Volume 31, Issue 4
  • ISSN 0176-4225
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9714
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The person-oriented nature of a demonstrative system can be marked explicitly by incorporating person markers into demonstratives. When these distinguish gender or number, this can lead to an unusual type of allocutivity: addressee agreement on medials. The latter development is cross-linguistically rarely reported, but is attested in Siwi Berber, Quranic and Rāziħ Arabic and arguably Imperial Aramaic. Examination of these and other languages shows a pathway whereby demonstrative systems gain addressee-anchored terms through grammaticalisation of a phrase including an oblique second person pronoun, occasionally producing addressee agreement. The semantic properties of allocutivity help explain the rarity of the latter result.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): agreement; allocutive; Arabic; Berber; deixis; demonstrative; grammaticalization; person-oriented; Siwi
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