1887
Volume 2, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2589-1588
  • E-ISSN: 2589-1596
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, multiple researchers working on the evolution of language have put forward the idea that the theoretical framework of usage-based approaches and Construction Grammar is highly suitable for modelling the emergence of human language from pre-linguistic or proto-linguistic communication systems. This also raises the question of whether usage-based and constructionist approaches can be integrated with the analysis of animal communication systems. In this paper, we review possible avenues where usage-based, constructionist approaches can make contact with animal communication research, which in turn also has implications for theories of language evolution. To this end, we first give an overview of key assumptions of usage-based and constructionist approaches before reviewing some key issues in animal communication research through the lens of usage-based, constructionist approaches. Specifically, we will discuss how research on alarm calls, gestural communication and symbol-trained animals can be brought into contact with usage-based, constructionist theorizing. We argue that a constructionist view of animal communication can yield new perspectives on its relation to human language, which in turn has important implications regarding the evolution of language. Importantly, this theoretical approach also generates hypotheses that have the potential of complementing and extending results from the more formalist approaches that often underlie current animal communication research.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/elt.00021.ple
2021-01-15
2021-12-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Akmajian, A. , Farmer, A. K. , Bickmore, L. , Demers, R. A. , & Harnish, R. M.
    (2017) Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication (seventh edition). Cambridge, Mass.: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson, S. R.
    (2006) Doctor Dolittle′s Delusion – Animals and the Uniqueness of Human Language. New Haven, Conn.; London: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andrews, K.
    (2016) Animal Cognition. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2016) Retrieved fromhttps://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2016/entries/cognition-animal/
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arbib, M. A.
    (2012) How the brain got language: The mirror systems hypothesis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199896684.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199896684.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ariel, M.
    (2015) Doubling up: Two upper bounds for scalars. Linguistics, 53(3), 561–610. doi:  10.1515/ling‑2015‑0013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2015-0013 [Google Scholar]
  6. Arnold, K. , & Zuberbühler, K.
    (2006) Semantic combinations in primate calls. Nature, 441(7091), 303–303. doi:  10.1038/441303a
    https://doi.org/10.1038/441303a [Google Scholar]
  7. (2012) Call combinations in monkeys: Compositional or idiomatic expressions?Brain and Language, 120(3), 303–309. doi:  10.1016/j.bandl.2011.10.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2011.10.001 [Google Scholar]
  8. Aubin, T. , & Jouventin, P.
    (2002) Localisation of an acoustic signal in a noisy environment: the display call of the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology205(24), 3793–3798.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Balari, S. , & Lorenzo, G.
    (2016) Evo-devo of Language and Cognition. Evolutionary Developmental Biology, 1–14. doi:  10.1007/978‑3‑319‑33038‑9_43‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33038-9_43-1 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bar-On, D.
    (2018) Communicative intentions, expressive communication, and origins of meaning. In K. Andrews & Beck, Jacob (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds (pp.301–312). London; New York: Taylor & Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bar-On, D. , & Moore, R.
    (2018) Pragmatic interpretation and signaler-receiver asymmetries in animal communication. In K. Andrews & J. Beck (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds (pp.291–300). London; New York: Taylor & Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Beckner, C. , Ellis, N. C. , Blythe, R. , Holland, J. , Bybee, J. , Ke, J. , Christiansen, M. H. , Larsen-Freeman, D. , Croft, W. , Schoenemann, T. , & Five Graces Group
    (2009) Language is a Complex Adaptive System: Position Paper. Language Learning, 59 Suppl.1, 1–26. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2009.00533.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00533.x [Google Scholar]
  13. Benítez-Burraco, A. , & Boeckx, C.
    (2014) Universal Grammar and Biological Variation: An EvoDevo Agenda for Comparative Biolinguistics. Biological Theory, 9(2), 122–134. doi:  10.1007/s13752‑014‑0164‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s13752-014-0164-0 [Google Scholar]
  14. Berthet, M. , Mesbahi, G. , Pajot, A. , Cäsar, C. , Neumann, C. , & Zuberbühler, K.
    (2019) Titi monkeys combine alarm calls to create probabilistic meaning. Science Advances, 5(5), eaav3991. doi:  10.1126/sciadv.aav3991
    https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav3991 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bickerton, D.
    (2009) Adam’s Tongue: How Humans Made Language, How Language Made Humans. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Blumenthal-Dramé, A.
    (2012) Entrenchment in Usage-Based Theories: What Corpus Data Do and Do Not Reveal About The Mind (1 edition). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110294002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110294002 [Google Scholar]
  17. Börjars, K. , Vincent, N. & Walkden, G.
    (2015) On Constructing a Theory of Grammatical Change. Transactions of the Philological Society113(3). 363–382. 10.1111/1467‑968X.12068
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-968X.12068 [Google Scholar]
  18. Brône, G. , & Zima, E.
    (2014) Towards a dialogic construction grammar: Ad hoc routines and resonance activation. Cognitive Linguistics, 25(3), 457–495. 10.1515/cog‑2014‑0027
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2014-0027 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bybee, J. L.
    (2010) Language, Usage and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511750526
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750526 [Google Scholar]
  20. Byrne, R. W. , Cartmill, E. , Genty, E. , Graham, K. E. , Hobaiter, C. , & Tanner, J.
    (2017) Great ape gestures: Intentional communication with a rich set of innate signals. Animal Cognition20(4), 755–769. 10.1007/s10071‑017‑1096‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-017-1096-4 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cartmill, E. A. , & Hobaiter, C.
    (2019) Developmental perspectives on primate gesture: 100 years in the making. Animal Cognition, 22(4), 53–459. 10.1007/s10071‑019‑01279‑w
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-019-01279-w [Google Scholar]
  22. Cartmill, E. A. , & Maestripieri, D.
    (2012) Socio-Cognitive Specializations in Nonhuman Primates: Evidence from Gestural Communication. The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology. doi:  10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199738182.013.0010
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199738182.013.0010 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chomsky, N.
    (1959) A review of BF Skinner’s Verbal behavior. Language, 35(1), 26–58. 10.2307/411334
    https://doi.org/10.2307/411334 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cienki, A.
    (2017) Utterance Construction Grammar (UCxG) and the variable multimodality of constructions. Linguistics Vanguard, 3(s1). doi:  10.1515/lingvan‑2016‑0048
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2016-0048 [Google Scholar]
  25. Dąbrowska, E.
    (2009) Words as constructions. In V. Evans & S. Pourcel (Eds.), New Directions in Cognitive Linguistics (pp.201–223). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.24.16dab
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.24.16dab [Google Scholar]
  26. Dancygier, B. , & Vandelanotte, L.
    (2017) Internet memes as multimodal constructions. Cognitive Linguistics, 28(3), 565–598. doi:  10.1515/cog‑2017‑0074
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2017-0074 [Google Scholar]
  27. de Boer, B. , Sandler, W. , & Kirby, S.
    (2012) New perspectives on duality of patterning: Introduction to the special issue. Language and Cognition, 4(4), 251–259. doi:  10.1515/langcog‑2012‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/langcog-2012-0014 [Google Scholar]
  28. Deacon, T. W.
    (1997) The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of Language and the Brain. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Dehaene, S.
    (2020) How We Learn: Why Brains Learn Better Than Any Machine… for Now. London: Viking.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Diessel, H.
    (2019) The Grammar Network: How Linguistic Structure Is Shaped by Language Use. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108671040
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108671040 [Google Scholar]
  31. Dingemanse, M.
    (2018) Redrawing the margins of language: Lessons from research on ideophones. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, 3(1), 4. doi:  10.5334/gjgl.444
    https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.444 [Google Scholar]
  32. Divjak, D.
    (2019) Frequency in Language: Memory, Attention and Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316084410
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316084410 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dunbar, R. I. M. , & Shultz, S.
    (2017) Why are there so many explanations for primate brain evolution?Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 372(1727) 20160244. doi:  10.1098/rstb.2016.0244
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0244 [Google Scholar]
  34. Eason, P. , & Vanderhoff, E. N.
    (2009) The response of American robins (Turdus migratorius) to aerial alarms. Behaviour, 146(3), 415–427. doi:  10.1163/156853909X410982
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156853909X410982 [Google Scholar]
  35. Endress, A. D. , Cahill, D. , Block, S. , Watumull, J. , & Hauser, M. D.
    (2009) Evidence of an Evolutionary Precursor to Human Language Affixation in a Non-Human Primate. Biology Letters. doi:  10.1098/rsbl.2009.0445
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0445 [Google Scholar]
  36. Engesser, S. , & Townsend, S. W.
    (2019) Combinatoriality in the vocal systems of nonhuman animals. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, e1493.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Evans, V.
    (2019) Cognitive Linguistics. A complete guide. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Fasold, R. W. , & Connor-Linton, J.
    (Eds.) (2014) An Introduction to Language and Linguistics (2nd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781107707511
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107707511 [Google Scholar]
  39. Fenson, L. , Dale, P. S. , Reznick, J. S. , & Bates, E.
    (1994) Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(5), 1–173. 10.2307/1166093
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1166093 [Google Scholar]
  40. Fischer, J.
    (2002) Developmental modifications in the vocal behavior of non-human primates. In A. A. Ghazanfar (Ed.), Primate audition: Ethology and neurobiology (pp.109–125). Boca Raton: CRC Press. 10.1201/9781420041224.ch7
    https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420041224.ch7 [Google Scholar]
  41. (2017) Primate vocal production and the riddle of language evolution. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(1), 72–78. doi:  10.3758/s13423‑016‑1076‑8
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1076-8 [Google Scholar]
  42. Fischer, J. , Wheeler, B. C. , & Higham, J. P.
    (2015) Is there any evidence for vocal learning in chimpanzee food calls?Current Biology, 25(21), R1028–R1029. 10.1016/j.cub.2015.09.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.09.010 [Google Scholar]
  43. Fitch, W. T.
    (2017) Empirical approaches to the study of language evolution. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(1), 3–33. doi:  10.3758/s13423‑017‑1236‑5
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1236-5 [Google Scholar]
  44. (2020) Animal cognition and the evolution of human language: Why we cannot focus solely on communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 375(1789) 20190046. doi:  10.1098/rstb.2019.0046
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0046 [Google Scholar]
  45. Floyd, S. , & Goldberg, A. E.
    (2020) Children make use of relationships across meanings in word learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. doi:  10.1037/xlm0000821
    https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000821 [Google Scholar]
  46. Frank, R. M. , & Gontier, N.
    (2010) On Constructing a Research Model for Historical Cognitive Linguistics (HCL): Some Theoretical Considerations. In M. E. Winters , H. Tissari , & K. Allan (Eds.), Historical Cognitive Linguistics (pp.31–69). Berlin; New York: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110226447.31
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226447.31 [Google Scholar]
  47. Genty, E. , Breuer, T. , Hobaiter, C. , & Byrne, R. W.
    (2009) Gestural communication of the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla): Repertoire, intentionality and possible origins. Animal Cognition, 12(3), 527–546. 10.1007/s10071‑009‑0213‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-009-0213-4 [Google Scholar]
  48. Genty, E. , & Zuberbühler, K.
    (2015) Iconic gesturing in bonobos. Communicative & Integrative Biology, 8(1), e992742. 10.4161/19420889.2014.992742
    https://doi.org/10.4161/19420889.2014.992742 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gibson, K. R.
    (2012) Language or protolanguage? A review of the ape language literature. In M. Tallerman & K. R. Gibson (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Language Evolution (pp.46–58). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Gill, S. A. , & Bierema, A. M.-K.
    (2013) On the Meaning of Alarm Calls: A Review of Functional Reference in Avian Alarm Calling. Ethology, 119(6), 449–461. doi:  10.1111/eth.12097
    https://doi.org/10.1111/eth.12097 [Google Scholar]
  51. Goldberg, A. E.
    (1995) Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. (2013) Constructionist Approaches. In T. Hoffmann & G. Trousdale (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar (pp.15–31). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Gong, T. , Shuai, L. , & Wu, Y.
    (2018) Rethinking foundations of language from a multidisciplinary perspective. Physics of Life Reviews, 26–27, 120–138. doi:  10.1016/j.plrev.2018.04.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2018.04.004 [Google Scholar]
  54. González-Forero, M. , & Gardner, A.
    (2018) Inference of ecological and social drivers of human brain-size evolution. Nature, 557(7706), 554–557. doi:  10.1038/s41586‑018‑0127‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0127-x [Google Scholar]
  55. Håkansson, G. , & Westander, J.
    (2013) Communication in Humans and Other Animals. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/ais.4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ais.4 [Google Scholar]
  56. Halina, M. , Rossano, F. , & Tomasello, M.
    (2013) The ontogenetic ritualization of bonobo gestures. Animal Cognition, 16(4), 653–666. 10.1007/s10071‑013‑0601‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-013-0601-7 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hall, J. A. , Horgan, T. G. , & Murphy, N. A.
    (2019) Nonverbal Communication. Annual Review of Psychology, 70(1), 271–294. doi:  10.1146/annurev‑psych‑010418‑103145
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-103145 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hammerschmidt, K. , & Fischer, J.
    (2008) Constraints in primate vocal production. In K. Oller & U. Griebel (Eds.), The Evolution of communicative creativity: From fixed signals to contextual flexibility (pp.93–119). Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. 10.7551/mitpress/9780262151214.003.0005
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262151214.003.0005 [Google Scholar]
  59. Hartmann, S.
    (2020) Language change and language evolution: Cousins, siblings, twins?Glottotheory. doi:  10.1515/glot‑2020‑2003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/glot-2020-2003 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hauser, M. D.
    (1996) The Evolution of Communication by Marc D. Hauser. Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Hebets, E. A. , Barron, A. B. , Balakrishnan, C. N. , Hauber, M. E. , Mason, P. H. , & Hoke, K. L.
    (2016) A systems approach to animal communication. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 283(1826) 20152889. doi:  10.1098/rspb.2015.2889
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.2889 [Google Scholar]
  62. Heine, B. & Kuteva, T.
    (2007) The Genesis of Grammar: A Reconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Heine, B. , & Kuteva, T.
    (2012) Grammaticalization Theory as a Tool for Reconstructing Language Evolution. In M. Tallerman & K. R. Gibson (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Language Evolution (pp.511–527). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Hobaiter, C. , & Byrne, R. W.
    (2011) The gestural repertoire of the wild chimpanzee. Animal Cognition, 14(5), 745–767. 10.1007/s10071‑011‑0409‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-011-0409-2 [Google Scholar]
  65. (2014) The meanings of chimpanzee gestures. Current Biology, 24(14), 1596–1600. 10.1016/j.cub.2014.05.066
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.05.066 [Google Scholar]
  66. Hockett, C. F.
    (1960) The origin of speech. Scientific American203, 89–96. 10.1038/scientificamerican0960‑88
    https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0960-88 [Google Scholar]
  67. Hoff, E.
    (2013) Language Development (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Hopper, P. J. , & Traugott, E. C.
    (2003) Grammaticalization (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139165525
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525 [Google Scholar]
  69. Hurford, J. R.
    (2012) The Origins of Grammar: Language in the Light of Evolution, Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. (2007) The Origins of Meaning: Language in the Light of Evolution, Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Imo, W. , & Ziegler, E.
    (2019) Situierte Konstruktionen. Das Indefinitpronomen man im Kontext der Aushandlung von Einstellungen zu migrationsbedingter Mehrsprachigkeit. In J. Erfurt & S. De Knop (Eds.), Konstruktionsgrammatik und Mehrsprachigkeit (pp.75–104). Duisburg: Universitätsverlag Rhein-Ruhr.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Inkelas, S.
    (2014) Non-concatenative derivation. In R. Lieber & P. Stekauer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of derivational morphology (pp.169–189). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Jackendoff, R.
    (2002) Foundations of language: Brain, meaning, grammar, evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198270126.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198270126.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  74. Jackendoff, R. , & Wittenberg, E.
    (2017) Linear grammar as a possible stepping-stone in the evolution of language. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(1), 219–224. doi:  10.3758/s13423‑016‑1073‑y
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1073-y [Google Scholar]
  75. Janik, V. M. , & Slater, P. J.
    (2000) The different roles of social learning in vocal communication. Animal Behaviour, 60(1), 1–11. 10.1006/anbe.2000.1410
    https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2000.1410 [Google Scholar]
  76. Johansson, S.
    (2016) Protolanguage Possibilities in a Construction Grammar Framework. In S. G. Roberts , C. Cuskley , L. McCrohon , L. Barceló-Coblijn , O. Fehér , & T. Verhoef (Eds.), The Evolution of Language. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference. Retrieved fromevolang.org/neworleans/papers/149.html
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Johnson, E. K. , & White, K. S.
    (2019) Six Questions in Infant Speech and Language Development. In P. Hagoort (Ed.), Human Language: From Genes and Brains to Behavior (pp.99–112). Cambridge, Mass. & London, UK: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press..
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kaminski, J. , Call, J. , & Fischer, J.
    (2004) Word learning in a domestic dog: Evidence for ‘fast mapping’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1682–1683. doi:  10.1126/science.1097859
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1097859 [Google Scholar]
  79. Karuza, E. A. , Thompson-Schill, S. L. , & Bassett, D. S.
    (2016) Local patterns to global architectures: influences of network topology on human learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences20(8), 629–640. doi:  10.1016/j.tics.2016.06.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2016.06.003 [Google Scholar]
  80. Kay, P. , & Fillmore, C. J.
    (1999) Grammatical constructions and linguistic generalizations: The What’s X doing Y? construction. Language, 75(1), 1–33. doi:  10.1353/lan.1999.0033
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1999.0033 [Google Scholar]
  81. Keller, R.
    (1994) Sprachwandel: Von der unsichtbaren Hand in der Sprache. Tübingen, Basel: Francke.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Kemmer, S. , & Barlow, M.
    (2000) Introduction: A usage-based conception of language. In M. Barlow & S. Kemmer (Eds.), Usage-Based Models of Language. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Kershenbaum, A. , Blumstein, D. T. , Roch, M. A. , Akçay, Ç. , Backus, G. , Bee, M. A. , … Zamora-Gutierrez, V.
    (2016) Acoustic sequences in non-human animals: A tutorial review and prospectus. Biological Reviews, 91(1), 13–52. doi:  10.1111/brv.12160
    https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12160 [Google Scholar]
  84. Kersken, V. , Gómez, J.-C. , Liszkowski, U. , Soldati, A. , & Hobaiter, C.
    (2019) A gestural repertoire of 1-to 2-year-old human children: In search of the ape gestures. Animal Cognition, 22(4), 577–595. 10.1007/s10071‑018‑1213‑z
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-018-1213-z [Google Scholar]
  85. Kirby, S. , Tamariz, M. , Cornish, H. & Smith, K.
    (2015) Compression and communication in the cultural evolution of linguistic structure. Cognition141, 87–102. 10.1016/j.cognition.2015.03.016
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2015.03.016 [Google Scholar]
  86. Kiriazis, J. , & Slobodchikoff, C. N.
    (2006) Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison’s prairie dogs. Behavioural Processes, 73(1), 29–35. doi:  10.1016/j.beproc.2006.01.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2006.01.015 [Google Scholar]
  87. Kitzmann, C. D. , & Caine, N. G.
    (2009) Marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi) Food-Associated Calls are Functionally Referential. Ethology, 115(5), 439–448. doi:  10.1111/j.1439‑0310.2009.01622.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.2009.01622.x [Google Scholar]
  88. Langacker, R. W.
    (1987) Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Vol. 1: Theoretical Prerequisites. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. (1988) A Usage-Based Model. In B. Rudzka-Ostyn (Ed.), Topics in Cognitive Linguistics (pp.127–161). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.50.06lan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.50.06lan [Google Scholar]
  90. Larsen, S. E.
    (1997) Ferdinand de Saussure und seine Nachfolger. In R. Posner , K. Robering , & T. A. Sebeok (Eds.), Semiotik. Ein Handbuch zu den zeichentheoretischen Grundlagen von Natur und Kultur (pp.2040–2073). Berlin; New York: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Lepic, R.
    (2019) A usage-based alternative to “lexicalization” in sign language linguistics. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, 4(1), 23. doi:  10.5334/gjgl.840
    https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.840 [Google Scholar]
  92. Liebal, K. , & Oña, L.
    (2018) Different Approaches to Meaning in Primate Gestural and Vocal Communication. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00478
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00478 [Google Scholar]
  93. Liebal, K. , Waller, B. M. , Slocombe, K. E. , & Burrows, A. M.
    (2014) Primate communication: A multimodal approach. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Lyn, H.
    (2012) Apes and the Evolution of Language: Taking Stock of 40 Years of Research. In T. K. Shackelford & J. Vonk (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology (pp.356–378). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Macedonia, J. M. , & Evans, C. S.
    (1993) Essay on Contemporary Issues in Ethology: Variation among Mammalian Alarm Call Systems and the Problem of Meaning in Animal Signals. Ethology, 93(3), 177–197. doi:  10.1111/j.1439‑0310.1993.tb00988.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.1993.tb00988.x [Google Scholar]
  96. MacWhinney, B.
    (2015) Introduction: Language emergence. In B. MacWhinney & W. O’Grady (Eds.), Handbook of language emergence (pp.1–32). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. MacWhinney, Brian
    (2015) Emergentism. In E. Dąbrowska & D. Divjak (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics (pp.689–706). Berlin; New York: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Manrique, H. M. , & Walker, M. J.
    (2017) Early Evolution of Human Memory. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑64447‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64447-9 [Google Scholar]
  99. Manser, M. B.
    (2001) The acoustic structure of suricates’ alarm calls varies with predator type and the level of response urgency. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 268(1483), 2315–2324. doi:  10.1098/rspb.2001.1773
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1773 [Google Scholar]
  100. Martins, P. T. , & Boeckx, C.
    (2019) Language evolution and complexity considerations: The no half-Merge fallacy. PLOS Biology, 17(11), e3000389. doi:  10.1371/journal.pbio.3000389
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000389 [Google Scholar]
  101. Massip-Bonet, À. , & Bastardas-Boada, A.
    (Eds.) (2013) Complexity Perspectives on Language, Communication and Society. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑32817‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32817-6 [Google Scholar]
  102. Miyagawa, S. , & Clarke, E.
    (2019) Systems Underlying Human and Old World Monkey Communication: One, Two, or Infinite. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01911
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01911 [Google Scholar]
  103. Molesti, S. , Meguerditchian, A. , & Bourjade, M.
    (2019) Gestural communication in olive baboons (Papio anubis): Repertoire and intentionality. Animal Cognition, 1–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Mollica, F. , & Piantadosi, S. T.
    (2019) Humans store about 1.5 megabytes of information during language acquisition. Royal Society Open Science, 6(3), 181393. doi:  10.1098/rsos.181393
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.181393 [Google Scholar]
  105. Moore, R.
    (2014) Ape gestures: interpreting chimpanzee and bonobo minds. Current Biology, 24(14), R645–R647. 10.1016/j.cub.2014.05.072
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.05.072 [Google Scholar]
  106. Müller, C.
    (2013) Introduction. In C. Müller , A. J. Cienki , E. Fricke , S. H. Ladewig , D. McNeill , & S. Tessendorf (Eds.), Body – Language – Communication: An international handbook on multimodality in human interaction (pp.1–6). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Nölle, J. , Staib, M. , Fusaroli, R. & Tylén, K.
    (2018) The emergence of systematicity: How environmental and communicative factors shape a novel communication system. Cognition181. 93–104. 10.1016/j.cognition.2018.08.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.08.014 [Google Scholar]
  108. Oña, L. S. , Sandler, W. , & Liebal, K.
    (2019) A stepping stone to compositionality in chimpanzee communication. PeerJ, 7, e7623. doi:  10.7717/peerj.7623
    https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7623 [Google Scholar]
  109. Ouattara, K. , Lemasson, A. , & Zuberbühler, K.
    (2009) Campbell’s Monkeys Use Affixation to Alter Call Meaning. PLOS ONE, 4(11), e7808. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0007808
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007808 [Google Scholar]
  110. Pleyer, M.
    (2017) Protolanguage and Mechanisms of Meaning Construal in Interaction. Language Sciences, 63, 69–90. doi:  10.1016/j.langsci.2017.01.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2017.01.003 [Google Scholar]
  111. Pleyer, M. , & Hartmann, S.
    (2019) Constructing a consensus on language evolution? Convergences and differences between biolinguistic and usage-based approaches. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2537. doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02537
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02537 [Google Scholar]
  112. Pleyer, M. , & Lindner, N.
    (2014) Constructions, Construal and Cooperation in the Evolution of Language. In E. A. Cartmill , S. Roberts , H. Lyn , & H. Cornish (Eds.), The Evolution of Language. Proceedings of the 10th Conference (pp.244–251). World Scientific. 10.1142/9789814603638_0031
    https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814603638_0031 [Google Scholar]
  113. Pleyer, M. , & Winters, J.
    (2014) Integrating Cognitive Linguistics and Language Evolution Research. Theoria et Historia Scientiarium, 11, 19–44. doi:  10.12775/ths‑2014‑002
    https://doi.org/10.12775/ths-2014-002 [Google Scholar]
  114. Pepperberg, I. M.
    (2012) Symbolic communication in the grey Parrot. In T. K. Shackelford & J. Vonk (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology (pp.297–319). Retrieved fromhttps://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199738182.013.0019?lang=en, //oxfordindex.oup.com:443/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199738182.013.0019
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Petkov, C. I. , & ten Cate, C.
    (2020) Structured sequence learning: animal abilities, cognitive operations, and language evolution. Topics in Cognitive Science, 12(3), 828–842. 10.1111/tops.12444
    https://doi.org/10.1111/tops.12444 [Google Scholar]
  116. Piantadosi, S. T. , & Fedorenko, E.
    (2017) Infinitely productive language can arise from chance under communicative pressure. Journal of Language Evolution, 2(2), 141–147. doi:  10.1093/jole/lzw013
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jole/lzw013 [Google Scholar]
  117. Pilley, J. W. , & Reid, A. K.
    (2011) Border collie comprehends object names as verbal referents. Behavioural Processes, 86(2), 184–195. doi:  10.1016/j.beproc.2010.11.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2010.11.007 [Google Scholar]
  118. Pollick, A. S. , & De Waal, F. B.
    (2007) Ape gestures and language evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(19), 8184–8189. 10.1073/pnas.0702624104
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702624104 [Google Scholar]
  119. Price, T. , Wadewitz, P. , Cheney, D. , Seyfarth, R. , Hammerschmidt, K. , & Fischer, J.
    (2015) Vervets revisited: A quantitative analysis of alarm call structure and context specificity. Scientific Reports, 5(1), 1–11. doi:  10.1038/srep13220
    https://doi.org/10.1038/srep13220 [Google Scholar]
  120. Progovac, L.
    (2015) Evolutionary syntax (First edition). Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198736547.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198736547.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  121. Progovac, L.
    (2019a) A Critical Introduction to Language Evolution Current Controversies and Future Prospects. Cham: Switzerland. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑03235‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-03235-7 [Google Scholar]
  122. (2019b) Minimalism in the Light of Biology: What to Retain and What to Discard?Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01303
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01303 [Google Scholar]
  123. Rizzi, L.
    (2016) Monkey morpho-syntax and merge-based systems. Theoretical Linguistics, 42(1–2), 139–145. doi:  10.1515/tl‑2016‑0006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/tl-2016-0006 [Google Scholar]
  124. Roberts, A. I. , Vick, S.-J. , Roberts, S. G. B. , Buchanan-Smith, H. M. , & Zuberbühler, K.
    (2012) A structure-based repertoire of manual gestures in wild chimpanzees: Statistical analyses of a graded communication system. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(5), 578–589. 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.05.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.05.006 [Google Scholar]
  125. Rowland, C.
    (2014) Understanding Child Language Acquisition (1 edition). London; New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203776025
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203776025 [Google Scholar]
  126. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S. , Murphy, J. , Sevcik, R. A. , Brakke, K. E. , Williams, S. L. , & Rumbaugh, D. M.
    (1993) Language comprehension in ape and child. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58(3–4), 1–222.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Saxton, M.
    (2017) Child Language: Acquisition and Development (Second edition). Los Angeles London New Delhi Singapore Washington DC Melbourne: SAGE Publications Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Scarantino, A. , & Clay, Z.
    (2015) Contextually variable signals can be functionally referential. Animal Behaviour, Complete (100), e1–e8. doi:  10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.08.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.08.017 [Google Scholar]
  129. Schel, A. M. , Machanda, Z. , Townsend, S. W. , Zuberbühler, K. , & Slocombe, K. E.
    (2013) Chimpanzee food calls are directed at specific individuals. Animal Behaviour, 86(5), 955–965. doi:  10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.08.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.08.013 [Google Scholar]
  130. Schlenker, P. , Chemla, E. , Arnold, K. , Lemasson, A. , Ouattara, K. , Keenan, S. , … Zuberbühler, K.
    (2014) Monkey semantics: Two ‘dialects’ of Campbell’s monkey alarm calls. Linguistics and Philosophy, 37(6), 439–501. doi:  10.1007/s10988‑014‑9155‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-014-9155-7 [Google Scholar]
  131. Schlenker, P. , Chemla, E. , Schel, A. M. , Fuller, J. , Gautier, J.-P. , Kuhn, J. , … Zuberbühler, K.
    (2016) Formal monkey linguistics. Theoretical Linguistics, 42(1–2), 1–90. doi:  10.1515/tl‑2016‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/tl-2016-0001 [Google Scholar]
  132. Schlenker, P. , Chemla, E. , & Zuberbühler, K.
    (2017) Semantics and Pragmatics of Monkey Communication. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. doi:  10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.220
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.220 [Google Scholar]
  133. Schmid, H.-J.
    (2018) Entrenchment and the Psychology of Language Learning: How We Reorganize and Adapt Linguistic Knowledge (1 edition). Berlin, Boston: American Psychological Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Schoenemann, P. T.
    (2009) Evolution of brain and language. Language Learning, 59, 162–186. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2009.00539.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00539.x [Google Scholar]
  135. Schoenemann, P. T.
    (2017) A Complex-Adaptive-Systems Approach to the Evolution of Language and the Brain. In S. Mufwene , C. Coupe , & F. Pellegrino (Eds.), Complexity in Language (pp.67–100). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781107294264.004
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107294264.004 [Google Scholar]
  136. Schwaiger, T.
    (2015) Reduplication. In P. O. Müller , I. Ohnheiser , S. Olsen , & F. Rainer (Eds.), Volume 1 Word-Formation, An International Handbook of the Languages of Europe (pp.467–484). doi:  10.1515/9783110246254
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110246254 [Google Scholar]
  137. Scott-Phillips, T.
    (2015) Speaking Our Minds: Why Human Communication is Different, and How Language Evolved to Make It Special. London: Pelgrave. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑31273‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-31273-0 [Google Scholar]
  138. Seyfarth, R. , Cheney, D. L. , & Marler, P.
    (1980) Monkey responses to three different alarm calls: Evidence of predator classification and semantic communication. Science, 210(4471), 801–803. doi:  10.1126/science.7433999
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7433999 [Google Scholar]
  139. Seyfarth, R. M. , & Cheney, D. L.
    (2017) The origin of meaning in animal signals. Animal Behaviour, 124, 339–346. doi:  10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.05.020
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.05.020 [Google Scholar]
  140. Smith, A. D. M.
    (2008) Protolanguage reconstructed. Interaction Studies9(1). 100–116. 10.1075/is.9.1.08smi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/is.9.1.08smi [Google Scholar]
  141. Smith, J. D. , Zakrzewski, A. C. , Johnson, J. M. , Valleau, J. C. , & Church, B. A.
    (2016) Categorization: The View from Animal Cognition. Behavioral Sciences, 6(2), 12. doi:  10.3390/bs6020012
    https://doi.org/10.3390/bs6020012 [Google Scholar]
  142. Smith, K.
    (2004) The evolution of vocabulary. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 228(1), 127–142. doi:  10.1016/j.jtbi.2003.12.016
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2003.12.016 [Google Scholar]
  143. Smith, K. , Tamariz, M. , & Kirby, S.
    (2013) Linguistic structure is an evolutionary trade-off between simplicity and expressivity. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1348–1353. Retrieved fromhttps://researchportal.hw.ac.uk/en/publications/linguistic-structure-is-an-evolutionary-trade-off-between-simplic
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Spranger, M.
    (2016) The evolution of grounded spatial language. Berlin: Language Science Press. 10.26530/OAPEN_611695
    https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_611695 [Google Scholar]
  145. Steels, L.
    (2004) Constructivist development of grounded construction grammars. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics – ACL ’04. Presented at the the42nd Annual Meeting, Barcelona, Spain. doi:  10.3115/1218955.1218957
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1218955.1218957 [Google Scholar]
  146. (2011) Introducing Fluid Construction Grammar. In L. Steels (Ed.), Design patterns in fluid construction grammar (pp.3–30). Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cal.11.03ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cal.11.03ste [Google Scholar]
  147. (2017) Basics of Fluid Construction Grammar. Constructions and Frames, 9(2), 178–225. doi:  10.1075/cf.00002.ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cf.00002.ste [Google Scholar]
  148. Steels, L. , & Loetzsch, M.
    (2012) The Grounded Naming Game. In L. Steels (Ed.), Experiments in Cultural Language Evolution (pp.41–59). Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ais.3.04ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ais.3.04ste [Google Scholar]
  149. Steen, F. F. , & Turner, M. B.
    (2013) Multimodal Construction Grammar. In M. Borkent , B. Dancygier , & J. Hinell (Eds.), Language and the Creative Mind (pp.255–274). Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Stegmann, U. E.
    (Ed.) (2013) Animal Communication Theory: Information and Influence (1 edition). Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139003551
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139003551 [Google Scholar]
  151. Studdert-Kennedy, M.
    (1990) The view of language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences13(4). 758–759. 10.1017/S0140525X00081322
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00081322 [Google Scholar]
  152. Suzuki, T. N.
    (2012) Referential mobbing calls elicit different predator-searching behaviours in Japanese great tits. Animal Behaviour, 84(1), 53–57. doi:  10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.03.030
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.03.030 [Google Scholar]
  153. (2018) Alarm calls evoke a visual search image of a predator in birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(7), 1541–1545. doi:  10.1073/pnas.1718884115
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1718884115 [Google Scholar]
  154. Suzuki, T. N. , Wheatcroft, D. , & Griesser, M.
    (2020) The syntax–semantics interface in animal vocal communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375(1789) 20180405. doi:  10.1098/rstb.2018.0405
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0405 [Google Scholar]
  155. Tallerman, M.
    (2012) Protolanguage. In M. Tallerman & K. R. Gibson (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Language Evolution (pp.479–491). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Tallerman, M. , & Gibson, K. R.
    (2012) Introduction: The evolution of language. In M. Tallerman & K. R. Gibson (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Language Evolution (pp.1–35). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Templin, M. https://doi.org/10.5749/j.ctttv2st [Google Scholar]
  158. ten Cate, C.
    (2017) Assessing the uniqueness of language: Animal grammatical abilities take center stage. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(1), 91–96. doi:  10.3758/s13423‑016‑1091‑9
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-016-1091-9 [Google Scholar]
  159. ten Cate, C. , & Petkov, C. I.
    (2019) The Grammatical Abilities of Animals: A Comparative Overview. In P. Hagoort (Ed.), Human Language: From Genes and Brains to Behavior (pp.687–700). Cambridge, MA & London, England: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Terrace, H. S. , Petitto, L. A. , Sanders, R. J. , & Bever, T. G.
    (1979) Can an ape create a sentence?Science (New York, N.Y.)206(4421), 891–902. doi:  10.1126/science.504995
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.504995 [Google Scholar]
  161. Tincoff, R. , & Jusczyk, P. W.
    (1999) Some Beginnings of Word Comprehension in 6-Month-Olds. Psychological Science, 10(2), 172–175. doi:  10.1111/1467‑9280.00127
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00127 [Google Scholar]
  162. Tomasello, M.
    (1999) The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  163. (2003) Constructing a Language: A Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition. Harvard, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  164. (2006) Construction Grammar For Kids. Constructions; Special Volume 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  165. (2008) Origins of Human Communication. Cambridge: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/7551.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/7551.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  166. (2009) The Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition. In E. L. Bavin (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Child Language (pp.69–87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511576164.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576164.005 [Google Scholar]
  167. Tomasello, M.
    (2019) Becoming human: A theory of ontogeny. Belknap Press. 10.4159/9780674988651
    https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674988651 [Google Scholar]
  168. Tomasello, M. , Call, J. , Warren, J. A. , Frost, G. T. , Carpenter, M. , & Nagell, K. M.
    (1997) The ontogeny of chimpanzee gestural signals: A comparison across groups and generations. Evolution of Communication, 1, 223–259. 10.1075/eoc.1.2.04tom
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eoc.1.2.04tom [Google Scholar]
  169. Tomasello, M. , Carpenter, M. , Call, J. , Behne, T. , & Moll, H.
    (2005) Understanding and Sharing Intentions: The Origins of Cultural Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(5), 675–691. 10.1017/S0140525X05000129
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X05000129 [Google Scholar]
  170. Townsend, S. W. , & Manser, M. B.
    (2013) Functionally Referential Communication in Mammals: The Past, Present and the Future. Ethology, 119(1), 1–11. doi:  10.1111/eth.12015
    https://doi.org/10.1111/eth.12015 [Google Scholar]
  171. Traugott, E. C. , & Trousdale, G.
    (2013) Constructionalization and Constructional Changes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679898.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679898.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  172. Truswell, R.
    (2017) Dendrophobia in Bonobo Comprehension of Spoken English. Mind & Language, 32(4), 395–415. doi:  10.1111/mila.12150
    https://doi.org/10.1111/mila.12150 [Google Scholar]
  173. Vicente, A. & Falkum, I. L.
    (2017) Polysemy. InOxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Ed. Mark Aronoff . New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.325
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.325 [Google Scholar]
  174. Vonk, J.
    (2020) Forty years on from the question of referential signals in nonhuman communication. Animal Behavior and Cognition, 7(2), 82–86. doi:  10.26451/abc.07.02.01.2020
    https://doi.org/10.26451/abc.07.02.01.2020 [Google Scholar]
  175. Watson, S. K. , Townsend, S. W. , Schel, A. M. , Wilke, C. , Wallace, E. K. , Cheng, L. , … Slocombe, K. E.
    (2015) Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees. Current Biology, 25(4), 495–499. 10.1016/j.cub.2014.12.032
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.12.032 [Google Scholar]
  176. Wheeler, B. C. , & Fischer, J.
    (2012) Functionally referential signals: A promising paradigm whose time has passed. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 21(5), 195–205. doi:  10.1002/evan.21319
    https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.21319 [Google Scholar]
  177. Whiten, A.
    (2017) Social Learning and Culture in Child and Chimpanzee. Annual Review of Psychology, 68(1), 129–154. doi:  10.1146/annurev‑psych‑010416‑044108
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044108 [Google Scholar]
  178. (2019) Cultural Evolution in Animals. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 50(1), 27–48. doi:  10.1146/annurev‑ecolsys‑110218‑025040
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110218-025040 [Google Scholar]
  179. Wilke, C. , Kavanagh, E. , Donnellan, E. , Waller, B. M. , Machanda, Z. P. , & Slocombe, K. E.
    (2017) Production of and responses to unimodal and multimodal signals in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii. Animal Behaviour, 123, 305–316. 10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.10.024
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.10.024 [Google Scholar]
  180. Winters, James , Kirby, S. & Smith, K.
    (2018) Contextual predictability shapes signal autonomy. Cognition176. 15–30. 10.1016/j.cognition.2018.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  181. Yule, G.
    (2016) The Study of Language 6th Edition (6 edition). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781316594131
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316594131 [Google Scholar]
  182. Ziem, A.
    (2017) Do we really need a Multimodal Construction Grammar?Linguistics Vanguard, 3(s1). doi:  10.1515/lingvan‑2016‑0095
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2016-0095 [Google Scholar]
  183. Zima, E.
    (2014) Gibt es multimodale Konstruktionen? Eine Studie zu [V(motion) in circles] und [all the way from X PREP Y]. Gesprächsforschung, 15, 1–48.
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Zima, E. , & Bergs, A.
    (2017) Multimodality and construction grammar. Linguistics Vanguard, 3(s1). doi:  10.1515/lingvan‑2016‑1006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2016-1006 [Google Scholar]
  185. Zuberbühler, K.
    (2018) Combinatorial capacities in primates. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 21, 161–169. doi:  10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.015 [Google Scholar]
  186. (2020) Syntax and compositionality in animal communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 375(1789) 20190062. doi:  10.1098/rstb.2019.0062
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0062 [Google Scholar]
  187. Zuberbühler, K. , Cheney, D. L. , & Seyfarth, R. M.
    (1999) Conceptual semantics in a nonhuman primate. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113(1), 33–42. doi:  10.1037/0735‑7036.113.1.33
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7036.113.1.33 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/elt.00021.ple
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error