1887
Volume 32 Number 4
  • ISSN 0176-4225
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9714
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Intensification is prone to invention and renewal, rendering it ideal for delving into mechanisms of variation and change. Recycling (via lexical replacement) is a putative longitudinal constant, yet grammatical change (via grammaticalization) is regularly invoked in the literature. It is not clear how these complement each other. To probe this issue, this paper operationalizes variationist methods to examine intensification in the Origins of New Zealand English Corpus (ONZE; Gordon et al. 2007). The analysis draws on nearly 13,000 tokens across the longue durée (Braudel 1958, 1980), tracing intensification over 130 years of vernacular speech. The picture that emerges extends beyond the distributional waxing and waning of forms. There is evidence for lexical change, but the longitudinal trajectory is not always continuous. Replacement entails reorganization followed by leveling, and grammatical correlates shift across time. Nonetheless, the inherent form/function asymmetry that characterizes the sector also supports periods of ‘fevered’ change.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar
2015-12-30
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adamson, Sylvia
    2000 A lovely little example: Word order options and category shift in the premodifying string. In Olga Fischer , Anette Rosenbach & Dieter Stein (eds.), Pathways of change: Grammaticalization in English, 39–66. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/slcs.53.04ada
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.53.04ada [Google Scholar]
  2. Allerton, David J
    1987 English intensifiers and their idiosyncrasies. In Ross Steele & Terry Threadgold (eds.), Language topics: Essays in honour of Michael Halliday, vol. 2, 15–31. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.lt2.47all
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.lt2.47all [Google Scholar]
  3. Androutsopoulos, Jannis & Alexandra Georgakopoulos
    2003Discourse constructions of youth identities. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.110
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.110 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bäcklund, Ulf
    1973The collocation of adverbs of degree in English. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksell.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barnfield, Kate & Isabelle Buchstaller
    2010 Intensifiers on Tyneside: Longitudinal developments and new trends. English World-Wide31(3). 252–287. doi: 10.1075/eww.31.3.02bar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.31.3.02bar [Google Scholar]
  6. Bauer, Laurie & Winifred Bauer
    2002 Adjective boosters in the English of Young New Zealanders. Journal of English Linguistics30(3). 244–257. doi: 10.1177/0075424202030003002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424202030003002 [Google Scholar]
  7. Besnier, Niko
    1990 Language and affect. Annual Review of Anthropology19. 419–451. doi: 10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.002223
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.002223 [Google Scholar]
  8. Biber, Douglas & Edward Finegan
    1988 Adverbial stance types in English. Discourse Processes11(1). 1–34. doi: 10.1080/01638538809544689
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01638538809544689 [Google Scholar]
  9. Biber, Douglas , Stig Johansson , Geoffrey Leech , Susan Conrad & Edward Finegan
    1999Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bolinger, Dwight
    1972Degree words. The Hague: Mouton. doi: 10.1515/9783110877786
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110877786 [Google Scholar]
  11. Borst, Eugene
    1902Die Gradadverbien im Englischen (Anglistische Forschungen 10). Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Braudel, Fernand
    1958 Histoire et science sociale: La longue durée. Annales E.S.C. 13. 725–753. doi: 10.3406/ahess.1958.2781
    https://doi.org/10.3406/ahess.1958.2781 [Google Scholar]
  13. 1980. [1969]Ecrits sur l’histoire. Reprinted essays; translated as On history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Breban, Tine & Kristin Davidse
    . Forthcoming. The history of very: The directionality of functional shift and (inter)subjectificatio. English Language and Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brems, Lieselotte
    2007 The grammaticalization of small size nouns: Reconsidering frequency and analogy. Journal of English Linguistics35(4). 293–324. doi: 10.1177/0075424207307597
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424207307597 [Google Scholar]
  16. Brinton, Laurel J. & Leslie K. Arnovik
    2006The English language: A linguistic history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Brown, LeAnn & Sali A. Tagliamonte
    2012 A really interesting story: The influence of narrative in linguistic change. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics18. Article 2. repository.upenn.edu/pwpl/vol18/iss2/2/
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Buchstaller, Isabelle
    2006 Diagnostics of age-graded linguistic behaviour: The case of the quotative system. Journal of Sociolinguistics10(1). 3–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1360‑6441.2006.00315.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-6441.2006.00315.x [Google Scholar]
  19. 2011 Quotations across the generations: A multivariate analysis of speech and thought introducers across 5 decades of Tyneside speech. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory7(1). 59–92. doi: 10.1515/cllt.2011.004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2011.004 [Google Scholar]
  20. Buchstaller, Isabelle & Elizabeth Closs Traugott
    2006 The Lady was al Demonyak: Historical aspects of adverb all. English Language and Linguistics10(2). 345–370. doi: 10.1017/S136067430600195X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136067430600195X [Google Scholar]
  21. Bybee, Joan
    2003a Cognitive processes in grammaticalization. In Michael Tomasello (ed.), The new psychology of language, 145–167. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2003b Mechanisms of change in grammaticalization: The role of frequency. In Brian D. Joseph & Richard D. Janda (eds.), The handbook of historical linguistics, 602–623. Oxford: Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9780470756393.ch19
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756393.ch19 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2006Frequency of use and the organization of language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Campbell, Alistair
    1959Old English grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Chambers, Jack K
    2001 Region and language variation. English World-Wide21(2). 169–199. doi: 10.1075/eww.21.2.02cha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.21.2.02cha [Google Scholar]
  26. 2003Sociolinguistic theory: Linguistic variation and its social significance. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Claridge, Claudia & Merja Kytö
    2014a ‘I had lost sight of them for a bit, but I went on pretty fast’: Two degree modifiers in the Old Bailey Corpus. In Irma Taavitsainen , Andreas H. Jucker & Jukka Tuominen (eds.), Diachronic corpus pragmatics, 29–52. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.243.05cla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.243.05cla [Google Scholar]
  28. 2014b ‘You are a bit of a sneak’: Exploring a degree modifier in the Old Bailey Corpus. In Marianne Hundt (ed.), Late Modern English syntax, 239–268. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139507226.018
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139507226.018 [Google Scholar]
  29. D’Arcy, Alexandra
    2012 The diachrony of quotation: Evidence from New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change24(3). 343–369. doi: 10.1017/S0954394512000166
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394512000166 [Google Scholar]
  30. Diehl, Hannelle
    2005 Quite as a degree modifier of verbs. Nordic Journal of English Studies4(1). 11–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Dixon, Robert M.W
    1977 Where have all the adjectives gone?Studies in Language1. 19–80. doi: 10.1075/sl.1.1.04dix
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.1.1.04dix [Google Scholar]
  32. 2004 Adjective classes in typological perspective. In Robert M.W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), Adjective classes. A cross-linguistic typology, 1–49. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Dubois, Sylvie & Barbara Horvath
    1999 When the music changes, you change too: Gender and language change in Cajun English. Language Variation and Change11(3). 287–314. doi: 10.1017/S0954394599113036
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394599113036 [Google Scholar]
  34. Fettig, Adolf
    1934Die Gradadverbien im Mittelenglischen (Anglistische Forschungen 79). Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. González-Díaz, Victorina
    2008 Recent developments in English intensifiers: The case of very much. English Language and Linguistics12(2). 221–243. doi: 10.1017/S1360674308002608
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002608 [Google Scholar]
  36. Gordon, Elizabeth , Lyle Campbell , Jennifer Hay , Margaret Maclagan , Andrea Sudbury & Peter Trudgill
    2004New Zealand English: Its origins and evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511486678
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486678 [Google Scholar]
  37. Gordon, Elizabeth , Jennifer Hay & Margaret Maclagan
    2007 The ONZE Corpus. In Joan C. Beal , Karen P. Corrigan & Hermann L. Moisl (eds.), Creating and digitizing language corpora, vol. 2, Diachronic databases, 82–104. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gregersen, Frans & Michael Barner-Rasmussen
    2011 The logic of comparability: On genres and phonetic variation in a project on language change in real time. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory7(1). 7–36. doi: 10.1515/cllt.2011.002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2011.002 [Google Scholar]
  39. Guy, Greg
    1988 Advanced Varbrul analysis. In Kathleen Ferrara , Becky Brown , Keith Walters & John Baugh (eds.), Linguistic change and contact. Proceedings of the sixteenth annual conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation , 124–136. Austin: University of Texas at Austin.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Hay, Jennifer & Daniel Schreier
    2004 Reversing the trajectory of language change: Subject Verb Agreement with BE in New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change16(3). 209–235. doi: 10.1017/S0954394504163047
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394504163047 [Google Scholar]
  41. Hay, Jennifer & Andrea Sudbury
    2005 How rhoticity became /r/-sandhi. Language81(4). 799–823. doi: 10.1353/lan.2005.0175
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2005.0175 [Google Scholar]
  42. Heine, Bernd , Ulrike Claudi , & Friederike Hünnemeyer
    1991Grammaticalization: A conceptual framework. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Hoffmann, Sebastian
    2004 Are low-frequency complex prepositions grammaticalized? On the limits of corpus data — and the importance of intuition. In Hans Lindquist & Christian Mair (eds.), Corpus approaches to grammaticalization in English, 171–201. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/scl.13.09hof
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.13.09hof [Google Scholar]
  44. Hopper, Paul J
    1991 On some principles of grammaticalization. In Elizabeth Closs Traugott & Bernd Heine (eds.), Approaches to grammaticalization, vol. I, 17–35. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.19.1.04hop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.19.1.04hop [Google Scholar]
  45. Hopper, Paul J. & Elizabeth Closs Traugott
    2003Grammaticalization. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139165525
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525 [Google Scholar]
  46. Ingersoll, Sheila M
    1978Intensive and restrictive modification in Old English (Anglistische Forschungen 124). Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Ito, Rika & Sali A. Tagliamonte
    2003 Well weird, right dodgy, very strange, really cool. Language in Society32(3). 257–279. doi: 10.1017/S0047404503322055
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404503322055 [Google Scholar]
  48. Jespersen, Otto
    1922Language: Its nature, development, and origin. London: Allen and Unwin.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Johnson, Daniel Ezra
    2009 Getting off the GoldVarb standard: Introducing Rbrul for mixed effects variable rule analysis. Language and Linguistics Compass3(1). 359–383. doi: 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2008.00108.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2008.00108.x [Google Scholar]
  50. Klerk, Vivian de
    2005 Expressing levels of intensity in Xhosa English. English World-Wide26(1). 77–95. doi: 10.1075/eww.26.1.04dek
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.26.1.04dek [Google Scholar]
  51. Kortmann, Bernd & Edgar Schneider
    2006Varieties of English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Kroch, Anthony
    1989 Reflexes of grammar in patterns of language change. Language Variation and Change1(3). 199–244. doi: 10.1017/S0954394500000168
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000168 [Google Scholar]
  53. Labov, William
    1970 The study of language in its social context. Studium Generale23. 30–87.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 1971 Some principles of linguistic methodology. Language in Society1(1). 97–120. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500006576
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500006576 [Google Scholar]
  55. 1972Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 1981 Speech actions and reactions in personal narrative. In Deborah Tannen (ed.), Analyzing discourse: Text and talk. Georgetown University Round Table, 217–247. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 1985 Intensity. In Deborah Schiffrin (ed.), Meaning, form and use in context: Linguistic applications, 43–70. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 1990 The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change. Language Variation and Change2(2). 205–254. doi: 10.1017/S0954394500000338
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000338 [Google Scholar]
  59. 1994Principles of linguistic change, vol. 1, Internal factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 1997 Some further steps in narrative analysis. Journal of Narrative and Life History7. 395–415. doi: 10.1075/jnlh.7.49som
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jnlh.7.49som [Google Scholar]
  61. 2001Principles of linguistic change, vol. 2, Social factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Labov, William & David Fanshel
    1977Therapeutic discourse: Psychotherapy as conversation. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Labov, William & Joshua Waletzky
    1967 Narrative analysis. In June Helm (ed.), Essays on the verbal and visual arts, 12–44. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Laks, Bernard
    1992 La linguistique variationniste comme méthode. Langages108(1). 34–50. doi: 10.3406/lgge.1992.1649
    https://doi.org/10.3406/lgge.1992.1649 [Google Scholar]
  65. Langstrof, Christian
    2006 Acoustic evidence for a push-chain shift in the Intermediate Period of New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change18(2). 141–164. doi: 10.1017/S0954394506060078
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394506060078 [Google Scholar]
  66. Lorenz, Gunter
    2002 Really worthwhile or not really significant? A corpus-based approach to the delexicalization and grammaticalization of intensifiers in Modern English. In Ilse Wischer & Gabriele Diewald (eds.), New reflections on grammaticalization, 143–162. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.49.11lor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.49.11lor [Google Scholar]
  67. Macaulay, Ronald
    1995 The adverbs of authority. English World-Wide16(1). 37–60. doi: 10.1075/eww.16.1.03mac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.16.1.03mac [Google Scholar]
  68. 2002 Extremely interesting, very interesting, or only quite interesting: Adverbs and social class. Journal of Sociolinguistics6(3). 398–417. doi: 10.1111/1467‑9481.00194
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00194 [Google Scholar]
  69. 2006 Pure grammaticalization: The development of a teenage intensifier. Language Variation and Change18(3). 267–283. doi: 10.1017/S0954394506060133
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394506060133 [Google Scholar]
  70. Meillet, Antoine
    1912Linguistique historique et linguistique générale. Paris: Champion.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Méndez-Naya, Belén
    2003 On intensifiers and grammaticalization: The case of swiþe. English Studies84(4). 372–391. doi: 10.1076/enst.84.4.372.17388
    https://doi.org/10.1076/enst.84.4.372.17388 [Google Scholar]
  72. 2006 Adjunct, modifier, discourse marker: On the various functions of right in the history of English. Folia Linguistica Historica27(1). 141–169. doi: 10.1515/flih.2006.27.1‑2.141
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flih.2006.27.1-2.141 [Google Scholar]
  73. 2008a On the history of downright. English Language and Linguistics12(2). 267–287. doi: 10.1017/S1360674308002621
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002621 [Google Scholar]
  74. 2008b Special issue on English intensifiers. English Language and Linguistics12(2). 213–219. doi: 10.1017/S1360674308002591
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002591 [Google Scholar]
  75. 2008c The which is most and right harde to answere: Intensifying right and most in earlier English. In Richard Dury , Maurizio Gotti & Marina Dossena (eds.), Historical English linguistics 2006, vol. II, Lexical and semantic change, 31–51. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.296.05men
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.296.05men [Google Scholar]
  76. Méndez-Naya, Belén & Päivi Pahta
    2010 Intensifiers in competition: The picture from early English medical writing. In Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Early Modern English medical texts: Corpus description and studies, 191–214. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.160.08men
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.160.08men [Google Scholar]
  77. Mitchell, Bruce
    1985Old English syntax, vol. 1, Concord, the parts of speech, and the sentence. Oxford: Clarendon. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198119357.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198119357.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  78. Mustanoja, Tauno F
    1960A Middle English syntax, part 1, Parts of speech. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Nevalainen, Terttu
    1994 Aspects of adverbial change in Early Modern English. In Dieter Kastovsky (ed.), Studies in Early Modern English, 243–259. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110879599.243
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110879599.243 [Google Scholar]
  80. 1997 The processes of adverb derivation in Late Middle and Early Modern English. In Matti Rissanen , Merja Kytö & Kirsi Heikkonen (eds.), Grammaticalization at work: Studies of long-term developments in English, 145–190. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110810745.145
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110810745.145 [Google Scholar]
  81. 2004 Three perspectives on grammaticalization: Lexico-grammar, corpora and historical sociolinguistics. In Hans Lindquist & Christian Mair (eds.), Corpus approaches to grammaticalization in English, 1–31. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/scl.13.03nev
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.13.03nev [Google Scholar]
  82. 2008 Social variation in intensifier use: Constraint on -ly adverbialization in the past?English Language and Linguistics12(2). 289–315. doi: 10.1017/S1360674308002633
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002633 [Google Scholar]
  83. Nevalainen, Terttu & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg
    2003Historical sociolinguistics: Language change in Tudor and Stewart England. London: Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Nevalainen, Terttu & Matti Rissanen
    2002 Fairly pretty or pretty fair? On the development and grammaticalization of English downtoners. Language Sciences24. 359–380. doi: 10.1016/S0388‑0001(01)00038‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(01)00038-9 [Google Scholar]
  85. Ochs, Elinor & Bambi Schieffelin
    1989 Language has a heart. Text 9(1). 7–25. doi: 10.1515/text.1.1989.9.1.7
    https://doi.org/10.1515/text.1.1989.9.1.7 [Google Scholar]
  86. Palacios Martínez , Ignacio M. & Paloma Núñez Pertejo
    2012 He’s absolutely massive. It’s a super day. Madonna, she is a wicked singer. Youth language and intensification: A corpus-based study. Text & Talk. An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language, Discourse & Communication Studies32(6). 773–796.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Paradis, Carita
    1997Degree modifiers of adjectives in spoken British English (Lund Studies in English 92). Lund: Lund University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 2000 It’s well weird. Degree modifiers of adjectives revisited: The nineties. In John M. Kirk (ed.), Corpora galore: Analyses and techniques in describing English, 147–160. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 2008 Configurations, construals and change: Expressions of DEGREE. English Language and Linguistics12(2). 317–343. doi: 10.1017/S1360674308002645
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002645 [Google Scholar]
  90. Partington, Alan
    1993 Corpus evidence of language change: The case of intensifiers. In Mona Baker , Gill Francis & Elena Tognini-Bonelli (eds.), Text and technology: In honour of John Sinclair, 177–192. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.64.12par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.64.12par [Google Scholar]
  91. Peltola, Niilo
    1971 Observations on intensification in Old English poetry. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen82. 649–690.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Peters, Hans
    1992 English boosters: Some synchronic and diachronic aspects. In Günter Kellermann & Michael D. Morrissey (eds.), Diachrony within synchrony: Language history and cognition, 529–545. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 1993Die englischen Gradadverbien der Kategorie booster. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 1994 Degree adverbs in early modern English. In Dieter Kastovsky (ed.), Studies in Early Modern English, 269–288. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110879599.269
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110879599.269 [Google Scholar]
  95. Poplack, Shana
    2011 A variationist perspective on grammaticalization. In Heiko Narrog & Bernd Heine (eds.), The Oxford handbook of grammaticalization, 209–224. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Poplack, Shana & Elisabete Malvar
    2007 Elucidating the transition period in linguistic change: The expression of the future in Brazillian Portuguese. Probus19(1). 121–169. doi: 10.1515/PROBUS.2007.005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/PROBUS.2007.005 [Google Scholar]
  97. Poplack, Shana & Sali A. Tagliamonte
    1996 Nothing in context: Variation, grammaticisation and past time marking in Nigerian Pidgin English. In Philip Baker & Anand Syea (eds.), Changing meanings, changing functions: Papers relating to grammaticalisation in creole languages, 71–94. Westminster: University of Westminster Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 2001African American English in the diaspora. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Pyles, Thomas & John Algeo
    1993The origins and development of the English language. 4th edn. Boston: Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Quirk, Randolph , Sidney Greenbaum , Geoffrey Leech & Jan Svartvik
    1985A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. R Development Core Team
    2008R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Online: www.R-project.org.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Rickford, John , Thomas Wasow , Arnold Zwicky & Isabelle Buchstaller
    2007 Intensive and quotative all: Something old, something new. American Speech82(1). 3–31. doi: 10.1215/00031283‑2007‑001
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-2007-001 [Google Scholar]
  103. Rissanen, Matti
    2008 From ‘quickly’ to ‘fairly’: On the history of rather. English Language and Linguistics12(2). 345–359. doi: 10.1017/S1360674308002657
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002657 [Google Scholar]
  104. Robertson, Stuart
    1954The development of Modern English. Rev. by Frederic G. Cassidy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Schiffrin, Deborah
    1981 Tense variation in narrative. Language57(1). 45–62. doi: 10.1353/lan.1981.0011
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1981.0011 [Google Scholar]
  106. Sinclair, John
    1992 Trust the text: The implications are daunting. In Martin Davies & Louise Ravelli (eds.), Advances in systemic linguistics, 5–19. London: Pinter.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Stenström, Anna-Brita
    1987 What does really really do?In James Monaghan (ed.), Grammar in the construction of texts, 65–79. London: Frances Pinter.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 1999 He was really gormless — she’s bloody crap: Girls, boys and intensifiers. In Hilde Hasselgård & Signe Oksefjell (eds.), Out of corpora: Studies in honour of Stig Johansson, 69–78. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 2000 It’s enough funny, man: Intensifiers in teenage talk. In John M. Kirk (ed.), Corpora galore: Analyses and techniques in describing English, 177–190. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Stenström, Anna-Brita , Gisle Andersen & Ingrid Kristine Hasund
    2002Trends in teenage talk: Corpus compilation, analysis and findings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/scl.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.8 [Google Scholar]
  111. Stoffel, Cornelis
    1901Intensives and downtoners (Anglistische Forchungen 1). Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Tagliamonte, Sali A
    2006Analysing sociolinguistic variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511801624
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511801624 [Google Scholar]
  113. 2008 So different and pretty cool! Recycling intensifiers in Toronto, Canada. English Language and Linguistics12(2). 361–394. doi: 10.1017/S1360674308002669
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674308002669 [Google Scholar]
  114. Tagliamonte, Sali A. & Julian Brooke
    2014 A weird (language) tale: Variation and change in the adjectives of strangeness. American Speech89(1). 4–41. doi: 10.1215/00031283‑2726386
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-2726386 [Google Scholar]
  115. Tagliamonte, Sali A. & Derek Denis
    2014 Expanding the transmission/diffusion dichotomy. Language90(1). 90–136. doi: 10.1353/lan.2014.0016
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2014.0016 [Google Scholar]
  116. Tagliamonte, Sali A. & Alexandra D’Arcy
    2009 Peaks beyond phonology: Adolescence, incrementation and language change. Language85(1). 58–108. doi: 10.1353/lan.0.0084
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.0.0084 [Google Scholar]
  117. Tagliamonte, Sali A. & Rika Ito
    2002 Think really different: Continuity and specialization in the English adverbs. Journal of Sociolinguistics6(2). 236–266. doi: 10.1111/1467‑9481.00186
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00186 [Google Scholar]
  118. Tagliamonte, Sali A. & Chris Roberts
    2005 So weird; so cool; so innovative: The use of intensifiers in the television series Friends. American Speech80(3). 280–300. doi: 10.1215/00031283‑80‑3‑280
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-80-3-280 [Google Scholar]
  119. Tao, Hongyin
    2007 A corpus-based investigation of absolutely and related phenomena in spoken American English. Journal of English Linguistics35(1). 5–29. doi: 10.1177/0075424206296615
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424206296615 [Google Scholar]
  120. Torres Cacoullos, Rena
    2009 Variation and grammaticisation: The emergence of an aspectual opposition. In Stavroula Tsiplakou , Marilena Karyolemou & Pavlos Pavlou (eds.), Studies in language variation: European perspectives II, 215–224. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/silv.5.18cac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/silv.5.18cac [Google Scholar]
  121. 2011 Variation and grammaticalization. In Manuel Diaz-Campos (ed.), The handbook of Hispanic sociolinguistics, 148–167. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9781444393446.ch7
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444393446.ch7 [Google Scholar]
  122. Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
    1988 Pragmatic strengthening and grammaticalization. In Shelley Axmaker , Annie Jaiser & Helen Singmaster (eds.), Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 406–416. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 2005 Subjectification in grammaticalization. In Dieter Stein & Susan Wright (eds.), Subjectivity and subjectivisation in language, 31–54. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 2007 The concepts of constructional mismatch and type-shifting from the perspective of grammaticalization. Cognitive Linguistics18(4). 523–557. doi: 10.1515/COG.2007.027
    https://doi.org/10.1515/COG.2007.027 [Google Scholar]
  125. 2010 Grammaticalization. In Silvia Luraghi & Vit Bubenik (eds.), Continuum companion to historical linguistics, 269–283. London: Continuum Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Trudgill, Peter
    2004New dialect formation: The inevitability of colonial Englishes. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Ungerer, Friedrich
    1988Syntax der Englischen Adverbialen (Linguistische Arbeiten 215). Tübingen: Niemeyer. doi: 10.1515/9783111354538
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111354538 [Google Scholar]
  128. von Schneidemesser, Luanne
    2000 Lexical change, language change. American Speech75(4). 420–422. doi: 10.1215/00031283‑75‑4‑420
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-75-4-420 [Google Scholar]
  129. Wagner, Suzanne Evans & Sali A. Tagliamonte
    2014 Incrementation in adolescence: Tapping the force that drives linguistic change. Paper presented at the 3rd International Society for the Linguistics of English Conference . Zurich, Switzerland.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Walker, James A
    2010Variation in linguistic systems. London/New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Weinreich, Uriel , William Labov & Marvin I. Herzog
    1968 Empirical foundations for a theory of language change. In Winfred P. Lehmann & Yakov Malkiel (eds.), Directions for historical linguistics: A symposium, 95–195. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/dia.32.4.01dar
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error