1887
image of Van typiste naar ingenieur?
  • ISSN 2211-7245
  • E-ISSN 2211-7253

Abstract

Abstract

Studies on English language learning materials indicate that women are underrepresented and often appear in low-status professions, though gender equality increases within the last decade ( ). To what degree does this finding apply for textbooks for learners of Dutch as a Second Language (DSL)? To our knowledge, there are no studies into gender and profession in DSL materials. Dutch however, constitutes an interesting case as both female, male and ‘gender neutral’ professional role nouns exist, while their use is not formally regulated. We systematically analyzed textual and pictorial representations of female and male professionals in textbook chapters about work in fifteen DSL textbooks published within the last 50 years. We drew on quantitative (e.g., number of fe/male and ‘gender neutral’ professional names; instances of and ; number of depicted wo/men) and qualitative (e.g., nature of the most frequent professional names; categorization of textbook images) methods to do so. Results show that women are not underrepresented in dialogues and pictures, but that dialogue themes are unequally divided over women and men. Moreover, women are backgrounded through and and female professional names appear less frequently than male names. Women are also described in gender typical roles, whereas men are not. This holds for both older (1974–2009) and recent textbooks (2011–2017). Overall, more ‘gender neutral’ nouns refer to men in the corpus, but they are used more frequently to refer to women within the last decade. Future studies should address the present theme from psycholinguistic and classroom discourse perspectives and consider additional analytical domains (e.g. chapters about family) and foci (e.g. analyses of verbs associated with wo/men). We discuss pedagogical implications (e.g., screen materials for male firstness; describe women in a greater variety of roles; reverse gender roles in class) for those with concern for gender equality in language education.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/dujal.18014.kos
2019-08-13
2019-08-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/10.1075/dujal.18014.kos/dujal.18014.kos.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/dujal.18014.kos&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Anthony, L.
    (2018) AntConc (Version 3.5.6) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Available fromwww.laurenceanthony.net/software
  2. Bag, E., & Bayyurt, Y.
    (2015) Gender representations in textbooks in Turkey. InS. Mills, & A. Mustapha (Eds.), Gender representation in learning materials. International perspectives (pp.64–85). New York/London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bengoechea, M., & Simón, J.
    (2010) Gender identity in words for professional titles in textbooks. InR. Jiménez Catalán (Ed.), Gender perspectives on vocabulary in foreign and second languages (pp.188–211). UK: Palgrave McMillan. 10.1057/9780230274938_9
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230274938_9 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bolle, J.
    (2017) NS vervangt “dames en heren” door “reizigers”. NRC. Opgevraagd21 februari 2018, vanhttps://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2017/07/28/ns-vervangt-dames-en-heren-door-reizigers-a1568177
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bossers, B., Kuiken, F., Vermeer, A., Andringa, S., Bakker, R., & Hosea, I.
    (2015) Handboek Nederlands als tweede taal in het volwassenenonderwijs (Tweede druk. Tweede oplage 2017). Bussum: Coutinho.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Butler, J.
    (1990) Performative acts and gender constitution: An essay in phenomenology and feminist theory. InS.-E. Case (Ed.), Performing feminism: Feminist critical theory and theatre (pp.270–82). Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkinds University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek
    Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2005) Een top tien van mannen- en vrouwenberoepen. Opgevraagd21 februari 2018, vanhttps://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2005/47/een-toptien-van-mannen-en-vrouwenberoepen
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek
    Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2010) Vrouwen vaak verkoopster, mannen vaak vrachtwagenchauffeur. Opgevraagd21 februari 2018, vanhttps://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2010/47/vrouwen-vaak-verkoopster-mannen-vaak-vrachtwagenchauffeur (opgevraagd, 21 februari 2018)
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek
    Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2017) Groei arbeidsdeelname afgevlakt. Opgevraagd21 februari 2018, vanhttps://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/37/groei-arbeidsdeelname-afgevlakt
    [Google Scholar]
  10. De Backer, M., & De Cuypere, L.
    (2012) The interpretation of masculine personal nouns in German and Dutch: A comparative experimental study. Language Sciences, 34(3), 253–268. 10.1016/j.langsci.2011.10.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2011.10.001 [Google Scholar]
  11. De Caluwe, J., & Van Santen, A.
    (2001) Gezocht: Functiebenamingen (m/v). Wegwijzer voor vorming en gebruik van Nederlandse functiebenamingen. The Hague: SDU Uitgevers.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gerritsen, M.
    (2002) Towards a more gender-fair usage in Netherlands Dutch. InM. Hellinger, & H. Bussmann, (Eds), Gender across languages, VolumeII (pp.82–108). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.10.10ger
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.10.10ger [Google Scholar]
  13. Giaschi, P.
    (2000) Gender positioning in education: A critical image analysis of ESL texts. TESL Canada Journal, 18(1), 32–46. 10.18806/tesl.v18i1.898
    https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v18i1.898 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gouvias, D., & Alexopoulos, C.
    (2018) Sexist stereotypes in the language textbooks of the Greek primary school: A multidimensional approach. Gender and Education, 30(5), 642–662. 10.1080/09540253.2016.1237620
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09540253.2016.1237620 [Google Scholar]
  15. Jiménez Catalán, R., & Ojeda Alba, J.
    (2001) Sex/Gender in the illustrations of an ESL dictionary. InA. Antón Pacheco (Eds.), Estudios de la mujer en el ámbito de los países de habla inglesa (pp.67–96). Madrid: Universidad Complutense.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jones, M., Kitetu, C., & Sunderland, J.
    (1997) Discourse roles, gender and language textbook dialogues: Who learns what from John and Sally?Gender and Education, 9(4), 469–490. 10.1080/09540259721204
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09540259721204 [Google Scholar]
  17. Koster, D., & Litosseliti, L.
    (in voorbereiding). Wanted: gender conscious teachers – An exploration of teachers’ handlings with gendered texts in Dutch foreign language education.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kuipers, G., Van der Laan, E. , & Arfini, E.
    (2017) Gender models: Changing representations and intersecting roles in Dutch and Italian fashion magazines, 1982–2011. Journal of Gender Studies, 26(6), 632–648. 10.1080/09589236.2016.1155435
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2016.1155435 [Google Scholar]
  19. Lakoff, R.
    (1973) Language and woman’s place. Language in Society, 2(1), 45–80. 10.1017/S0047404500000051
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500000051 [Google Scholar]
  20. Lee, J., & Collins, P.
    (2009) Construction of gender: A comparison of Australian and Hong Kong English text books. Journal of Gender Studies, 19(2), 121–137. 10.1080/09589231003695856
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09589231003695856 [Google Scholar]
  21. (2015) Gender representation in Hong Kong primary English-language textbooks: A corpus study. InS. Mills, & A. Mustapha, (Eds.), Gender representation in learning materials. International perspectives (pp.37–51). New York/London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Menard-Warwick, J., Mori, M., & Williams, S.
    (2017) Language and gender in educational contexts. InS. Ehrlich, M. Meyerhoff, & J. Holmes (Eds.), The handbook of language, gender and sexuality (pp.471–490). Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mustapha, A., & Mills, S.
    (2015) Gender representation in learning materials in an international context. InS. Mills, & A. Mustapha (Eds.), Gender representation in learning materials. International perspectives (pp.9–18). New York/London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mustapha, A.
    (2015) Gender positioning through visual images in English-Language textbooks in Nigeria. InS. Mills, & A. Mustapha (Eds.), Gender representation in learning materials. International perspectives (pp.150–163). New York/London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315764092
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315764092 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ott, C.
    (2015) Innocent maths? Gender representations in German maths books. InS. Mills, & A. Mustapha (Eds.), Gender representation in learning materials. International perspectives (pp.52–63). New York/London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Pawelczyk, J., & Pakula, L.
    (2015) Constructing gender and sexuality in the EFL classroom in Poland: Textbook construction and classroom negotiation?InS. Mills, & A. Mustapha (Eds.), Gender representation in learning materials. International perspectives (pp.193–212). New York/London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Peters, L.
    (2016) Geen man of vrouw? Dan ben je voortaan een “hen”. De Correspondent. Opgevraagd, 21 februari 2018, vanhttps://decorrespondent.nl/4748/geen-man-of-vrouw-dan-ben-je-voortaan-een-hen/1050864703020-d399a42e
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Risager, K.
    (2018) Representations of the world in language textbooks. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/RISAGE9559
    https://doi.org/10.21832/RISAGE9559 [Google Scholar]
  29. Romein-Verschoor, A.
    (1975) Over taal en seks, seksisme en emancipatie. De Gids, 138(1/2), 3–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Schmitz, B.
    (1975) Sexism in French language textbooks. InR. C. Lafayette (Ed.), The cultural revolution in foreign language teaching. (pp.119–130). Skokie, IL: National Textbook Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sixma, H., & Ultee, W.
    (1983) Een beroepsprestigeschaal voor Nederland in de jaren tachtig. Mens en Maatschappij, 4(58), 360–382.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Stahlberg, D., Sczesny, S., & Braun, F.
    (2001) Name your favourite musician. Effects of masculine generics and their alternatives in German. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 20(4), 464–469. 10.1177/0261927X01020004004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X01020004004 [Google Scholar]
  33. Stromquist, N., Lee, M., & Brock-Utne, B.
    (1998) The explicit and the hidden school. InN. Stromquist, & K. Monksman (Eds.), Women in the third world: An encyclopedia of contemporary issues (pp.397–407). New York: Garland Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Summers, D.
    (1992) Dictionary of English language and culture. Harlowe/Essex: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sunderland, J.
    (1994) Introduction. InJ. Sunderland (Ed.), Exploring gender: Questions and implications for English language education. London: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sunderland, J., Cowley, M., Fauziah, A., Leontzakou, C., & Shattuck, J.
    (2001) From bias “in the text” to “teacher talk around the text”. An exploration of teacher discourse and gendered foreign language textbook texts. Linguistics and Education, 11(3), 251–286. 10.1016/S0898‑5898(00)00034‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0898-5898(00)00034-6 [Google Scholar]
  37. Sunderland, J.
    (2010) Theorizing gender perspectives in foreign and second language learning. InR. M. Jiménez Catalán (Ed.), Gender perspectives on vocabulary in foreign and second languages (pp.1–19). UK: Palgrave McMillan. 10.1057/9780230274938_1
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230274938_1 [Google Scholar]
  38. (2014) Gender representation in language textbooks: Moving on. Plenary lecture, Young Linguists’ Meeting, Poznan.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2015) Gender (representation) in foreign language textbooks: Avoiding pitfalls and moving on. InS. Mills, & A. Mustapha (Eds.), Gender representation in learning materials. International perspectives (pp.19–34). New York/London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Van Dale Groot Woordenboek van de Nederlandse taal (14th ed.)
    Van Dale Groot Woordenboek van de Nederlandse taal (14th ed.) (2005) Utrecht: Van Dale Lexicografie.
  41. Van Leeuwen, T.
    (2008) Discourse and practice: New tools for critical discourse analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195323306.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195323306.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  42. Vermeulen, M.
    (2018) “Herr Professorin” of: Hoe maak je taal echt sekseneutraal?De Volkskrant: Sir Edmund, 29, 42–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Vervecken, D., Hannover, B., & Wolter, I.
    (2013) Changing (s)expectations: How gender-fair job descriptions impact children’s perceptions and interest regarding traditionally male occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82(3), 208–220. 10.1016/j.jvb.2013.01.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.01.008 [Google Scholar]
  44. Vervecken, D., Gygax, P., Gabriel, U., Guillod, M., & Hannover, B.
    (2015) Warm-hearted businessmen, competitive housewives? Effects of gender-fair language on adolescents’ perceptions of occupations. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1437). doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01437
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01437 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/dujal.18014.kos
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/dujal.18014.kos
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: professional names; learning materials; gender; L2 Dutch; corpus linguistics
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error