Volume 40, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0176-4225
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9714
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Multiple exponence is a phenomenon in which morphemes that encode a given piece of information are realized multiple times within a single word. Unlike other members of the Siouan language family spoken across North America, Crow possesses a set of modal auxiliaries that display multiple exponence of subject person agreement. I show that one source of multiple exponence in Crow is the grammaticalization of the inflectional future from the motion verb , which brings with it its own agreement prefixes. Multiple exponence then extended to compound modals containing the inflectional future and finally to a morphologically unrelated modal – a distinct case of multiple exponence begetting additional multiple exponence. Thus, this study contributes to the broader understanding of the diachronic pathways to multiple exponence.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): analogical extension; Crow; futurity; grammaticalization; modality; multiple exponence; Siouan
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