1887
image of ‘Kinsto it Frysk ferstean?’

Abstract

Abstract

West Frisian is a minoritized language spoken in the province of Fryslân, in the Netherlands. It has been said to be converging with Standard Dutch (see ), and it has been found to be largely intelligible for speakers of regional language varieties in the Netherlands, such as Low Saxon or Limburgish for example (see, for instance, ).

In this research, we tested how much Frisian native speakers of Dutch can actually understand, as well as the degree of difficulty of each type of task. An online test was designed ( = 225) to measure the intelligibility of both written and spoken Frisian. The results seem to indicate that West Frisian is highly intelligible for Dutch native speakers, which we argue should be used to enrich the school curriculum and foster receptive skills in the minoritized language (see ), which could in turn boost its use.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/dujal.19034.bel
2020-10-16
2020-11-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/10.1075/dujal.19034.bel/dujal.19034.bel.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/dujal.19034.bel&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Araújo, M. H., Hidalgo, R., Melo-Pfeifer, S., Séré, A., & Vela, C.
    (Eds.) (2009) A intercompreensão em línguas románicas: Conceitos, práticas, formação. Aveiro: Galapro.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beerkens, R., & Ten Thije, J. D.
    (2011) Receptive multilingualism in the Dutch-German border area. InJ. N. Jørgensen (Ed.), A toolkit for transnational communication in Europe (pp.102–140). Copenhagen studies in bilingualism, 64.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Belmar, G.
    (2018) New speakers of a minoritized language: Motivation, attitudes and language use of ‘nije sprekkers’ of West Frisian. MA Thesis. University of Groningen. Retrieved fromarts.studenttheses.ub.rug.nl/22455/
  4. (2019a) Attitudes and language use of (potential) new speakers of a minoritized language: The case of adults learning West Frisian in formal courses. Sustainable Multilingualism, 15, 70–88. 10.2478/sm‑2019‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.2478/sm-2019-0014 [Google Scholar]
  5. (2019b) Exploiting intelligibility: Receptive multilingualism and linguistic assertiveness as strategies to boost the use of minority languages. Paper presented at theSeminar for Sorbian Studies, 6 June, University of Leipzig.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Belmar, G., Van Boven, C., & Pinho, S.
    (2019) Why do adults decide to learn a minority language? A study of the motivation(s) of potential new speakers of West Frisian. Sustainable Multilingualism, 14(1), 138–151. 10.2478/sm‑2019‑0007
    https://doi.org/10.2478/sm-2019-0007 [Google Scholar]
  7. Belmar, G., Eikens, N., De Jong, D., Miedema, W., & Pinho, S.
    (2018) The paradoxes of being a new speaker of Frisian: Understanding motivation, authority and legitimacy in Fryslân. Paper presented at theconference ‘Contested Languages of the Old World 3’, 3–4 May, University of Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Belmar, G., & Pinho, S.
    (2020) Multilinguismo receptivo: Um aliado das línguas menorizadas. O que é que o mirandês pode aprendrer da experiência frísia. Études Romanes de Brno, 41(1), 141–157. 10.5817/ERB‑2020‑1‑10
    https://doi.org/10.5817/ERB-2020-1-10 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bergsma, F., Swarte, F., & Gooskens, C.
    (2014) Does instruction about phonological correspondences contribute to the intelligibility of a closely related language?Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 45–61. 10.1075/dujal.3.1.03ber
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dujal.3.1.03ber [Google Scholar]
  10. Berthele, R.
    (2007) Zum Prozess des Verstehens und Erschließens. InB. Hufeisen, & N. Marx (Eds.), EuroComGerm – Die sieben Siebe: Germanische Sprachen lesen lernen (pp.15–26). Aachen: Shaker Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Blees, G. J., Mak, W. M., & Ten Thije, J. D.
    (2014) English as a lingua France versus lingua receptiva in problem-solving conversations between Dutch and German students. Applied Linguistics Review, 5(1), 173–193. 10.1515/applirev‑2014‑0008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2014-0008 [Google Scholar]
  12. Braunmüller, K., & Zeevaert, L.
    (2001) Semikommunikation, rezeptive Mehrsprachigkeit und verwandte Phänomene. Eine bibliographische Bestandsaufnahme. Arbeiten zur Mehrsprachigkeit – Folge B, nr. 19, Universität Hamburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. De Haan, G. J.
    (1997) Contact-induced changes in modern West Frisian. Us Wurk. Tydskrift foar Frisistyk / Journal of Frisian Studies, 46, 61–89.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. De Vries, T.
    (2010) De fersteanberens fan it Frysk foar dialektsprekkers. Us Wurk. Tydskrift foar Frisistyk / Journal of Frisian Studies, 59(3–4), 132–157.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dijkstra, J. E.
    (2013) Growing up with Frisian and Dutch: The role of language input in the early development of Frisian and Dutch among preschool children in Friesland. Doctoral dissertation. University of Amsterdam. Retrieved fromhttps://dare.uva.nl/search?identifier=2aea3a4c-fadb-406d-ae40-b25d635ca498
  16. Dijkstra, J. E., Kuiken, F., Jorna, R. J., Klinkenberg, E. L.
    (2015) The role of majority and minority language input in the early development of a bilingual vocabulary. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9(1), 191–205. 10.1017/S1366728915000012
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728915000012 [Google Scholar]
  17. Ferguson, C. A.
    (1959) Diglossia. Word, 15(2), 325–240. 10.1080/00437956.1959.11659702
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1959.11659702 [Google Scholar]
  18. Fonseca, M.
    (2012) Apprendre par le plurilinguisme: exploration du Carrefour entre intercompréhension en langues romanes et enseignement bilingue. InC. Degache, & S. Garbarino (Eds.), Actes du collogue IC2012. Intercompréhension: compétences plurielles, corpus, intégration. Université Stendhal Grenoble3.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Giles, H., & Niedzielski, N.
    (1998) ‘Italian is beautiful, German is ugly’. InL. Bauer, & P. Trudgill (Eds.), Language myths (pp.85–93). London: Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Golubović, J., & Gooskens, C.
    (2015) Mutual intelligibility between West and South Slavic languages. Russian linguistics, 39(3), 351–373. 10.1007/s11185‑015‑9150‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11185-015-9150-9 [Google Scholar]
  21. Gooskens, C.
    (2006) Linguistic and extra-linguistic predictors of Inter-Scandinavian communication. InJ. van de Weijer, & B. Los (Eds.), Linguistics in the Netherlands, 23 (pp.101–113). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (2007) The contribution of linguistic factors to the intelligibility of closely related languages. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 28(6), 445–467. 10.2167/jmmd511.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/jmmd511.0 [Google Scholar]
  23. (2011) Asymmetrical intelligibility between the Scandinavian languages: experimental approaches. Retrieved fromwww.let.rug.nl/gooskens/project/pdf/pres_kiel_2010.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2013) Experimental methods for measuring intelligibility of closely related languages varieties. InR. Bayley, R. Cameron, & C. Lucas (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of sociolinguistics (pp.195–213). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gooskens, C., & Van Bezooijen, R.
    (2006) Mutual comprehensibility of written Afrikaans and Dutch: Symmetrical or asymmetrical?Literary and Linguistic Computing, 23, 543–557. 10.1093/llc/fql036
    https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fql036 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gooskens, C., Van Bezooijen, R., & Van Heuven, V. J.
    (2015) Mutual intelligibility of Dutch-German cognates by children: The devil is in the detail. Linguistics, 53(2), 255–283. 10.1515/ling‑2015‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2015-0002 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gooskens, C., & Heeringa, W.
    (2004) The position of Frisian in the Germanic language area. InD. Gilbers, M. Schreuder, & N. Knevel (Eds.), On the boundaries of phonology and phonetics (pp.61–87). Groningen: University of Groningen.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gooskens, C., & Van Heuven, V. J.
    (2017) Measuring cross-linguistic intelligibility in the Germanic, Romance and Slavic Language Groups. Speech Communication, 89, 25–36. 10.1016/j.specom.2017.02.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2017.02.008 [Google Scholar]
  29. Gooskens, C., Van Heuven, V. J., Golubović, J., Schüppert, A., Swarte, G., & Voigt, S.
    (2018) Mutual intelligibility between closely related languages in Europe. International Journal of Multilingualism, 15(2), 169–193. 10.1080/14790718.2017.1350185
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2017.1350185 [Google Scholar]
  30. Gorter, D. & Jonkman, R.
    (1995) Taal yn Fryslân op ‘e nij besjoen. Ljouwert/Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Grin, F.
    (2008) L’intercompréhension, efficience et équité. InV. Conti, & F. Grin (Eds.), S’entendre entre langues voisines: Vers l’intercompréhension (pp.79–109). Chêne-Bourg: Georg.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Haugen, E.
    (1966) Semicommunication: The language gap in Scandinavia. Sociological Inquiry, 36(2), 280–297. 10.1111/j.1475‑682X.1966.tb00630.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1966.tb00630.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Hilton, N., & Gooskens, C.
    (2013) Language policies and attitudes towards Frisian in the Netherlands. InC. Gooskens, & R. van Bezooijen (Eds.), Phonetics in Europe: Perception and production (pp.139–157). Frankfurt am Main: P.I.E. – Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Jensen, J. B.
    (1989) On the mutual intelligibility of Spanish and Portuguese. Hispania, 72, 849–852. 10.2307/343562
    https://doi.org/10.2307/343562 [Google Scholar]
  35. Laanen, F.
    (2001) The Frisian language in the Netherlands. InS. Trifunovska (Ed.), Minority Rights in Europe: European minorities and languages (pp.67–84). The Hague: Asser Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lüdi, G.
    (2007) The Swiss model of plurilingual communication. InJ. D. ten Thije, & L. Zeevaert (Eds.), Receptive multilingualism. Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts (pp.159–178). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hsm.6.10lud
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hsm.6.10lud [Google Scholar]
  37. Nerbonne, J.
    (2001) Change, convergence and divergence among Dutch and Frisian. Philologia Frisica anno 1999, 88–109.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Oldehinkel, N.
    (2017) Intelligibility of Frisian by native speakers of Dutch. MA Thesis. University of Groningen. Retrieved fromarts.studenttheses.ub.rug.nl/20943/
  39. Palstra, G. & Van der Meer, R.
    (2015) Lear mar Frysk 1. Ljouwert: Afûk.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Pierce, J. E.
    (1952) Dialect distance testing in Algonquian. International Journal of American Linguistics, 18, 203–210. 10.1086/464173
    https://doi.org/10.1086/464173 [Google Scholar]
  41. Provinsje Fryslân
    Provinsje Fryslân (2015) De Fryske taalatlas 2015. Fryske taal yn byld. Ljouwert/Leeuwarden: Provinsje Fryslân.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2012) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. www.r-project.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Rehbein, J., Ten Thije, J. D., & Verschik, A.
    (2012) Lingua receptive (LaRa) – remarks on the quintessence of receptive multilingualism. International Journal of Bilingualism, 16(3), 248–264. 10.1177/1367006911426466
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006911426466 [Google Scholar]
  44. Swarte, F.
    (2011) Language attitudes of adults living in Friesland towards the Frisian language. MA Thesis. University of Groningen. Retrieved fromhdl.handle.net/11370/2b6e7325-761b-4056-b883-48ed53808715
  45. (2016) Predicting the mutual intelligibility of Germanic languages from linguistic and extra-linguistic factors. Doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen. Retrieved fromhdl.handle.net/11370/2b6e7325-761b-4056-b883-48ed53808715
  46. Swarte, F., Hilton, N. H., & Gooskens, C.
    (2013) Onderlinge verstaandbaarheid tussen Noord- en Westlauwers Fries. Us Wurk. Tydskrift foar Frisistyk / Journal of Frisian Studies, 62, 21–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Ten Thije, J. D., & Zeevaert, L.
    (2007) Receptive multilingualism. Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hsm.6
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hsm.6 [Google Scholar]
  48. Trosset, C. S.
    (1986) The social identity of Welsh learners. Language in Society, 15(2), 165–191. 10.1017/S0047404500000178
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500000178 [Google Scholar]
  49. Van Bezooijen, & Van den Berg, R.
    (1999a) Taalvariëteiten in Nederland en Vlaanderen: hoe staat het met hun verstaanbaarheid?Taal en Tongval51(1), 15–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. (1999b) Word intelligibility of language varieties in the Netherlands and Flanders under minimal conditions. Linguistics in the Netherlands, 1–12. 10.1075/avt.16.03bez
    https://doi.org/10.1075/avt.16.03bez [Google Scholar]
  51. (1999c) Verstaanbaarheid van het Gronings, Fries, Limburgs en West-Vlaams: Waar zitten de problemen. Artikelen van de Derde Sociolingïstische Conferentie (pp.49–60). Lunteren. Delft: Eburon.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Van Bezooijen, R., & Gooskens, C.
    (2005) How easy is it for speakers of Dutch to understand Frisian and Afrikaans, and why?InJ. Doetjes, & J. VanDeWeijer, (Eds.), Linguistics in the Netherlands (pp.13–24). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. (2007a) Hoe goed begrijpen Nederlandstaligen en Afrikaanstaligen geschreven Fries?InPhilologia Frisica. Lezingen fan it sechtjinde frysk filologenkongres 14, 15 en 16 desimber 2005 (pp.11–23). Ljouwert: Fryske Akademy.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. (2007b) Interlingual text comprehension: Linguistic and extralinguistic determinants. InJ. D. ten Thije, & L. Zeevaert (Eds.), Receptive multilingualism and intercultural communication: Linguistic analysis, languages, policies and didactic concepts (pp.249–264). Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/hsm.6.17bez
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hsm.6.17bez [Google Scholar]
  55. Wolf, H.
    (2013) Wat makket it út oft it Frysk útsjert?Retrieved fromwww.demoanne.nl/makket-it-no-ut-oft-it-frysk-utsjert/
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Wolff, H.
    (1959) Intelligibility and inter-ethnic attitudes. Anthropological Linguistics, 1, 34–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Ytsma, J.
    (1995) Frisian as first and second language. Ljouwert/Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. (2007) Language use and attitudes in Fryslân. InD. Lasagabaster, & A. Huguet (Eds.), Multilingualism in European bilingual contexts (pp.144–164). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Zeevaert, L.
    (2007) Receptive multilingualism and inter-Scandinavian semicommunication. InJ. D. ten Thije, & L. Zeevaert (Eds.), Receptive multilingualism. Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts (pp.103–135). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hsm.6.08zee
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hsm.6.08zee [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/dujal.19034.bel
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/dujal.19034.bel
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error