Volume 7, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2211-7245
  • E-ISSN: 2211-7253
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The effect of bilingual education (BE) on the attitude towards learning English of pupils in the first three years of pre-vocational secondary education in the Netherlands ( = 488) was investigated. Contrary to several other BE/CLIL studies, in the present study pupils choosing for a bilingual stream are not preselected based on their attitude or motivation. Attitude was measured using the Model of Planned Behavior (MPB). The best-fitting attitude model was one in which the perceived importance of learning English was a direct predictor of the Intention to make an effort, and not mediated by Affect. At the start of BE in year 1 (age 12), attitudinal differences between bilingual and mainstream pupils were non-significant, but after one or more years of a bilingual program, BE pupils scored significantly higher on four of the five MPB attitudinal constructs. BE appears to positively influence the attitude towards learning English of junior vocational students.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Ajzen, I.
    (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. doi:  10.1016/0749‑5978(91)90020‑T
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T [Google Scholar]
  2. (2002) Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665–683. doi:  10.1111/j.1559‑1816.2002.tb00236.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00236.x [Google Scholar]
  3. (2005) Attitudes, personality, and behavior (2nd ed.). Milton-Keynes: Open University Press/McGraw- Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. (n.d.) Constructing a TPB Questionnaire. InTheory of Planned Behavior. Retrieved from ​people​.umass​.edu​/aizen​/pdf​/tpb​.measurement​.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M.
    (1980) Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M.
    (2001) Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 471–499. doi:  10.1348/014466601164939
    https://doi.org/10.1348/014466601164939 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y.
    (1988) On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94. doi:  10.1007/BF02723327
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02723327 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bagozzi, R. P., & Burnkrant, R. E.
    (1979) Attitude organization and the attitude-behavior relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(6), 913. doi:  10.1037/0022‑3514.37.6.913
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.6.913 [Google Scholar]
  9. (1980) Single component versus multicomponent models of attitude: Some cautions and contingencies for their use. InJ. C. Olson (Ed.), NA – Advances in Consumer Research (Vol.7, pp.339–344). Ann Abor, MI: Association for Consumer Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. (1985) Attitude organization and the attitude-behavior relation: A reply to Dillon and Kumar. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(1), 47–57. doi:  10.1037/0022‑3514.49.1.47
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.1.47 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bentler, P. M.
    (1992) On the fit of models to covariances and methodology to the Bulletin. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 400–404. doi:  10.1037//0033‑2909.112.3.400
    https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.112.3.400 [Google Scholar]
  12. Breckler, S. J., & Wiggins, E. C.
    (1989) Affect versus evaluation in the structure of attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25(3), 253–271. doi:  10.1016/0022‑1031(89)90022‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(89)90022-X [Google Scholar]
  13. Brinberg, D.
    (1981) A comparison of two behavioral intention models. InK. B. Monroe (Ed.), NA – Advances in Consumer Research (Vol.8, pp.48–52). Ann Abor, MI: Association for Consumer Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bruton, A.
    (2011) Is CLIL so beneficial, or just selective? Re-evaluating some of the research. System, 39(4), 523–532. doi:  10.1016/j.system.2011.08.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.08.002 [Google Scholar]
  15. (2015) CLIL: Detail matters in the whole picture. More than a reply toJ. Hüttner & U. Smit (2014) System, 53, 119–128. doi:  10.1016/j.system.2015.07.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.07.005 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cenoz, J.
    (2001) Three languages in contact: Language attitudes in the Basque Country. InD. Lasagabaster & J. M. Sierra (Eds.), Language awareness in the foreign language classroom. Zarauz: University of the Basque Country.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cenoz, J., Genesee, F., & Gorter, D.
    (2014) Critical analysis of CLIL: Taking stock and looking forward. Applied Linguistics, 35(3), 243–262. doi:  10.1093/applin/amt011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt011 [Google Scholar]
  18. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek
    Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2014) Jaarrapport Integratie 2014. Retrieved from ​www​.cbs​.nl​/NR​/rdonlyres​/E6878ED8-0347-4ED0-8A8D-360AB79022B2​/0​/jaar​rapport​integratie2014pub​.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek
    Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2016) VO; leerlingen, onderwijssoort, leerjaar, herkomstgroepering, generatie [data file]. Retrieved from ​statline​.cbs​.nl​/Statweb​/publication​/?DM​=SLNL&PA​=80043NED&D1​=2-11,18&D2​=0&D3​=0&D4​=a&D5​=0&D6​=0&D7​=0&D8​=9&HDR​=G2,G5,G6,G7,G4,T&STB​=G3,G1&VW​=T
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B.
    (2002) Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233–255. doi:  10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5 [Google Scholar]
  21. Conner, M., & Armitage, C. J.
    (1998) Extending the theory of planned behaviour: A review and avenues for further research. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 1430–1464. doi:  10.1111/j.1559‑1816.1998.tb01685.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01685.x [Google Scholar]
  22. Conner, M., & Sparks, P.
    (2005) The theory of planned behaviour. InM. Conner, & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviour: Research and practice with social cognition models (2nd ed., pp.121–162). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Coyle, D.
    (2006) Content and Language Integrated Learning: Motivating learners and teachers. Scottish Languages Review, 13, 1–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2013) Listening to learners: An investigation into ‘successful learning’ across CLIL contexts. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(3), 244–266. doi: 10.1080/13670050.2013.7773
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2013.7773 [Google Scholar]
  25. Davis, L. E., Ajzen, I., Saunders, J., & Williams, T.
    (2002) The decision of African American students to complete high school: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 810–819. doi:  10.1037//0022‑0663.94.4.810
    https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.94.4.810 [Google Scholar]
  26. De Graaff, R., & Van Wilgenburg, O.
    (2015) The Netherlands: Quality control as a driving force in bilingual education. InP. Mehisto & F. Genesee (Eds.), Building bilingual education systems: Forces, mechanisms and counterweights (pp.167–179). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Dillon, W. R. & Kumar, A.
    (1985) Attitude organization and the attitude-behavior relation: A critique of Bagozzi and Burnkrant’s reanalysis of Fishbein and Ajzen. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(1), 33–46. doi:  10.1037/0022‑3514.49.1.33
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.1.33 [Google Scholar]
  28. Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J. M.
    (2014) CLIL and motivation: The effect of individual and contextual variables. The Language Learning Journal, 42(2), 209–224. doi:  10.1080/09571736.2014.889508
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2014.889508 [Google Scholar]
  29. Fen, Y. S., & Sabaruddin, N. A.
    (2008) An extended model of theory of planned behaviour in predicting exercise intention. International Business Research, 1(4), p108. doi:  10.5539/ibr.v1n4p108
    https://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v1n4p108 [Google Scholar]
  30. Godin, G., & Kok, G.
    (1996) The theory of planned behavior: A review of its applications to health-related behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11(2), 87–98. doi:  10.4278/0890‑1171‑11.2.87
    https://doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-11.2.87 [Google Scholar]
  31. Greene, B. A., Miller, R. B., Crowson, H. M., Duke, B. L., & Akey, K. L.
    (2004) Predicting high school students’ cognitive engagement and achievement: Contributions of classroom perceptions and motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29(4), 462–482. doi:  10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.01.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.01.006 [Google Scholar]
  32. Hartgers, M.
    (2007) Scholen in de Randstad sterk gekleurd. Sociaaleconomische trends, 3e kwartaal 2007 (pp.12–18). Rijswijk: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hox, J. J.
    (2010) Multilevel analysis. Techniques and applications. Quantitative methodology series (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M.
    (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. doi:  10.1080/10705519909540118
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118 [Google Scholar]
  35. Keil, L. J.
    (1991) Attitude development. InT. Husen, & T. N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of education (Vol.1, pp.346–352). New York, NY: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Koomen, H. M., Verschueren, K., Van Schooten, E., Jak, S., & Pianta, R. C.
    (2012) Validating the student-teacher relationship scale: Testing factor structure and measurement invariance across child gender and age in a Dutch sample. Journal of School Psychology, 50(2), 215–234. doi:  10.1016/j.jsp.2011.09.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2011.09.001 [Google Scholar]
  37. Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J. M.
    (2009) Language attitudes in CLIL and traditional EFL classes. International CLIL Research Journal, 1(2), 4–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M.
    (1996) Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130–149. doi:  10.1037/1082‑989X.1.2.130
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.1.2.130 [Google Scholar]
  39. Mearns, T. L.
    (2015) Chicken, egg, or a bit of both? Motivation in bilingual education (TTO) in The Netherlands (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Aberdeen, Scotland. Retrieved from ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.646095
  40. Mearns, T., & De Graaff, R.
    (2018) Bucking the trend? Motivational differences between boys and girls who opt in or out of bilingual education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 6(1), 1–26. 10.1075/jicb.17003.mea
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.17003.mea [Google Scholar]
  41. Mearns, T. L., De Graaff, R., & Coyle, D.
    (2017) Motivation for or from bilingual education? A comparative study of learner views in the Netherlands. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. doi:  10.1080/13670050.2017.1405906
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1405906 [Google Scholar]
  42. Meredith, W.
    (1993) Measurement invariance, factor analysis and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58, 525–543. doi:  10.1007/BF02294825
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294825 [Google Scholar]
  43. Meredith, W. M., & Teresi, J. A.
    (2006) An essay on measurement and factorial invariance. Medical Care, 44, S69–S77. doi:  10.1097/01.mlr.0000245438.73837.89
    https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mlr.0000245438.73837.89 [Google Scholar]
  44. Merisuo-Storm, T.
    (2011) Literacy skills and learning attitudes in bilingual education. Education in Finland. Taipei: Taiwan National Institute of Educational Resource and Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O.
    (1998–2004) Mplus user’s guide (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Nuffic [Google Scholar]
  47. Pels, T., Jonkman, H., & Drost, L.
    (2011) Socialiseren, leren, presteren: Over motivatie van leerlingen in het voortgezet onderwijs. Verwij-Jonker Instituut. Retrieved from https://www.verwey-jonker.nl/doc/jeugd/Socialiseren_Leren_Presteren_2845_web.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Pérez-Cañado, M. L.
    (2012) CLIL research in Europe: Past, present, and future. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(3), 315–341. doi:  10.1080/13670050.2011.630064
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2011.630064 [Google Scholar]
  49. Rasbash, J., Browne, W., Goldstein, H., Yang, M., Plewis, I., Healy, M., Woodhouse, H., Draper, D., Langford, I., & Lewis, T.
    (2000) A user’s guide to MlwiN. London. Institute of Education, University of London.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Rumlich, D.
    (2014) Prospective CLIL and non-CLIL students’ interest in English (classes): A quasi-experimental study on German sixth-graders. InR. Breeze, C. Llamas Saíz, C. Martínez Pasamar, & C. Tabernero Sala (Eds.), The integration of theory and practice in CLIL (pp.75–95). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. (2015) Zur affektiv-motivationalen Entwicklung von Lernenden im CLIL Unterricht. InB. Rüschoff, D. Wolff, & J. Sudhoff (Hg.), CLIL revisited. Eine kiritische Analyse zum gegenwärtigen Stand des bilingualen Sachfachunterrichts (pp.309–330). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Sideridis, G. D., & Padeliadu, S.
    (2001) The motivational determinants of elementary school students at risk of having reading difficulties: An application of planned behavior theory with goal importance. Remedial and Special Education, 22, 268–273. 10.1177/074193250102200502
    https://doi.org/10.1177/074193250102200502 [Google Scholar]
  53. Sultan, S., Borland, H., & Eckersley, B.
    (2012) English as medium of instruction (EMI) in Indonesia public junior secondary school: Students’ language use, attitudes/motivation and foreign language outcomes. ACTA International TESOL Conference. Cairn Australia, Victoria University.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Sylvén, L. K., & Thompson, A. S.
    (2015) Language learning motivation and CLIL: Is there a connection?Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 3(1), 28–50. doi:  10.1075/jicb.3.1.02syl
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.3.1.02syl [Google Scholar]
  55. Trafimow, D., & Sheeran, P.
    (1998) Some tests of the distinction between cognitive and affective beliefs. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 34(4), 378–397. doi:  10.1006/jesp.1998.1356
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1998.1356 [Google Scholar]
  56. Triandis, H. C.
    (1977) Interpersonal Behavior. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Valois, P., Desharnais, R., & Godin, G.
    (1988) A comparison of the Fishbein and Ajzen and the Triandis attitudinal models for the prediction of exercise intention and behavior. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11(5), 459–472. doi:  10.1007/BF00844839
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00844839 [Google Scholar]
  58. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E.
    (2000) A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–70. doi:  10.1177/109442810031002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/109442810031002 [Google Scholar]
  59. Van Nuland, H. J. C.
    (2011) Eliciting classroom motivation: Not a piece of cake (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of Leiden. Retrieved from ​hdl​.handle​.net​/1887​/16693
  60. Van Schooten, E., De Glopper, K., & Stoel, R.
    (2004) Development of attitude toward reading adolescent literature and literary reading behavior. Poetics, 32(5), 343–386. doi:  10.1016/j.poetic.2004.07.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2004.07.001 [Google Scholar]
  61. Verspoor, M., & Edelenbos, P.
    (2011) Tweetalig onderwijs zorgt voor een duurzame voorsprong. Levende Talen Tijdschrift, 12(4), 5–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Verspoor, M., De Bot, K., & Xu, X.
    (2015) The effects of English bilingual education in The Netherlands. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 3(1), 4–27. doi:  10.1075/jicb.3.1.01ver
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.3.1.01ver [Google Scholar]
  63. Wolf, E. J., Harrington, K. M., Clark, S. L., & Miller, M. W.
    (2013) Sample size requirements for structural equation models an evaluation of power, bias, and solution propriety. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 73(6), 913–934. doi:  10.1177/0013164413495237
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164413495237 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error