1887
image of Bidirectionality between modal and conditional constructions in Mandarin Chinese
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper proposes that modal constructions can develop into conditional constructions in Mandarin Chinese and vice versa. Therefore, bidirectionality exists between these kinds of constructions diachronically. While bidirectionality is an apparent violation of unidirectionality, both directions of change are shown to be regular cases of procedural constructionalization, enabled by the fact that modal and conditional constructions can perform identical indirect speech acts (i.e., they are performatively equivalent) and instances of one may be morphosyntactically categorized as the other in Chinese (i.e., they are morphosyntactically vague). A crosslinguistically generalizable prediction is then proposed: bidirectionality is possible if instances of two constructions are performatively equivalent and morphosyntactically vague with respect to each other in certain contexts.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/dia.20047.kuo
2021-09-14
2021-09-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Akatsuka, Noriko
    1992 Japanese modals are conditionals. InDiane Brentari, Gary N. Larson & Lynn A. MacLeod (eds.), The joy of grammar, 1–10. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.55.02aka
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.55.02aka [Google Scholar]
  2. Akatsuka, Noriko & Patricia M. Clancy
    1993 Conditionality and deontic modality in Japanese and Korean. InPatricia M. Clancy (ed.), Japanese/Korean linguistics, vol.2, 177–192. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderl, Christoph
    2004Studies in the language of Zu-tang ji. PhD dissertation, The University of Oslo.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Auwera, Johan van der & Vladimir A. Plungian
    1998 Modality’s semantic map. Linguistic Typology2(1). 79–124.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bergs, Alexander
    2017 The myth of the complete sentence – a response to Traugott. English Language and Linguistics21(2). 311–316. 10.1017/S1360674317000156
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674317000156 [Google Scholar]
  6. Biq, Yung-O.
    1988 From focus in proposition to focus in speech situation: Cai and jiu in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics16(1). 72–108.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bisang, Walter
    2010 Grammaticalization in Chinese: A construction-based account. InElizabeth C. Traugott & Graeme Trousdale (eds.), Gradualness, gradience, and grammaticalization, 245–277. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.90.13bis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.90.13bis [Google Scholar]
  8. Blum-Kulka, Shoshana, Juliane House & Gabriele Kasper
    (eds.) 1989Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Booij, Geert
    2010Construction morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Börjars, Kersti & Nigel Vincent
    2011 Grammaticalization and directionality. InHeiko Narrog & Bernd Heine (eds.), The Oxford handbook of grammaticalization, 163–176. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chao, Yuen Ren
    1968A grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Clancy, Patricia M., Noriko Akatsuka & Susan Strauss
    1997 Deontic modality and conditionality in discourse: A cross-linguistic study of adult speech to young children. InAkio Kamio (ed.), Directions in functional linguistics, 19–57. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.36.05cla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.36.05cla [Google Scholar]
  13. Croft, William
    2001Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  14. Dancygier, Barbara
    1998Conditionals and prediction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dancygier, Barbara & Eve Sweetser
    2005Mental spaces in grammar: Conditional constructions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486760
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486760 [Google Scholar]
  16. Denison, David
    2010 Category change in English with and without structural change. InElizabeth C. Traugott & Graeme Trousdale (eds.), Gradualness, gradience, and grammaticalization, 105–128. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.90.07den
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.90.07den [Google Scholar]
  17. 2017 Ambiguity and vagueness in historical change. InMarianne Hundt, Sandra Mollin & Simone. E. Pfenninger (eds.), The changing English language: Psycholinguistic perspectives, 292–318. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316091746.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316091746.013 [Google Scholar]
  18. 2018 Why would anyone take long? Word classes and Construction Grammar in the history of long. InKristel Van Goethem, Muriel Norde, Evie Coussé & Gudrun Vanderbauwhede (eds.), Category change from a constructional perspective, 119–148. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cal.20.05den
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cal.20.05den [Google Scholar]
  19. Diessel, Holger
    2019The grammar network. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108671040
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108671040 [Google Scholar]
  20. Diewald, Gabriele
    2002 A model for relevant types of contexts in grammaticalization. InIlse Wischer & Gabriele Diewald (eds.), New reflections on grammaticalization, 103–120. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.49.09die
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.49.09die [Google Scholar]
  21. Diewald, Gabriele & Elena Smirnova
    2010Evidentiality in German: Linguistic realization and regularities in grammaticalization. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110241037
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110241037 [Google Scholar]
  22. Eifring, Halvor
    1995Clause combination in Chinese. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Evans, Nicholas
    2007 Insubordination and its uses. InIrina Nicholaeva (ed.), Finiteness: Theoretical and empirical foundations, 366–431. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Evans, Nicholas & Honoré Watanabe
    (eds.) 2016Insubordination. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.115
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.115 [Google Scholar]
  25. Fintel, Kai von
    1991 Exceptive conditionals: The meaning of unless. North East Linguistics Society (NELS)22. 135–148.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Fischer, Olga
    2018 Analogy: Its role in language learning, categorization, and in models of language change such as grammaticalization and constructionalization. InSylvie Hancil, Tine Breban & José Vicente Lozano (eds.), New trends in grammaticalization and language change, 75–104. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.202.04fis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.202.04fis [Google Scholar]
  27. Frajzyngier, Zygmunt & Bill Jirsa
    2006 The principle of indirect means in language use and language structure. Journal of Pragmatics38. 513–542. 10.1016/j.pragma.2005.03.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2005.03.010 [Google Scholar]
  28. Fujii, Seiko
    2004 Lexically (un)filled constructional schemes and construction types: The case of Japanese modal conditional constructions. InMirjam Fried & Jan-Ola Östman (eds.), Construction grammar in a cross-language perspective, 121–155. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cal.2.04fuj
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cal.2.04fuj [Google Scholar]
  29. Gisborne, Nikolas
    2010The event structure of perception verbs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577798.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577798.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  30. Gisborne, Nikolas & Amanda Patten
    2011 Grammaticalization and Construction Grammar. InHeiko Narrog & Bernd Heine (eds.), The Oxford handbook of grammaticalization, 92–104. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Goldberg, Adele E.
    1995Constructions: A construction grammar approach to argument structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. He, Leshi, Jinghao Ao, Kezhong Wang, Meiqiao, Mai & Haifen Wang
    (eds.) 1985Gǔdài hànyǔ xūcí tōng shì [A dictionary of function words in Ancient Chinese]. Beijing: Beijing Chubanshe.
  33. Herforth, Derek
    1994Conditional sentences in Old Chinese. PhD dissertation, University of California Berkeley.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hong, Bo & Dong Zhengcun
    2004 “Fēi X bùkě” géshì de lìshǐ yǎnhuà hé yǔfǎ huà [The historical evolution and grammaticalization of the expression “fei X bu ke”]. Zhongguo Yuwen3. 253–261.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Huang, Chu-Ren & Keh-Jiann Chen
    1998Zhōngyāng yán jiù yuàn hàn yǔliàokù de nèiróng yǔ shuōmíng [Sinica Corpus User Manual], asbc.iis.sinica.edu.tw/images/98-04.pdf (18February 2021)
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kaltenböck, Gunther
    2016 On the grammatical status of insubordinate if-clauses. InGunther Kaltenböck, Evelien Keizer & Arne Lohmann (eds.), Outside the clause, 341–377. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.178.12kal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.178.12kal [Google Scholar]
  37. Kawalya, Deo, Gilles-Maurice de Schryver & Koen Bostoen
    2018 From conditionality to modality in Luganda (Bantu, JE15): A synchronic and diachronic corpus analysis of the verbal prefix -andi-. Journal of Pragmatics127. 84–106. 10.1016/j.pragma.2018.01.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.01.011 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kratzer, Angelika
    2012Modals and conditionals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kuo, Yueh Hsin
    2020aLate-stage grammatical change in Chinese: A constructional account. PhD dissertation, University of Edinburgh.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 2020b Reinforcement by realignment in diachronic construction grammar: The case of classifier xiē in Mandarin Chinese. Constructions and Frames12(2). 206–238. 10.1075/cf.00040.kuo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cf.00040.kuo [Google Scholar]
  41. . Forthcoming a. From deontic modality to conditionality: A diachronic investigation into in Classical Chinese. Journal of Historical Pragmatics22(2).
    [Google Scholar]
  42. . Forthcoming b. From dynamic modal to conditional protasis connective: Evidence from Chinese néng ‘be able to’. Functions of Language. doi:  10.1075/fol.20030.kuo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/fol.20030.kuo [Google Scholar]
  43. Lehmann, Christian
    1995 [1982]Thoughts on grammaticalization. Munich/Newcastle: Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Li, Charles N. & Sandra A. Thompson
    1976 Subject and topic: A new typology of language. InCharles N. Li (ed.), Subject and topic, 457–489. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 1981Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Li, Ming
    2016Hanyu Zhudongci De Lishi Yanbian Yanjiu [A study of the historical development of Chinese auxiliary verbs]. Beijing: Commercial Press.
  47. Li, Renzhi
    2004Modality in English and Chinese: A typological perspective. PhD dissertation, University of Antwerp.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Mauri, Caterina & Andrea Sansó
    2011 How directive constructions emerge: grammaticalization, constructionalization, cooptation. Journal of Pragmatics43(14). 3489–3521. 10.1016/j.pragma.2011.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  49. Narrog, Heiko
    2012Modality, subjectivity, and semantic change: A cross-linguistic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694372.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694372.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  50. 2016 Insubordination in Japanese diachronically. InNicholas Evans & Honoré Watanabe (eds.), Insubordination, 247–281. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.115.10nar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.115.10nar [Google Scholar]
  51. Norde, Muriel
    2009Degrammaticalization. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207923.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207923.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  52. Norde, Muriel & Graeme Trousdale
    2016 Exaptation from the perspective of construction morphology. InMuriel Norde & Freek Van de Velde (eds.), Exaptation, 163–195. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.336.06nor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.336.06nor [Google Scholar]
  53. Ōta, Tatsuo
    1958Chugokugo Rekishi Bunpō [A historical grammar of Modern Chinese]. Tokyo: Kōnan Shoin.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Peng, Rui
    2017Pivotal constructions in Chinese: Diachronic, synchronic, and constructional perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scld.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scld.8 [Google Scholar]
  55. Petré, Peter
    2019 How constructions are born. The role of patterns in the constructionalization of be going to INF. InBeatrix Busse & Ruth Möhlig-Falke (eds.), Patterns in language and linguistics: New perspectives on a ubiquitous concept, 157–192. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110596656‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110596656-007 [Google Scholar]
  56. Pulleyblank, Edwin G.
    1995Outline of Classical Chinese grammar. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Rentzsch, Julian
    2012 Scope hierarchies and modality in Manchu. Studies in Language36(4). 848–881. 10.1075/sl.36.4.04ren
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.36.4.04ren [Google Scholar]
  58. Roberts, Craige
    1989 Modal subordination and pronominal anaphora in discourse. Linguistics and Philosophy12(6). 683–721. 10.1007/BF00632602
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00632602 [Google Scholar]
  59. Searle, John R.
    1979Expression and meaning: Studies in the theory of Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511609213
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609213 [Google Scholar]
  60. Smirnova, Elena
    2015 When secondary grammaticalization starts: A look from the constructional perspective. Language Sciences47. 215–228. 10.1016/j.langsci.2014.07.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2014.07.009 [Google Scholar]
  61. Stefanowitsch, Anatol
    2003 A construction-based approach to indirect speech acts. InKlaus-Uwe Panther & Linda L. Thornburg (eds.), Metonymy and pragmatic inferencing, 105–126. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.113.09ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.113.09ste [Google Scholar]
  62. Stefanowitsch, Anatol & Stefan Th. Gries
    2003 Collostructions: Investigating the interaction of words and constructions. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics8(2). 209–243. 10.1075/ijcl.8.2.03ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.8.2.03ste [Google Scholar]
  63. Struckmeier, Volker & Sebastian Kaiser
    2019 When insubordination is an artefact (of sentence type theories). InKarin Beijering, Gunther Kaltenböck & María Sol Sansiñena (eds.), Insubordination: Theoretical and empirical issues, 320–348. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110638288‑011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110638288-011 [Google Scholar]
  64. Sun, Chaofen
    1996Word-order change and grammaticalization in the history of Chinese. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Sweetser, Eve
    1990From etymology to pragmatics: Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620904
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620904 [Google Scholar]
  66. Tanno, Koji
    2017 Semantic change through the discursive strategy of justification: The grammaticalization of the Japanese connective datte. Language Sciences64. 34–53. 10.1016/j.langsci.2017.07.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2017.07.001 [Google Scholar]
  67. Torrent, Tiago Timponi
    2015 On the relation between inheritance and change: The constructional convergence and the construction network reconfiguration hypotheses. InJóhanna Barðdal, Elena Smirnova, Lotte Sommerer & Spike Gildea (eds.), Diachronic construction grammar, 173–211. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cal.18.06tor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cal.18.06tor [Google Scholar]
  68. Traugott, Elizabeth C.
    1985 Conditional markers. InJohn Haiman (ed.), Iconicity in syntax, 289–307. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.6.14clo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.6.14clo [Google Scholar]
  69. 1997Unless and but conditionals. InAngeliki Athanasiadou & René Dirven (eds.), On conditionals again, 145–167. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.143.09clo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.143.09clo [Google Scholar]
  70. 2003 From subjectification to intersubjectification. InRaymond Hickey (ed.), Motives for language change, 124–139. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486937.009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486937.009 [Google Scholar]
  71. 2017a Low salience as an enabling factor in morphosyntactic change. InMarianne Hundt, Sandra Mollin & Simone. E. Pfenninger (eds.), The changing English Language: Psycholinguistic perspectives, 93–109. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316091746.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316091746.005 [Google Scholar]
  72. 2017b Insubordination in the light of the Uniformitarian Principle. English Language & Linguistics21(2). 289–310. 10.1017/S1360674317000144
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674317000144 [Google Scholar]
  73. 2018 Rethinking the role of invited inferencing in change from the perspective of interactional texts. Open Linguistics4. 19–34. 10.1515/opli‑2018‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2018-0002 [Google Scholar]
  74. Traugott, Elizabeth C. & Richard Dasher
    2002Regularity in semantic change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Traugott, Elizabeth C. & Graeme Trousdale
    2013Constructionalization and Constructional Changes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679898.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679898.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  76. Trousdale, Graeme
    2014 On the relationship between grammaticalization and constructionalization. Folia Linguistica48(2). 557–577. 10.1515/flin.2014.018
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flin.2014.018 [Google Scholar]
  77. Trousdale, Graeme & Muriel Norde
    2013 Degrammaticalization and constructionalization: Two case studies. Language Sciences36. 32–46. 10.1016/j.langsci.2012.03.018
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2012.03.018 [Google Scholar]
  78. Tuggy, David
    1993 Ambiguity, polysemy, and vagueness. Cognitive Linguistics4(3). 273–290. 10.1515/cogl.1993.4.3.273
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.1993.4.3.273 [Google Scholar]
  79. Van Olmen, Daniël & Simone Heinold
    2017Imperatives and directive strategies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.184
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.184 [Google Scholar]
  80. Verstraete, Jean-Christophe
    2001 Subjective and objective modality: Interpersonal and ideational functions in the English modal auxiliary system. Journal of Pragmatics33(10). 1505–1528. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(01)00029‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(01)00029-7 [Google Scholar]
  81. Wang, Canlong
    2008 “Fēi VP bùkě” jù shì zhōng “bùkě” de yǐnxiàn: Jiān tán “fēi” de xū huà [On the occurrence and non-occurrence of buke (不可) and the grammaticalization of fei (非) in the construction “fei + VP + buke”]. Zhongguo Yuwen2. 109–119.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Wen, Zhengxing
    2010 Táng sòng “shǐ dé” jù de lìshǐ yǎnhuà hé yǔfǎ huà [The historical evolution and grammaticalization of the “shide” (始得) sentence in the Tang and Song Dynasties]. Yǔwén Yánjiū116(3). 45–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Wiedenhof, Jeroen
    2015A grammar of Mandarin. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.197
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.197 [Google Scholar]
  84. Wu, Hsueh-ju
    2018Xiānqín qíngtài dòngcí yánjiū [A Study of modal verbs in Pre-Qin Chinese]. Shanghai: Zhongxi Shuju.
  85. Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn
    Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn, 7th edn. 2016 Beijing: Commercial Press.
  86. Yang, Fan-Pei
    2007A cognitive approach to Mandarin conditionals. PhD dissertation, University of California Berkeley.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Zhan, Fangqiong & Elizabeth C. Traugott
    2015 The constructionalization of the Chinese cleft construction. Studies in Language39(2). 459–491. 10.1075/sl.39.2.06zha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.39.2.06zha [Google Scholar]
  88. 2020 A study of the development of the Chinese correlative comparative construction from the perspective of constructionalization. Diachronica37(1). 83–126. 10.1075/dia.18025.zha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.18025.zha [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/dia.20047.kuo
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/dia.20047.kuo
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error