Volume 7, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2211-7245
  • E-ISSN: 2211-7253
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


In the contexts where English is taught as a foreign language, especially to beginners, project-based learning is often perceived as complicated to implement and difficult to assess. This Indonesian research was inspired by the need to address those misgivings. First, a project-based model for practical learning activities in EFL classes was created using a research and development design. In this stage, a careful reading to the English as a Foreign Language curriculum for junior high school students was conducted in an attempt to identify the topics, basic competencies, and indicators of success. Based on the results of the curriculum analysis, a careful development of project-based learning tasks was carried out. This article first of all described how the learning materials were developed with reference to the results of curriculum analysis and characteristics of learners. The developed materials were then sent to expert judges to check for relevance, readability and quality of the materials. In the next stage, the materials were tried out in three junior high schools in Bali, Indonesia, to further check the readability and practicability of the product as a teaching and learning innovation. Finally, after a revision to the materials, a quasi-experiment involving 36 students, was conducted in a school to examine the impact of project-based learning on students’ productive skills in English as well as on their attitudes towards learning the language. The data collection method used during the quasi experiment included: classroom observation, interviews with teachers and students, and a questionnaire. The overall impact of the implementation was evaluated using a t-test formula. It was found that project-based learning caused consistent improvement in the abilities to speak (monologue and dialogue) and to write (on a topic of students’ own choice). In addition, it was observable that project-based learning has an impact on students’ positive attitudes toward learning the foreign language. This was indicated by the motivation, enthusiasm, and excitement on the part of the students during the process of planning, working on a project, as well as on the assessment procedures.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Araminta, L. D. W. , & Halimi, S. S.
    (2015) ASEAN Economic Community 2015: Need analysis of universitas Indonesia’s engineering students. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(1), 11–18.10.17509/ijal.v5i1.841
    https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v5i1.841 [Google Scholar]
  2. Baş, G.
    (2011) Investigating the effects of project-based learning on students’ academic achievement and attitudes towards English lessons. The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 1(4), 1–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beckett, G. H. , & Slater, T.
    (2005) The project framework: A tool for language, content, and skills integration. ELT journal, 59(2), 108–116.10.1093/eltj/cci024
    https://doi.org/10.1093/eltj/cci024 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bell, S.
    (2010) Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(2), 39–43.10.1080/00098650903505415
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00098650903505415 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blumenfeld, P. C. , Soloway, E. , Marx, R. W. , Krajcik, J. S. , Guzdial, M. , & Palincsar, A.
    (1991) Motivating project-based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist, 26(3–4), 369–39810.1080/00461520.1991.9653139
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.1991.9653139 [Google Scholar]
  6. Breen, M.
    (1989) The evaluation cycle for language learning tasks. In R. K. Johnson (Ed.), The second language curriculum (pp.187–206). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781139524520.014
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524520.014 [Google Scholar]
  7. Brown, J. K.
    (2008) Student-centered instruction: Involving students in their own education. Music Educators Journal, 94(5), 30–3510.1177/00274321080940050108
    https://doi.org/10.1177/00274321080940050108 [Google Scholar]
  8. Cross, D.
    (1991) A practical handbook of language teaching. London: Cassel Viliers House.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Foley, J. A. , & Deocampo, M. F.
    (2016) The use of English as lingua franca in translation. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 146–153.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fragoulis, I.
    (2009) Project based learning in the teaching of English as a foreign language in Greek primary schools: From theory to practice. English Language Teaching, 2(3), 113–119.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fried-Booth, D. L.
    (2002) Project work. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Grant, M. M.
    (2002) Getting a grip on project-based learning: Theory, cases, and recommendation. Meridian: A Middle School Computer Technologies Journal, 5(1). www.ncsu.edu/meridian/win2002/514/project-based.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Haines, S.
    (1989) Projects for the EFL classroom: resource material for teachers. Walton-on-Thames: Nelson.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Harun, D. H. Y. B.
    (2006) Project-based learning handbook: Educating the millennial learner. Kuala Lumpur: Educational Technology Division, Ministry of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hayes, D.
    (2007) English language teaching and systemic change at the primary level: Issues in innovation. Collection of papers. Primary innovations regional seminar. Hanoi.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ilter, I.
    (2014) A study on the efficacy of a project-based learning approach on social studies education: Conception achievement and academic motivation. Educational Research and Reviews, 9(15), 487–497.10.5897/ERR2014.1777
    https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2014.1777 [Google Scholar]
  17. Jerald, C. D.
    (2009) Defining a 21st century education. Center for Public Education, 16. www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Learn-About/21st-Century/Defining-a-21st-Century-Education-Full-Report-PDF.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Killen, R.
    (2006) Effective teaching strategies: Lessons from research and practice. Melbourne: Cengage Learning Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kirkpatrick, A.
    (2011) English as an Asian lingua franca and the multilingual model of ELT. Language Teaching, 44(2), 212–224.10.1017/S0261444810000145
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444810000145 [Google Scholar]
  20. Kitao, K. , & Kitao, K.
    (1997) Selecting and developing teaching/learning materials. The Internet TESL Journal, 4(4), 20–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lamb, M.
    (2007) The impact of school on EFL learning motivation: An Indonesian case study. TESOL Quarterly, 41(4), 757–780.10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2007.tb00102.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2007.tb00102.x [Google Scholar]
  22. Larmer, J. , Mergendoller, J. , & Boss, S.
    (2015) Setting the standard for project based learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Malkova, I. Y. , & Kiselyova, P. V.
    (2014) Development of personal competences in project-based learning in the EFL Classroom. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 154, 254–258.10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.146
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.146 [Google Scholar]
  24. Marhaeni, A. A. I. N. , & Artini, L. P.
    (2015) Asesmen otentik dan pendidikan bermakna: Implementasi kurikulum 2013. Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia, 4(1), 499–511.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Markham, T.
    (2003) Project based learning handbook: A guide to standards-focused project based learning for middle and high school teachers. Novato, CA: Buck Institute for Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Marx, R. W. , Blumenfeld, P. C. , Krajcik, J. S. , Blunk, M. , Crawford, B. , Kelly, B. , & Meyer, K. M.
    (1994) Enacting project-based science: Experiences of four middle grade teachers. The Elementary School Journal, 94(5), 517–538.10.1086/461781
    https://doi.org/10.1086/461781 [Google Scholar]
  27. Moursund, D.
    (2005) ICT-assisted Project-based learning. Retrieved from darkwing.uoregon.edu/~moursund/PBL (7 January 2012).
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Musa, N. C. , Yew, L. K. , & Hazita, A.
    (2012) Exploring English language learning and teaching in Malaysia. GEMA: Online Journal of Language Studies, 12(1), 35–51.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Nunan, D.
    (1989) Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nassir, S. M. S.
    (2014) The effectiveness of project-based learning strategy on ninth graders’ achievement level and their attitude towards English in governmental schools -north governorate. Gaza: The Islamic University of Gaza.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Patton, A.
    (2012) Work that matters: The teacher’s guide to project-based learning. London: The Paul Hamlyn Foundation.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Pickering, L.
    (2006) Current research on intelligibility in English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 26, 219–233.10.1017/S0267190506000110
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190506000110 [Google Scholar]
  33. Sheorey, R.
    (1999) An examination of language learning strategy use in the setting of an indigenized variety of English. System, 27(2), 173–190.10.1016/S0346‑251X(99)00015‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00015-9 [Google Scholar]
  34. Stoller, F. L.
    (1997) Project work: A means to promote language and content. English Teaching Forum, 35(4), 2–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sugiyono
    Sugiyono (2011) Metode penelitian pendidikan: Pendekatan kuantitatif, kualitatif, dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tamin, S. R. , & Grant, M. M.
    (2013) Definitions and uses: Case study of teachers implementing project-based learning. Implementary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 7(2), 72–101.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Thomas, J. W. , Mergendoller, J. R. , & Michaelson, A.
    (1999) Project based learning for middle school teachers. Middle School Journal, 36(2), 28–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Thomas, J. W.
    (2000) A review of research on project based learning. San Rafael, CA: The Autodesk Foundation. Retrieved from www.bie.org/index.php/site/RE/pbl_research/29 (31 July 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tsiplakides, I. , & Fragoulis, I.
    (2009) Project-based learning in the teaching of English as a foreign language in Greek primary schools: From theory to practice. English Language Teaching, 2(3), 113–119.10.5539/elt.v2n3p113
    https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v2n3p113 [Google Scholar]
  40. Waterworth, P.
    (2016) Teaching English in Asian: The voices of English teachers in Asian nations. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 154–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Whitehead, J.
    (2007) The British Council and English language in SE Asia: Setting the context. Collection of papers. Primary innovations regional seminar. Hanoi.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error