Volume 34, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0176-4225
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9714
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This paper discusses how the argument structure of experience predicates may be affected by semantic factors in Indo-European. I investigate whether the semantic role of the experiencer is preferably expressed by the nominative or by an oblique case in various predicates of volition, cognition, propositional attitude, psychological experience and physical perception in each Indo-European branch, with particular consideration of Hittite, Old Indic, Ancient Greek, Latin, Classical Armenian and Tocharian. In my data, while the nominative coding of the experiencer tends to be generalized to heterogeneous semantic classes of experience predicates, an oblique experiencer occurs with more specific lexical categories, that is, the predicate on the one hand and predicates of negative experience on the other. Interestingly, negative experiences of or are syntactically associated with oblique experiencers much more commonly than their correspondent positive experiences of or . This asymmetrical representation of negative and positive experiences has parallels in other language families and may have a cognitive motivation, whereby bad physical or psychological conditions are conceptualized as external forces attacking unwilling humans who have no control of them. This may be relevant not only for the currently debated issue of Indo-European argument marking, but also for an integration of semantic and cognitive principles into historical linguistics.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Adams, Douglas
    1988Tocharian historical phonology and morphology. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2013A Dictionary of Tocharian B, revised and greatly enlarged, 2nd edn. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aikhenvald, Alexandra , R. M. W. Dixon , Masayuki Onishi
    (eds.) 2001Non-canonical marking of subjects and objects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.46
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.46 [Google Scholar]
  4. Allen, Cynthia
    1995Case marking and reanalysis: Grammatical relations from Old to Early Modern English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ambrazas, Vytautas
    1997Lithuanian grammar. Vilnius: Baltos Lankos.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Amritavalli, Amrit
    2004 Experiencer datives in Kannada. In Bhaskarao & Subbarao (eds.),vol.1, 1–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Andrews, Avery
    1976 The VP complement analysis in Modern Icelandic. Proceedings of the North-East Linguistic Society6. 1–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barðdal, Johanna
    2000 The subject is nominative! On obsolete axioms and their deep-rootedness. In Carl Erik Lindberg & Steffen Nordahl Lund (eds.), 17th Scandinavian conference of linguistics, 93–117. Odense: Institute of Language and Communication.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Barðdal, Jóhanna
    2001Case in Icelandic: A synchronic, diachronic and comparative approach. Department of Scandinavian Languages: Lund University.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 2004 The semantics of the impersonal construction in Icelandic, German and Faroese: Beyond thematic roles. In Werner Abraham (ed.), Studies in Germanic typology, 101–138. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Barðdal, Jóhanna & Thórhallur Eythórsson
    2003 The change that never happened: The story of oblique subjects. Journal of Linguistics39. 439–472. doi: 10.1017/S002222670300207X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S002222670300207X [Google Scholar]
  12. 2009 The origin of the oblique subject construction: An Indo-European comparison. In Vit Bubenik , John Hewson & Sarah Rose (eds.), Grammatical change in Indo-European languages, 179–193. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.305.19bar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.305.19bar [Google Scholar]
  13. Barðdal, Jóhanna , Thomas Smitherman , Valgerður Bjarnadóttir , Serena Danesi , Gard Jenset , Barbara McGillivray
    2012 The dative subject construction in Old Norse-Icelandic, Latin, Ancient Greek, Old Russian and Old Lithuanian. Studies in Language36. 511–47. doi: 10.1075/sl.36.3.03bar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.36.3.03bar [Google Scholar]
  14. Bauer, Brigitte
    2000Archaic syntax in Indo-European: The spread of transitivity in Latin and French. Berlin: Mouton. doi: 10.1515/9783110825992
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110825992 [Google Scholar]
  15. 2009 Residues as an aid in internal reconstruction. In Jens Elmegård Rasmussen & ‎Thomas Olander (eds.), Internal reconstruction in Indo-European: Methods, results, and problems, 17–31. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bedrosian, Matthias
    1879Classical Armenian to English dictionary. Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bennet, Charles
    1910–1914Syntax of Early Latin. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Benveniste, Émile
    1952 La construction passive du parfait transitif. Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris48. Reprinted in Émile Benveniste 1966 Problèmes de linguistique générale, 176–186. Paris: Gallimard.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bhaskararao, Peri & Karumuri Subbarao
    (eds.) 2004Non-nominative subjects. 2volsAmsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bickel, Balthasar
    1999 Grammatical relations, agreement, and genetic stability. Ms. University of California, Berkeley. www.uni-leipzig.de/~bickel/research/papers.
  21. Bossong, Georg
    1997 Le marquage de l’expérient dans les langues d’Europe. In Jack Feuillet (ed.), Actance et valence dans les langues d’Europe, 259–294. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Buttmann, Philip
    1840Lexilogus or critical examination of the meaning and etymology of numerous Greek words and passages, intended principally for Homer and Hesiod (translated and edited with explanatory notes and copious indexes by J. Fishlake ), 2nd edn. London: Murray.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bybee, Joan
    2003 Mechanisms of change in grammaticization: The role of frequency. In Joseph & Janda , 602–623. doi: 10.1002/9780470756393.ch19
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756393.ch19 [Google Scholar]
  24. Campbell, Lyle & Alice Harris
    2002 Syntactic reconstruction and demythologizing ‘Myths and the prehistory of grammars’. Journal of Linguistics38. 599–618. doi: 10.1017/S0022226702001706
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226702001706 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ciakciak, Emmanuele
    1837Dizionario armeno-italiano. Venezia: Tipografia Mechitarista di S. Lazzaro.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Clackson, James
    2007Indo-European linguistics: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511808616
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511808616 [Google Scholar]
  27. Cole, Peter , Wayne Harbert , Gabriella Hermon & S. N. Sridhar
    1980 The acquisition of subjecthood. Language56. 719–743. doi: 10.2307/413485
    https://doi.org/10.2307/413485 [Google Scholar]
  28. Conti, Luz
    2008 Synchronie und Diachronie des altgriechischen Genitivs als Semisubjekt. Historische Sprachforschung121. 94–113.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 2009 Weiteres zum Genitiv als Semisubjekt im Altgriechischen: Analyse des Kasus bei impersonalen Konstruktionen. Historische Sprachforschung122. 182–207.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2010a Análisis del dativo en construcciones impersonales: los conceptos de sujeto y de semisujeto en griego antiguo. Emerita78. 249–273. doi: 10.3989/emerita.2010.v78.i2.498
    https://doi.org/10.3989/emerita.2010.v78.i2.498 [Google Scholar]
  31. 2010b Nota sobre Odisea 1.7. Exemplaria Classica14. 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Croft, William
    1993 Case marking and the semantics of mental verbs. In James Pustejovsky (ed.), Semantics and the Lexicon, 55–72. Boston: Kluwer. doi: 10.1007/978‑94‑011‑1972‑6_5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1972-6_5 [Google Scholar]
  33. 2001Radical construction grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299554.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  34. Croft, William & Alan Cruse
    2004Cognitive linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511803864
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803864 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dasgupta, Probal
    2004 Some non-nominative subjects in Bangla. In Bhaskarao & Subbarao (eds.), vol.1, 129–140.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Davison, Alice
    1985 Experiencers and patients as subjects in Hindi-Urdu. In Arlene Zide , David Magier & Erich Schiller (eds.), Proceedings of the conference on participant roles: South Asia and adjacent areas, 160–178. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 2004 Non-nominative subjects in Hindi-Urdu. In Bhaskarao & Subbarao (eds.), vol.1, 141–168.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. de Hoop, Helen & Peter de Swart
    (eds.) 2009Differential Subject Marking. Berlin: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑6497‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6497-5 [Google Scholar]
  39. Delbrück, Berthold
    1893, 1897, 1900Vergleichende Syntax der indogermanischen Sprachen. Strassburg: Trübner.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Diessel, Holger
    2007 Frequency effects in language acquisition, language use, and diachronic change. New Ideas in Psychology25. 108–127. doi: 10.1016/j.newideapsych.2007.02.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2007.02.002 [Google Scholar]
  41. Dihle, Albrecht
    1982The theory of will in classical antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Donohue, Mark & Søren Wichmann
    (eds.) 2008The typology of semantic alignment. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238385.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238385.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  43. Duranti, Alessandro
    1997Linguistic anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511810190
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810190 [Google Scholar]
  44. (ed.) 2004A companion to linguistic anthropology. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Enfield, Nicholas
    2002 Ethnosyntax: Introduction. In Nicholas Enfield (ed.), Ethnosyntax, 30–30. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Fedriani, Chiara
    2014Experiential constructions in Latin. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Fox, Anthony
    1995Linguistic reconstruction: an introduction to theory and method. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 2015 Phonological reconstruction. In Patrick Honeybone & Joseph Salmons (eds.), 49–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Friedrich Johannes
    1960Hethitisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Gamkrelidze, Thomas & Vjaceslav Ivanov
    1995 [1984]Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans (translated from Russian by Johanna Nichols ). Berlin: de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110815030
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110815030 [Google Scholar]
  51. Gante, Christiane
    2008Objektkasus im Indogermanischen. Hamburg: Grin Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Gelman, Susan & ‎James Byrnes
    (eds.) 1991Perspectives on language and thought: Interrelations in development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511983689
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511983689 [Google Scholar]
  53. Goldberg, Adele
    1995Constructions: A construction grammar approach to argument structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 2006Constructions at work: The nature of generalization in language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Grassmann, Hermann
    1996 [1873]Wörterbuch zum Rig-Veda. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 6th ed.revised by Maria Kozianka .
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Hagège, Claude
    1993The language builder. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.94
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.94 [Google Scholar]
  57. Harris, Alice
    2008 On the explanation of typologically unusual structures. In Jeff Good (ed.), Linguistic universals and language change, 54–76. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298495.003.0003
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298495.003.0003 [Google Scholar]
  58. Harris, Alice & Lyle Campbell
    1995Historical syntax in cross-linguistic perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511620553
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620553 [Google Scholar]
  59. Haspelmath, Martin
    2001 Non-canonical marking of core arguments in European languages. In Aikhenvald, Dixon & Onishi (eds.), 53–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Helasvuo, Marja Liisa . & Tuomas Huumo
    (eds.) 2015Subjects in constructions – canonical and non-canonical. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Hernández Muñoz, Felipe
    1992 βούλομαι y ἐθέλω en Demóstenes. In Joana Zaragoza & Antoni González Senmartí (eds.), Homenatge a Josep Alsina, 63–67. Tarragona: Tarragona Diputació.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hewson, John & Vit Bubenik
    2006From case to adpositions: The development of configurational syntax in Indo-European languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.280
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.280 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hjemslev, Louis
    1935La catégorie des cas: étude de grammaire généraleI. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Hock, Hans Henrich
    1990 Oblique subjects in Sanskrit?In Verma & Mohanan (eds.), 119–139.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Hoffner, Harry & Craig Melchert
    2008A grammar of the Hittite language. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hofmann, Johann & Anton Szantyr
    1965Lateinische Syntax und Stilistik. Munich: Beck.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Holvoet, Axel
    2013 Obliqueness, quasi-subjects and transitivity in Baltic and Slavonic. In Seržant & Leonid (eds.), 257–282.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Holvoet, Axel & Nicole Nau
    (eds.) 2014Grammatical relations and their non-canonical encoding in Baltic. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/vargreb.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/vargreb.1 [Google Scholar]
  69. Hook, Peter
    1990 Experiencers in South Asian languages: A gallery. In Verma & Mohanan (eds.), 319–334.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Honeybone, Patrick & Joseph Salmons
    (eds.) 2015The Oxford handbook of historical phonology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199232819.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199232819.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hopper, Paul & Sandra Thompson
    1980 Transitivity in grammar and discourse. Language56. 251–299. doi: 10.1353/lan.1980.0017
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1980.0017 [Google Scholar]
  72. Jakobson, Roman
    1936 Beiträge zur allgemeinen Kasuslehre: Gesamtbeteutungen der russischen Kasus. Travaux du Cercle de Linguistique de Prague6. 240–288.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 1959 On linguistic aspects of translation. In R. Brower (ed.), On translation, 232–239. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. doi: 10.4159/harvard.9780674731615.c18
    https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674731615.c18 [Google Scholar]
  74. Jayaseelan, K. A.
    2004 The possessor-experiencer dative in Malayalam. In Bhaskarao & Subbarao (eds.), I, 227–244.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Jensen, Hans
    1959Altarmenische Grammatik. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 1964Altarmenische Chrestomathie. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Jespersen, Otto
    1927A Modern English grammar on historical principles. London: Allen & Unwin.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Jónsson, Jóhannes
    1996Clausal architecture and case in Icelandic. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Amherst dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Joseph, Brian D.
    2013 Multiple sources and multiple causes multiply explored. Studies in Language37. 675–691. doi: 10.1075/sl.37.3.08jos
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.37.3.08jos [Google Scholar]
  80. Joseph, Brian D. & Richard Janda
    (eds) 2003The handbook of historical linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9780470756393
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756393 [Google Scholar]
  81. Keenan, Edward
    1976 Towards a universal definition of ‘subject’. In Charles Li (ed.), Subject and topic, 303–333. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Kemmer, Suzanne
    1993The middle voice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.23
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.23 [Google Scholar]
  83. Kittilä, Seppo
    2009 Case and the typology of transitivity. In Andrej Malchukov & Andrew Spencer (eds.), The Oxford handbook of case, 356–365. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Klaiman, Miriam
    1980 Bengali dative subjects. Lingua51. 275–295. doi: 10.1016/0024‑3841(80)90096‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(80)90096-0 [Google Scholar]
  85. Kloekhorst, Alwin
    2008Etymological dictionary of the Hittite inherited lexicon. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Kölligan, Daniel
    2013 Non-canonical subject marking: Genitive subjects in Classical Armenian. In Seržant & Kulikov (eds.), 73–90.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria & Bernhard Wälchli
    2001 The Circum-Baltic languages: An areal-typological approach. In Östen Dahl & Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm (eds.), The Circum-Baltic languages: Grammar and typology, II, 615–750. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/slcs.55.15kop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.55.15kop [Google Scholar]
  88. Krause, Wolfgang
    1955Tocharisch. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 1971Tocharisch, Nachdruck mit Zusätzen und Berichtigungen. Leiden & Cologne: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Krause, Wolfgang & Werner Thomas
    1960Tocharisches Elementarbuch, I, Grammatik. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju
    2003The Dravidian languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511486876
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486876 [Google Scholar]
  92. Kuryłowicz, Jerzy
    1935Études indo-européennes. Krakow: Gebethner & Wolff.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Lakoff, George
    1987Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press. doi: 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  94. Lakshmi Bai, B.
    2004 Acquisition of dative subjects in Tamil. In Bhaskarao & Subbarao (eds.), I, 245–267.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Lass, Roger
    2015 Interpreting alphabetic orthographies: Early Middle English spelling. In Honeybone & Salmons (eds.), 100–120.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Lehmann, Winfred
    1989 Problems in Proto-Indo European grammar: Residues from Pre-Indo-European active structure. General Linguistics29. 228–246.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 1993Theoretical bases of Indo-European linguistics. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 2002Pre-Indo-European. Washington: Institute for the Study of Man. (Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph Series41.)
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Lewis, Charlton & Charles Short
    1963 [1879]A new Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Liddell, Henry , Robert Scott , Henry Jones
    1996A Greek-English lexicon: With a revised supplement. Oxford: Clarendon. 9th ed.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Lightfoot, David
    1979Principles of diachronic syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. (ed.) 2002aSyntactic effects of morphological change. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250691.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250691.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  103. 2002b Myths and the prehistory of grammar. Journal of Linguistics38. 619–626. doi: 10.1017/S0022226701001268
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226701001268 [Google Scholar]
  104. LIV = Rix, Helmut (ed.) 2001Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Lühr, Rosemarie
    2011 Zur Validität linguistischer Theorien in der Indogermanistik. In Thomas Krisch (ed.), Indogermanistik und Linguistik im Dialog, 321–330. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Luraghi, Silvia
    2010 Experiencer predicates in Hittite. In Ronald Kim , Norbert Oettinger , Elisabeth Rieken & Michael Weiss (eds.), Ex Anatolia lux, 249–264. Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Madden, John
    1975Boulomai and thelō. The vocabulary of purpose from Homer to Aristotle. New Haven: Yale University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Malchukov, Andrej & Anna Siewierska
    (eds.) 2011Impersonal constructions: A cross-linguistic perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/slcs.124
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.124 [Google Scholar]
  109. Malzahn, Melanie
    2010The Tocharian verbal system. Leiden & Boston: Brill. doi: 10.1163/9789004188440
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004188440 [Google Scholar]
  110. Maratsos, Michael , Demetra Katis , Annalisa Margheri
    2000 Can grammar make you feel different?In Susanne Niemeier & René Dirven (eds.), Evidence for linguistic relativity, 53–70. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.198.06mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.198.06mar [Google Scholar]
  111. Masica, Colin
    1976Defining a linguistic area: South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Mayrhofer, Manfred
    1986Indogermanische Grammatik, I, Einleitung, Lautlehre. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Meillet, Antoine
    1913Altarmenisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 1936Esquisse d’une grammaire comparée de l’arménien classique. Vienna: Imprimerie des PP. Mekhitharistes. 2nd ed.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Minassian, Martiros
    1976Manuel pratique d’arménien ancien. Paris: Klincksieck.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Mistry, P. J.
    2004 Subjecthood of non-nominatives in Gujarati. In Peri Bhaskarao & Karumuri Subbarao (eds.), II, 1–32. doi: 10.1075/tsl.61.03mis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.61.03mis [Google Scholar]
  117. Mithun, Marianne
    1984 Levels of linguistic structure and the rate of change. In Jacek Fisiak (ed.), Historical Syntax, 301–332. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110824032.301
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110824032.301 [Google Scholar]
  118. Monier-Williams, Monier
    1899A Sanskrit-English dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Montaut, Annie
    2012Hindi. Leuven: Peeters.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Murray, A.
    1919Homer. The Odyssey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Nagy, Gregory
    2013The Ancient Greek hero. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Nathan, Tobie & Lucien Hounkpatin
    1993 Oro Lè – la puissance de la parole en psychoanalyse et dans les systèmes thérapeutiques yorubas. Revue Française de Psychanalyse57. 787–805. doi: 10.3917/rfp.g1993.57n3.0787
    https://doi.org/10.3917/rfp.g1993.57n3.0787 [Google Scholar]
  123. Næss, Åshild
    2007Prototypical transitivity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.72
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.72 [Google Scholar]
  124. Nichols, Johanna
    1992Linguistic diversity in space and time. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. doi: 10.7208/chicago/9780226580593.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226580593.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  125. 2003 Diversity and stability in language. In Joseph & Janda (eds.), 283–310.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Niemeier, Susanne & René Dirven
    (eds.) 1997The language of emotion. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.85
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.85 [Google Scholar]
  127. Noonan, Michael
    2004 Subjectless clauses in Irish. In Bhaskarao & Subbarao (eds.), II, 57–82.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Onishi, Masayuki
    2001a Introduction: Non-canonically marked subjects and objects: Parameters and properties. In Aikhenvald, Dixon & Onishi (eds.), 1–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  129. 2001b Non-canonically marked A/S in Bengali. In Aikhenvald, Dixon & Onishi (eds.), 113–148.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Ó Siadhail, Micheal
    1995Learning Irish. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Ottenheimer, Harriet
    2006The anthropology of language. Belmont: Thomson.
    [Google Scholar]
  132. OLD = Glare, P. 1982Oxford Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Panieri, Luca
    2015A new look at the Indo-European verb. Milan: Lulu.
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Pinault, Georges-Jean
    2008Chrestomathie tokharienne. Textes et grammaire. Leuven & Paris: Peeters.
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Puhvel, Jaan
    1984–Hittite Etymological Dictionary. Berlin, New York, Amsterdam: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Ramonienė, Meilutė & Ian Press
    1996Colloquial Lithuanian. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Rani, A. Usha & V. Sailaja
    2004 Acquisition of non-nominative subject in Telegu. In Bhaskarao & Subbarao (eds.), II, 209–222.
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Rankin, Robert
    2003 The comparative method. In Brian Joseph & Richard Janda (eds.), 183–212. doi: 10.1002/9780470756393.ch1
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756393.ch1 [Google Scholar]
  139. Rovai, Francesco
    2007Tratti attivi in latino. Il caso del genere. Pisa: Università di Pisa dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Schmalstieg, William
    1987A Lithuanian historical syntax. Columbus: Slavica.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Schmid, Josef
    2006 Die freien Dative. In Vilmos Ágel et al. (eds.), Dependenz und Valenz, II, 951–963. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Schmitt, Rüdiger
    2007Grammatik des klassisch-Armenischen mit sprachvergleichenden Erläuterungen. Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft. 2nd ed.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Seržant, Ilja
    2015 An approach to syntactic reconstruction. In Carlotta Viti (ed.), Perspectives on historical syntax, 117–154. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Seržant, Ilja & Leonid Kulikov
    (eds.) 2013The diachronic typology of non-canonical subjects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/slcs.140
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.140 [Google Scholar]
  145. Sieg, Emil
    1944Übersetzungen aus dem Tocharischen, I. Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaften.
    [Google Scholar]
  146. 1952Übersetzungen aus dem Tocharischen, II. Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaften.
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Sieg, Emil & Wilhelm Siegling
    1949–1953Tocharische Sprachreste, Sprache B. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Sigurðsson, Halldór
    1989Verbal syntax and case in Icelandic. Lund: University of Lund dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Stempel, Reinhard
    1996Die Diathese im Indogermanischen: Formen und Funktionen des Mediums und ihre sprachhistorischen Grundlagen. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck.
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Taylor, John
    1989Linguistic categorization. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  151. 2002Cognitive grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Thomas, Werner
    1983Tocharische Sprachreste, Sprache B. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Thomas, Werner & Wolfgang Krause
    1964Tocharisches Elementarbuch, II, Texte und Glossar. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Thráinsson, Hoskuldur
    1979On complementation in Icelandic. New York: Garland.
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Tikkanen, Bertil
    1987The Sanskrit gerund: A synchronic, diachronic, and typological analysis. Helsinki: Finnish Oriental Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Tischler, Johann
    1977– Hethitisches etymologisches Glossar. Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft.
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Tomasello, Michael
    (ed.) 1998The new psychology of language: Cognitive and functional approaches to language structure. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Trudgill, Peter
    2011Sociolinguistic typology: social determinants of linguistic complexity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Tsunoda, Tasaku
    1985 Remarks on transitivity. Journal of Linguistics21. 385–396. doi: 10.1017/S0022226700010318
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700010318 [Google Scholar]
  160. van der Gaaf, Willem
    1904The transition from impersonal to the personal constructions in Middle English. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  161. van de Velde, Freek , Hendrik de Smeet & Lobke Ghesquière
    2013 On multiple source constructions in language change. Studies in Language37. 473–489. doi: 10.1075/sl.37.3.01int
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.37.3.01int [Google Scholar]
  162. Verma, Manindra & K. P. Mohanan
    (eds.) 1990Experiencer subjects in South-Asian languages. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Viti, Carlotta
    2015Variation und Wandel in der Syntax der alten indogermanischen Sprachen. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  164. 2016a The morphosyntax of experience predicates in Tocharian. Cahiers de Linguistique – Asie Orientale45. 26–70. doi: 10.1163/19606028‑00451p02
    https://doi.org/10.1163/19606028-00451p02 [Google Scholar]
  165. 2016b Areal distribution of argument marking of Indo-European experience predicates. Journal of Indo-European Studies44. 1–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  166. 2016c Contrastive syntax of argument marking in Latin and in Ancient Greek. In Sergio Neri , Roland Schumann & Susanne Zeilfelder (eds.), Linguistische, germanistische und indogermanistische Studien Rosemarie Lühr gewidmet, 477–494. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
    [Google Scholar]
  167. von Mengden, Ferdinand
    2008 Reconstructing complex structures: A typological perspective. In Gisella Ferraresi & Maria Goldbach (eds.), Principles of syntactic reconstruction, 97–119. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.302.06men
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.302.06men [Google Scholar]
  168. Wali, Kashi
    2004 Non-nominative subjects in Marathi. In Bhaskarao & Subbarao (eds.), II, 223–252.
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Walkden, George
    2013 The correspondence problem in syntactic reconstruction. Diachronica30. 95–122. doi: 10.1075/dia.30.1.04wal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.30.1.04wal [Google Scholar]
  170. Watkins, Calvert
    1995How to kill a dragon. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Wierzbicka, Anna
    1999Emotions across languages and cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511521256
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511521256 [Google Scholar]
  172. Wifstrand, Alfred
    1942 Die griechischen Verba für Wollen. Eranos40. 16–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Zeilfelder, Susanne
    2004 Gibt es nullstellige Verben?In Maria Kozianka , Rosemarie Lühr & Susanne Zeilfelder (eds.), Indogermanistik – Germanistik – Linguistik, 249–259. Hamburg: Kovač.
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error