1887
Volume 10, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2949-6861
  • E-ISSN: 2949-6845
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Machine translation (MT) tools are widely available. They may be present in different spaces in ways that consumers of the content do not necessarily control or realise, and research to date has paid little attention to these human-MT encounters. This article draws on the philosophy of technology literature to consider implications of MT’s permeating presence in online environments as well as in face-to-face interactions. The focus of the article is on two situations where humans can come across MT: while browsing websites and when speaking with figures of authority. The article highlights ways in which humans’ relationship with MT transcends conscious decisions to operate an MT tool directly. It argues that the human-MT relationship can also be one of immersion where MT blends with the environment in ways that, on the one hand, break language barriers but, on the other, influence, persuade, and on occasion misinform.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/dt.00002.nun
2023-07-24
2024-05-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adams, Douglas
    1979The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. Basingstoke: Pan Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Apple
    Apple 2022 “Translation & Privacy.” Apple. Accessed19 July 2022. https://www.apple.com/legal/privacy/data/en/translation/
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Asscher, Omri, and Ella Glikson
    2021 “Human evaluations of machine translation in an ethically charged situation.” New Media & Society. 10.1177/14614448211018833
    https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448211018833 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baig, Edward C.
    2020 “Translate this: How Real-Time Translation Breaks down Barriers When You Don’t Speak the Language.” USA Today, 2020, Tech. Accessed18 January 2022. https://eu.usatoday.com/story/tech/2020/02/05/translation-tech-solutions-language-barriers-google-translate-interpreter/4596091002/
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Berbyuk Lindström, Nataliya, and Cheryl Cordeiro
    2022 “‘Just Google Translate It!’ ICT Use of Migrant IT professionals for Mitigating Workplace Integration Challenges.” InAMCIS 2022 Proceedings. Association for Information Systems. Accessed01 October 2022. https://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2022/sig_lead/sig_lead/1
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bolt, David
    2020 An inspection of the Home Office’s use of language services in the asylum process. Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration. Accessed25 January 2022. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/an-inspection-of-the-home-offices-use-of-language-services-in-the-asylum-process
  7. Bowker, Lynne
    2020 “Fit-for-purpose translation.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Translation Technology, edited byMinako O’Hagan, 453–468. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bowker, Lynne, and Jairo Buitrago Ciro
    2015 “Investigating the Usefulness of Machine Translation for Newcomers at the Public Library.” Translation and Interpreting Studies10 (2): 165–186. 10.1075/tis.10.2.01bow
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tis.10.2.01bow [Google Scholar]
  9. 2019Machine Translation and Global Research: Towards Improved Machine Translation Literacy in the Scholarly Community. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brauthaarschmuck
    Brauthaarschmuck 2022 “Earrings Beads Jewelry earrings jewelery Wedding Bride Wedding Bridal Earrings Hoops [automatically machine-translated from German].” Etsy. Accessed01 October 2022. https://www.etsy.com/uk/listing/1130361796/earrings-beads-jewelry-earrings-jewelery?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=jewelry&ref=sr_gallery-1-7&frs=1&sts=1&organic_search_click=1
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Buts, Jan
    2021 “Targeted individuals: Personalised advertising and digital media translation.” Translation Spaces. 10.1075/ts.20048.but
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.20048.but [Google Scholar]
  12. Castilho, Sheila, Fabio Alves, Sharon O’Brien, and Morgan O’Brien
    2014 “Does Post-Editing Increase Usability? A study with Brazilian Portuguese as Target Language.” InProceedings of the seventh annual conference of the European Association for Machine Translation, 183–190. European Association for Machine Translation.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. City of North Vancouver
    City of North Vancouver 2022 “City of North Vancouver Official Website.” City of North Vancouver. Accessed26 May 2022. https://www.cnv.org/
  14. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 2022 “Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s Website.” Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Accessed18 July 2022. https://www.pa.gov/
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Di Cori, Arianna
    2022 “Il 118 non parla inglese, turista tedesca muore a 25 anni. Il compagno: ‘Mi facevano le domande con Google Translate’.” La Repubblica, 04 April 2022, 2022, Cronaca. Accessed18 August 2022. https://roma.repubblica.it/cronaca/2022/04/04/news/il_118_non_parla_inglese_turista_tedesca_muore_a_25_anni-344015324/
    [Google Scholar]
  16. European Commission
    European Commission. n.d. “Eurostat: Your Key to European Statistics.” European Commission. Accessed16 August 2022. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Extra
    Extra 2021 “Guardas municipais usam tradutor do Google para socorrer tailandesa abandonada pelo namorado ucraniano no Parque Madureira.” Extra. Last Modified25 December 21. Accessed19 July 2022. https://extra.globo.com/noticias/rio/guardas-municipais-usam-tradutor-do-google-para-socorrer-tailandesa-abandonada-pelo-namorado-ucraniano-no-parque-madureira-25332193.html
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Fan, Angela
    2020 “Introducing the First AI Model That Translates 100 Languages Without Relying on English.” Meta. Accessed19 May. https://about.fb.com/news/2020/10/first-multilingual-machine-translation-model/
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gaspari, Federico
    2007 “The Role of Online MT in Webpage Translation.” PhD Thesis, School of Informatics, University of Manchester. citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.100.840&rep=rep1&type=pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Glikson, Ella and Omri Asscher
    2022 AI-mediated apology in a multilingual work context: Implications for perceived authenticity and willingness to forgive. Computers in Human Behavior, 107592. 10.1016/j.chb.2022.107592
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2022.107592 [Google Scholar]
  21. Google
    Google 2021 “Google Keynote (Google I/O ’21).” Google. Accessed20 May 2022. https://io.google/2021/session/88b34a4e-6170-4f18-a321-4260fb559e60?lng=en
  22. Google
    Google 2022a “Attribution Requirements.” Google. Last Modified14 July 2022UTC. Accessed18 July 2022. https://cloud.google.com/translate/attribution#disclaimer
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Google
    Google 2022b “Change Chrome Languages and Translate Web Pages.” Google. Accessed30 June 2022. https://support.google.com/chrome/answer/173424?hl=en-GB&co=GENIE.Platform%3DDesktop
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Greater London Authority
    Greater London Authority. n.d. “Transport for London.” Greater London Authority. Accessed16 August 2022. https://tfl.gov.uk/
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Grosdidier, Pierre
    2019 “Lost in Translation: Google Translate Might Not Always Be the Best Way to Obtain Search Consent.” Texas Bar Journal82 (2): 94.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hendus, Ulrike
    2015 “‘See Translation’: Explicit and Implicit Language Policies on Facebook.” Language Policy141: 397–417. 10.1007/s10993‑014‑9349‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-014-9349-4 [Google Scholar]
  27. House, Juliane
    2014 “Translation Quality Assessment: Past and Present. InTranslation: a Multidisciplinary Approach, edited byJuliane House, 241–264. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137025487_13
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137025487_13 [Google Scholar]
  28. Iceland Monitor
    Iceland Monitor 2017 “Interrogation via Google Translate.” Iceland Monitor. Last ModifiedWed 16 Aug 2017. Accessed19 July 2022. https://icelandmonitor.mbl.is/news/nature_and_travel/2017/08/16/interrogation_via_google_translate/
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ihde, Don
    1990Technology and the Lifeworld: From Garden to Earth. Indiana: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Jia, Yanfang, and Binghan Zheng
    2022 “The Interaction Effect between Source Text Complexity and Machine Translation Quality on the Task Difficulty of NMT Post-Editing from English to Chinese: A Multi-Method Study.” Across Languages and Cultures23 (1): 36–55. 10.1556/084.2022.00120
    https://doi.org/10.1556/084.2022.00120 [Google Scholar]
  31. Jolley, Jason R., and Luciane Maimone
    2015 “Free Online Machine Translation: Use and Perceptions by Spanish Students and Instructors.” Learn Languages, Explore Cultures, Transform Lives: 181–200. Accessed01 October 2022. https://silo.tips/download/this-article-reports-the-results-of-a-survey-based-study-on-the-use-of-and
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kaplan, David M.
    2009 “What Things Still Don’t Do.” Review of What Things Do: Philosophical Reflections on Technology, Agency, and Design, Peter-Paul Verbeek. Human Studies32 (2): 229–240. www.jstor.org/stable/40270691
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Latour, Bruno
    2005Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Clarendon lectures in management studies. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Liubinienė, Vilmantė, Donata Lisaitė, and Jurgita Motiejūnienė
    2022 “A Snapshot of Children’s Attitudes toward Machine Translation.” Information13 (7): 317. https://www.mdpi.com/2078-2489/13/7/317
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Maryns, Katrijn, Philipp Sebastian Angermeyer, and Mieke Van Herreweghe
    2021 “Introduction: Flexible Multilingual Strategies in Asylum and Migration Encounters.” The Translator27 (1): 1–11. 10.1080/13556509.2021.1923974
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2021.1923974 [Google Scholar]
  36. Microsoft
    Microsoft 2022 “Attribution.” Microsoft. Accessed18 July 2022. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/translator/business/attribution/
    [Google Scholar]
  37. New York State
    New York State. n.d. “The Official Website of New York State.” Accessed01 October 2022. https://www.ny.gov/
  38. Nurminen, Mary
    2019 “Decision-Making, Risk, and Gist Machine Translation in the Work of Patent Professionals.” InProceedings of the 8th Workshop on Patent and Scientific Literature Translation, 32–42. Accessed01 October 2022. https://aclanthology.org/W19-7204.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Nurminen, Mary, and Niko Papula
    2018 “Gist MT Users: A Snapshot of the Use and Users of One Online MT Tool.” InProceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation, Alicant, Spain, May 2018, edited byJuan Antonio Pérez-Ortiz, Felipe Sánchez-Martínez, Miquel Esplà-Gomis, Maja Popović, Celia Rico, André Martins, Joachim Van den Bogaert and Mikel L. Forcada, 199–208. European Association for Machine Translation.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ogura, Kentaro, Yoshihiko Hayashi, Saeko Nomura, and Toru Ishida
    2004 “User Adaptation in MT-Mediated Communication.” InProceedings of The First International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (IJCNLP-04). Association for Computational Linguistics. Accessed01 October 2022. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228985292_User_Adaptation_in_MT-mediated_Communication
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Olohan, Maeve
    2011 “Translators and Translation Technology: The Dance of Agency.” Translation Studies4 (3): 342–357. 10.1080/14781700.2011.589656
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2011.589656 [Google Scholar]
  42. Pituxcoosuvarn, Mondheera, and Toru Ishida
    2018 “Multilingual Communication via Best-Balanced Machine Translation.” New Generation Computing36 (4): 349–364. 10.1007/s00354‑018‑0041‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00354-018-0041-7 [Google Scholar]
  43. Ramati, Ido, and Amit Pinchevski
    2018 “Uniform Multilingualism: A Media Genealogy of Google Translate.” New Media and Society20 (7): 2550–2565. 10.1177/1461444817726951
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444817726951 [Google Scholar]
  44. Ritter, Martin
    2021 “Postphenomenological Method and Technological Things Themselves.” Human Studies44 (4): 581–593. 10.1007/s10746‑021‑09603‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10746-021-09603-5 [Google Scholar]
  45. Robertson, Samantha, Wesley Hanwen Deng, Timnit Gebru, Margaret Mitchell, Daniel J. Liebling, Michal Lahav, Katherine Heller, Mark Díaz, Samy Bengio, and Niloufar Salehi
    2021Three Directions for the Design of Human-Centered Machine Translation. Google (Google). Accessed01 October 2022. https://research.google/pubs/pub50504/
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Rosenberger, Robert, and Peter-Paul Verbeek
    2015 “A Field Guide to Postphenomenology.” Postphenomenological Investigations: Essays on Human-Technology Relations, edited byRobert Rosenberger and Peter-Paul Verbeek, 9–41. Lexington Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. State of Connecticut
    State of Connecticut 2022a “Connecticut’s Official State Website.” State of Connecticut. Accessed18 July 2022. https://portal.ct.gov/
    [Google Scholar]
  48. State of Connecticut
    State of Connecticut 2022b “Disclaimer.” State of Connecticut. Accessed18 July 2022. https://portal.ct.gov/portal/policies/disclaimer/#translate
    [Google Scholar]
  49. State of Oregon
    State of Oregon 2022 “Oregon.gov.” State of Oregon. Accessed18 July 2022. https://www.oregon.gov/Pages/index.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Toral, Antonio, Martijn Wieling, and Andy Way
    2018 “Post-editing Effort of a Novel With Statistical and Neural Machine Translation.” Frontiers in Digital Humanities5 (9). 10.3389/fdigh.2018.00009
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fdigh.2018.00009 [Google Scholar]
  51. USA v Cruz-Zamora
    USA v Cruz-Zamora 2018 United States District Court for the District of Kansas. Accessed01 October 2022. https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/USCOURTS-ksd-5_17-cr-40100/USCOURTS-ksd-5_17-cr-40100-0
  52. Verbeek, Peter-Paul
    2008 “Cyborg intentionality: Rethinking the Phenomenology of Human–Technology Relations.” Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences7 (3): 387–395. 10.1007/s11097‑008‑9099‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11097-008-9099-x [Google Scholar]
  53. 2009 “Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology: The Blurring Boundaries Between Human and Technology.” Nanoethics3 (3): 231–242. 10.1007/s11569‑009‑0077‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11569-009-0077-8 [Google Scholar]
  54. 2015 “Beyond Interaction.” Interactions. Accessed01 October 2022. https://interactions.acm.org/archive/view/may-june-2015/beyond-interaction
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 2016 “Toward a Theory of Technological Mediation: A Program for Postphenomenological Research.” InTechnoscience and Postphenomenology: The Manhattan Papers, edited byJan Kyrre Berg O. Friis and Robert P. Crease, 189–204. London: Lexington Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Vieira, Lucas Nunes, Minako O’Hagan, and Carol O’Sullivan
    2020 “Understanding the Societal Impacts of Machine Translation: A Critical Review of the Literature on Medical and Legal Use Cases.” Information, Communication & Society: 1–18. 10.1080/1369118X.2020.1776370
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2020.1776370 [Google Scholar]
  57. Vieira, Lucas Nunes, Carol O’Sullivan, Xiaochun Zhang, and Minako O’Hagan
    2022a “Machine Translation in Society: Insights from UK users.” Language Resources and Evaluation. 10.1007/s10579‑022‑09589‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-022-09589-1 [Google Scholar]
  58. 2022b “Privacy and Everyday Users of Machine Translation.” Translation Spaces. 10.1075/ts.22012.nun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ts.22012.nun [Google Scholar]
  59. Vorstoffel, Annette
    2019 “Tips for Optimising your Shop’s Language Settings.” Etsy. Accessed20 May 2022. https://www.etsy.com/uk/seller-handbook/article/tips-for-optimising-your-shops-language/679881202901
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Wahlster, Wolfgang
    ed. 2000Verbmobil: Foundations of Speech-to-Speech Translation. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 10.1007/978‑3‑662‑04230‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-04230-4 [Google Scholar]
  61. Yamada, Setsuo, Syuuji Kodama, Taeko Matsuoka, Hiroshi Araki, Yoshiaki Murakami, Osamu Takano, and Yoshiyuki Sakamoto
    2005 “A Report on the Machine Translation Market in Japan.” The 10th Machine Translation Summit, Phuket, Thailand. Accessed01 October 2022. https://aclanthology.org/2005.mtsummit-papers.8.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Zuboff, Shoshana
    2019The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power. London: Profile Books.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/dt.00002.nun
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/dt.00002.nun
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error