1887
image of Preverbal a-marking in Palenquero Creole

Abstract

Abstract

Formally similar grammatical features in a creole and its genetic or areal relatives may indicate substrate transfer, lexifier influence, or grammaticalization. Against this backdrop, the present study investigates the origin(s) of the preverbal past marker in Palenquero Creole (Colombia). Results from distributional analysis and tests for significance indicate that several diachronically-related meanings are -marked at rates approaching obligatory, suggesting advanced grammaticalization. Comparative results for Peninsular + PP suggest that past marking has grammaticalized much further in half the time in Palenquero Creole than in its lexifier, Spanish. Why? I argue, against traditional accounts about the origins of , that, given the contact history of Palenquero speakers, most likely a pre-existing Kikongo prefixal form merged with an already grammaticalizing , thus propelling grammaticalization in the creole. The synchronic patterning shows adherence to typological patterns observed for perfectives in line with well-known constraints on competition and selection in contact languages, such as their grammatical congruence or particular social ecologies.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/dia.20072.smi
2022-03-25
2022-05-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/10.1075/dia.20072.smi/dia.20072.smi.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/dia.20072.smi&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Baptista, Marlyse
    2020 Competition, selection, and the role of congruence in Creole genesis and development. Language96(1). 160–199. 10.1353/lan.2020.0005
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2020.0005 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bentley, Reverend William Holman
    1887Dictionary and grammar of the Kongo language, as spoken at San Salvador, the ancient capital of the Old Kongo Empire, West Africa. London: Trübner (Republished 1967 by Gregg Press).
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bickerton, Derek & Escalante, Aquiles
    1970 Palenquero: A Spanish-based creole of northern Colombia. Lingua24. 254–267. 10.1016/0024‑3841(70)90080‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(70)90080-X [Google Scholar]
  4. Bickerton, Derek
    1975Dynamics of a creole system. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 1981Roots of language. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Börjars, Kersti & Vincent Nigel
    2011 Grammaticalization and directionality. InHeiko Narrog & Bernd Heine (eds.), The Oxford handbook of grammaticalization, 163–176. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Brinton, Laurel J. & Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
    2005Lexicalization and language change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615962
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615962 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bruyn, Adrienne
    1996 On identifying instances of grammaticalization in creole languages. InPhilip Baker & Anand Syea (eds.), Changing meanings, changing functions: Papers relating to grammaticalization in contact languages, 29–46. London: Westminster University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2009 Grammaticalization in creoles: Ordinary and not-so-ordinary cases. Studies in Language33(2). 312–337. 10.1075/sl.33.2.04bru
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.33.2.04bru [Google Scholar]
  10. Bybee, Joan L.
    1994 The grammaticization of zero. InWilliam Pagliuca (ed.), Perspectives on grammaticalization, 235–254. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.109.02byb
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.109.02byb [Google Scholar]
  11. 2010Language, usage, and cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511750526
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750526 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bybee, Joan
    2011 Usage-based theory and grammaticalization. InBernd Heine & Heiko Narrog (eds.), The Oxford handbook of grammaticalization, 69–78. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bybee, Joan L., Perkins, Revere & Pagliuca, William
    1994The evolution of grammar: Tense, aspect, and modality in the languages of the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chatelain, Héli
    1888Gramatica elementar do kimbundu ou lingua de Angola. Geneva: (Republished 1964 Gregg Press).
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Chaudenson, Robert
    2001Creolization of language and culture. London/New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Company Company, Concepción
    1980 Formalización del paradigma verbal compuesto en siete textos de la Edad Media. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico: Undergraduate thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Comrie, Bernard
    1976Aspect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Copple, Mary
    2011 Tracking the constraints on a grammaticalizing perfect(ive). Language Variation and Change23(2). 163–191. 10.1017/S0954394511000044
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394511000044 [Google Scholar]
  19. Croft, William H.
    2003Typology and universals, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dahl, Osten
    1985Tense and aspect systems. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Delgado-Díaz, Gibran
    2021The evolution of Spanish past forms. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780429317491
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429317491 [Google Scholar]
  22. Dieck, Marianne
    2002 Distribución y escopo de la negación en Palenquero. InYves Moñino & Armin Schwegler (eds.), Palenque, Cartagena, y Afro-Caribe: Historia y lengua, 149–168. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110960228.149
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110960228.149 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2011 La época de formación de la lengua de Palenque: Datos históricos y lingüísticos. Forma y Función24(1). 11–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Dom, Sebastian & Bostoen, Koen
    2015 Examining variation in the expression of tense/aspect to classify the Kikongo Language Cluster. Africana Linguistica21(1). 163–211. 10.3406/aflin.2015.1045
    https://doi.org/10.3406/aflin.2015.1045 [Google Scholar]
  25. Dom, Sebastian, de Schryver, Gilles-Maurice & Bostoen, Koen
    2018 The diachronic semantics of the Dissociative Past Completive construction in the Kikongo Language Cluster (Bantu). Folia Linguistica Historica39(2). 297–340. 10.1515/flih‑2018‑0011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flih-2018-0011 [Google Scholar]
  26. Drinka, Bridget
    2017Language contact in Europe: The periphrastic perfect through history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781139027694
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781139027694 [Google Scholar]
  27. DuBois, John, Schuetze-Cooburn, Stephan, Cumming, Susana & Danae, Paolino
    1993 Outline of discourse transcription. InJane Edwards & Martin Lampert (eds.), Talking data: Transcription and coding in discourse, 45–89. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. ELAN
    ELAN 2021 ELAN (Version 6.2) [Computer software] (2021) Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, The Language Archive. Retrieved fromhttps://archive.mpi.nl/tla/elan
  29. Friedemann, Nina de & Patiño Roselli, Carlos
    1983Lengua y sociedad en el Palenque de San Basilio. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Granda, Germán de
    1968 La tipología ‘criolla’ de dos hablas del área lingüística hispánica. Thesaurus: Boletín del Instituto Caro y Cuervo23(2). 193–205.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 1978Estudios lingüísticos hispánicos, afrohispánicos y criollos. Madrid: Gredos.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Heath, Jeffrey
    1998 Hermit crabs: Formal renewal of morphology by phonologically mediated affix substitution. Language74(4). 728–759. 10.2307/417001
    https://doi.org/10.2307/417001 [Google Scholar]
  33. Heine, Bernd
    1994 Grammaticalization as an explanatory parameter. InWilliam Pagliuca (ed.), Perspectives on grammaticalization, 255–87. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.109.08hei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.109.08hei [Google Scholar]
  34. Heine, Bernd & Kuteva, Tania
    2002World lexicon of grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511613463
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511613463 [Google Scholar]
  35. 2005Language contact and grammatical change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511614132
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614132 [Google Scholar]
  36. Holm, John A.
    1988Pidgins and creoles: Theory and structure, vol.1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Hopper, Paul
    1991 On some principles of grammaticization. InElizabeth Closs Traugott & Bernard Heine (eds.), Approaches to grammaticalization. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.19.1.04hop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.19.1.04hop [Google Scholar]
  38. Hopper, Paul & Elizabeth Traugott
    1993Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Hualde, José Ignacio & Schwegler, Armin
    2008 Intonation in Palenquero. Journal of pidgin and creole languages23(1). 1–31. 10.1075/jpcl.23.1.02hua
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.23.1.02hua [Google Scholar]
  40. Jacobs, Bart
    2012Origins of a creole: The history of Papiamentu and its African ties. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781614511076
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511076 [Google Scholar]
  41. Klein-Andreu, Flora
    2010Spanish through time: An introduction. Muenchen, Germany: LINCOM.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Jacobs, Bart & Parkvall, Mikael
    2020 How Portuguese are Palenquero and Chabacano really?Revue Romane56(2). 235–266. 10.1075/rro.19001.jac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rro.19001.jac [Google Scholar]
  43. Labov, William
    1966The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 1972Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 1984 Field methods of the project on linguistic change and variation. InJohn Baugh & Joel Sherzer (eds.), Language in use: Readings in sociolinguistics, 28–53. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 2001Principles of linguistic change: Social factors, vol.2. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Laman, Karl E.
    1936Dictionnaire kikongo-français: Avec une étude phonétique décrivant les dialectes le plus important de la langue dite kikongo. Uccle: Institut Royal Colonial Belge.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lapesa, Rafael
    1981Historia de la lengua española. Madrid: Biblioteca Románica Hispánica.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Lewis, Anthony
    1970 A descriptive analysis of the Palenquero dialect. University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica: Unpublished MA thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Lipski, John
    2005A history of Afro-Hispanic language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511627811
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511627811 [Google Scholar]
  51. 2011 Pitch polarity in Palenquero: A possible locus of H tone. InSonia Colina, Antxon Olarrea, & Ana Maria Carvahlo (eds.), Romance linguistics 2009: Selected papers from the 39th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSR), 111–128. Tucson Free at Last: Arizona, March 2009.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 2012 From bound morpheme to discourse marker in Lengua ri Palenge (Palenquero Creole Spanish). Anthropological Linguistics54(2). 101–132. 10.1353/anl.2012.0007
    https://doi.org/10.1353/anl.2012.0007 [Google Scholar]
  53. Maurer, Philippe
    1987 La comparaison des morphèmes temporels du papiamento el du palenquero: Arguments contre la théorie monogénétique de la genèse des langues creóles. InPhilippe Maurer, Thomas Stolz, & Marta Dijkhoff (eds.), Varia Creolica, 27–70. Bochum: Studienverlag Brockmeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. McWhorter, John H.
    2018 Is grammaticalization different in creoles?InHeiko Narrog & Bernd Heine, (eds.), Grammaticalization from a typological perspective, 394–408. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780198795841.003.0019
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198795841.003.0019 [Google Scholar]
  55. Megenny, William
    1986El palenquero: Un lenguaje post-criollo de Colombia. Bogotá: IPICC.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Meyerhoff, Miriam
    2009 Replication, transfer, and calquing: Using variation as a tool in the study of language contact. Language Variation and Change21(3). 297–317. 10.1017/S0954394509990196
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394509990196 [Google Scholar]
  57. Moñino, Yves
    1999 L’aspect en palenquero: Une semantaxe africaine. Actances10. 177–190.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 2002 Las construcciones de genitivo en palenquero: ¿Una semantaxis africana?InYves Moñino & Armin Schwegler (eds.), Palenque, Cartagena y Afro-Caribe: Historia y lengua, 227–48. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110960228.227
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110960228.227 [Google Scholar]
  59. 2007 Convergencias lingüísticas iberocongolesas en palenquero: ¿Integrarse a la sociedad mayoritaria o distinguirse de ella?InWiltrud, Mihatsch & Monika. Sokol (eds.), Language contact and language change in the Caribbean and beyond (Lenguas en contacto y cambio lingüístico en el Caribe y más allá), 37–59. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 2012 Pasado, presente y futuro de la lengua de Palenque. InGraciela Maglia & Armin Schwegler (eds.), Palenque (Colombia): Oralidad, identidad y resistencia. Un enfoque interdisciplinario, 221–255.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Mufwene, Salikoko
    1996 Creolization and grammaticization: What creolists could contribute to research on grammaticization. InPhillip Baker & Anand Syea (eds.), Changing meanings, changing functions: Papers relating to grammaticalization in contact languages, 5–28. London: University of Westminster Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 2001The ecology of language evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511612862
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612862 [Google Scholar]
  63. 2008Language: Contact, competition and change. London/New York: Continuum. 10.5040/9781350934078
    https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350934078 [Google Scholar]
  64. Narrog, Heiko & Heine, Bernd
    2018Grammaticalization from a typological perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780198795841.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198795841.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  65. Natividad Pérez, Jesús
    2002Del arroyo al acueducto: Transformación sociocultural en el Palenque de San Basilio. Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia: Trabajo de grado.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Navarrete, María Cristina
    1995La historia social del negro en la colonia: Cartagena, siglo XVII. Santiago de Cali: Universidad del Valle.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 2007Las memorias de San Basilio de Palenque. Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia – ICAH, Área de Historia Colonial.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 2008San Basilio de Palenque: Memoria y tradición. Cali: Programa Editorial, Universidad del Valle.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Noguera, María, Schwegler, Armin, Gomes, Verónica, Briceño, Ignacio, Álvarez, Luis, Uricoechea, Daniel, Amorim, Antonio, Benevides, Escilda, Silvera, Carlos, Charris, Marlon, Bernal, Jaime E., & Gusmão, Leonor
    2016 Colombia’s population crucible: Y chromosome evidence from six admixed communities in the Department of Bolívar. Annals of human biology41(5). 453–459. 10.3109/03014460.2013.852244
    https://doi.org/10.3109/03014460.2013.852244 [Google Scholar]
  70. Nurse, Derek
    2007 The emergence of tense in early Bantu. InDoris L. Payne & Jaime Peña (eds.), Selected proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, 164–179. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 2008Tense and aspect in Bantu. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Osam, Kweku E.
    2008 Akan as an aspectual language. InFelix Ameka & Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu (eds.), Aspect and modality in Kwa languages, 69–90. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.100.05osa
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.100.05osa [Google Scholar]
  73. Parkvall, Mikael, & Jacobs, Bart
    2020 Palenquero origins: A tale of more than two languages. Diachronica37(4). 540–576. 10.1075/dia.19019.par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.19019.par [Google Scholar]
  74. Patiño Roselli, Carlos
    1983 El habla en el Palenque de San Basilio. InNina de Friedemann & Carlos Patiño Roselli (eds.), Lengua y sociedad en el Palenque de San Basilio, 83–287. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Penny, Ralph
    2004Variation and change in Spanish. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Pharies, David A.
    2015Breve historia de la lengua española, 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Plag, Ingo
    2002 On the role of grammaticalization in creolization. InGlenn Gilbert (ed.), Pidgin and creole linguistics in the 21st century, 229–246. New York: Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Poplack, Shana
    2011 Grammaticalization and linguistic variation. InHeiko Narrog & Bernd Heine (eds.), The Oxford handbook of grammaticalization, 209–224. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Poplack, Shana & Tagliamonte, Sali
    1996 Nothing in context: Variation, grammaticization and past time marking in Nigerian Pidgin English. InPhilip Baker & Anand Syea (eds), Changing meanings, changing functions: Papers relating to grammaticalization in contact languages, 71–94. London: Westminster University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 1999 Nothing in context: Variation, grammaticization and past time marking in Nigerian Pidgin English. Cuadernos de filología inglesa8(1). 193–217.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Rona, José Pedro
    1971 Elementos españoles, portugueses y africanos en el papiamento. Watapana3(3). 7–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Sankoff, David, Sali Tagliamonte & Eric Smith
    2005Goldvarb X: A variable rule application for MacIntosh. University of Toronto: Department of Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Sankoff, Gillian
    1990 The grammaticalization of tense and aspect in Tok Pisin. Language Variation and Change2(3). 295–312. 10.1017/S0954394500000387
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000387 [Google Scholar]
  84. Sankoff, Gillian & Brown, Penelope
    1976 The origins of syntax in discourse: A case study of Tok Pisin relatives. Language52(3). 631–666. 10.2307/412723
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412723 [Google Scholar]
  85. Schwegler, Armin
    2002 On the (African) origins of Palenquero subject pronouns. Diachronica19(2). 273–332. 10.1075/dia.19.2.03sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.19.2.03sch [Google Scholar]
  86. 2007 Bare nouns in Palenquero. InMarlyse Baptista & Jacqueline Guéron (eds.), Noun phrases in creole languages, 205–222. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. 10.1075/cll.31.11sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.31.11sch [Google Scholar]
  87. 2011 Palenque(ro): The search for its African substrate. InClaire Lefebvre (ed.), Creoles, their substrates, and language typology, 225–249. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.95.13sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.95.13sch [Google Scholar]
  88. 2013 Palenquero structure dataset. InMichaelis, Susanne Maria, Phillipe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath, & Magnus Huber (eds.), Atlas of pidgin and creole language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. (Available online atapics-online.info/contributions/58, Accessed on10/15/2019.)
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 2016 Combining population genetics (DNA) with historical linguistics: On the African origins of Latin America’s black and mulatto populations. InSandro Sessarego & Fernando Tejedo-Herrero (eds.), Spanish language and sociolinguistic analysis, 33–88. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ihll.8.02sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ihll.8.02sch [Google Scholar]
  90. 2017 On the African origin(s) of Palenquero. InArmin Schwegler, Bryan Kirschen & Graciela Maglia (eds.), Palenque (Colombia): Orality, identity, and resistance. An interdisciplinary approach, 51–119. Amsterdam/New York: John Benjamins. 10.1075/coll.54.02sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/coll.54.02sch [Google Scholar]
  91. Schwegler, Armin & Green, Kate
    2007 Palenquero (Creole Spanish). InJohn A. Holm & Peter Patrick (eds.), Comparative creole syntax: Parallel outlines of 18 creole grammars, 273–306. London: Battlebridge Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Schwegler, Armin & Morton, Thomas
    2003 Vernacular Spanish in a microcosm: Kateyano en San Basilio de Palenque (Colombia). Revista internacional de lingüística Iberoamericana1(1). 97–159.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Schwenter, Scott A. & Torres Cacoullos, Rena
    2008 Defaults and indeterminacy in temporal grammaticalization: The “perfect” road to perfective. Language Variation and Change20(1). 1–39. 10.1017/S0954394508000057
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394508000057 [Google Scholar]
  94. 2010 Grammaticalization paths as variable contexts in weak complementarity. InJames A. Walker (ed.), Aspect in grammatical variation, 13–26. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/silv.6.02sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/silv.6.02sch [Google Scholar]
  95. Severn, Beth
    1956Kikongo language manual. American Baptist Foreign Mission Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Smith, Hiram L.
    2011–2014The bilingual corpus of Palenquero Creole: San Basilio de Palenque, Cartagena, and Barranquilla. Corpus of Elan transcripts and audio recordings.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 2013 Habitual aspect marking in Palenquero: Variation in present temporal reference. InAna M. Carvahlo & Sara Beaudrie (eds.), Selected proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics (WSS6), 97–108. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 2014 Patterns of variable tense and aspect marking in Palenquero. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA: PhD dissertation.
  99. 2018 Addressing questions of grammaticalization in creoles: It’s all about the methodology. InHeiko Narrog & Bernd Heine (eds.), Grammaticalization from a typological perspective, 372–393. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780198795841.003.0018
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198795841.003.0018 [Google Scholar]
  100. 2021 Do creoles conform to typological markedness patterns? Habitual marking in Palenquero. Language Variation and Change33(2). 193–216. 10.1017/S0954394521000053
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394521000053 [Google Scholar]
  101. Tagliamonte, Sali
    2006Analysing sociolinguistic variation: Key topics in sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511801624
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511801624 [Google Scholar]
  102. 2013Roots of English: Exploring the history of dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Torres Cacoullos, Rena
    2012 Grammaticalization through inherent variability: The development of a progressive in Spanish. Studies in Language36(1). 73–122. 10.1075/sl.36.1.03tor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.36.1.03tor [Google Scholar]
  104. Torres Cacoullos, Rena & Catherine E. Travis
    2018Bilingualism in the community: Code-switching and grammars in contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108235259
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108235259 [Google Scholar]
  105. Weinreich, Uriel
    1953/1964Languages in contact. London, The Hague, Paris: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Wheat, David
    2011 The first great waves: African provenance zones for the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade to Cartagena de Indias, 1570–1640. Journal of African History52(1). 1–22. 10.1017/S0021853711000119
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021853711000119 [Google Scholar]
  107. 2016Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570–1640. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Willis, David
    2007 Syntactic lexicalization as a new type of degrammaticalization. Linguistics45(2). 271–310. 10.1515/LING.2007.009
    https://doi.org/10.1515/LING.2007.009 [Google Scholar]
  109. Winford, Donald
    2003An introduction to contact linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/dia.20072.smi
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/dia.20072.smi
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error