in European societies. www.eydes.de/ (5August 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  69. GermaNet A German wordnet
    GermaNet A German wordnet. www.sfs.uni-tuebingen.de/GermaNet/ (5August 2020).
  70. Jiddisch-nederlandse woordenboek 2020https://www.jiddischwoordenboek.nl/ (5August 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  71. plWordnet/Słowosieć
    plWordnet/Słowosieć. plwordnet.pwr.wroc.pl/wordnet/ (5August 2020)
  72. Polish borrowings in Yiddish 2018https://polonjid.wn.uw.edu.pl/?lang=en (5August 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  73. The corpus of Modern Yiddish
    The corpus of Modern Yiddish 2009web-corpora.net/YNC/search/index.php?interface_language=en (5August 2020).
  74. The online dictionary of Polish borrowings in Yiddish 2019polonjid-dictionary.clarin-pl.eu/ (5August 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  75. WordNet A lexical database of English
    WordNet A lexical database of English. https://wordnet.princeton.edu/ (5August 2020)
  76. Wörterbuchnetz
    Wörterbuchnetz 2011www.woerterbuchnetz.de/cgi-bin/WBNetz/setupStartSeite.tcl (5August 2020).
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/dia.19047.gel
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/dia.19047.gel
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error