Volume 14, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1874-8767
  • E-ISSN: 1874-8775
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Inscribed in the field of cognitive narrative theory, this paper asks, and attempts to answer, a number of questions about the early emergence of mind in James’s notebook material for his short fiction. These questions essentially turn on the metarepresentational and aspectualizing potential of notebook entries in genetic relation to the finished tales, that is, on their capacity to present the projected storyworld, from its very conception, as a function of the subjectivity of one or several characters in the cognitive role of metarepresentational sources, or else as a dementalised lump of content to be aspectualised later in the process of execution. Analysis of the relevant notebook material yields a polarity between epistemic and contentual entries, and reveals a set of cognitive phenomena based on the alteration or continuity of the primitive balance of sources which allows one to conclude that James’s characteristic concern with the mental dynamics of his narratives, rather than being a compositional addition, was deeply embedded in his earliest fictional projects.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Anesko, Michael
    1988 Review of The Complete Notebooks of Henry James. American Literature60(1): 120–124. 10.2307/2926411
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2926411 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bremer, Manuel
    2012 How are semantic metarepresentations built and processed?Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy12: 22–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cameron, Sharon
    1989Thinking in Henry James. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cohn, Dorrit
    1978Transparent Minds: Narrative Modes for Presenting Consciousness in Fiction. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press. 10.1515/9780691213125
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9780691213125 [Google Scholar]
  5. Cosmides, Leda & John Tooby
    2000 Consider the source: The evolution of adaptations for decoupling and metarepresentation. InMetarepresentations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, Dan Sperber (ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 53–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Egeth, Marc & Robert Kurzban
    2009 Representing metarepresentations: Is there theory of mind-specific cognition?Consciousness and Cognition18: 244–254. 10.1016/j.concog.2008.07.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2008.07.005 [Google Scholar]
  7. Gard, Roger
    (ed.) 1986Henry James: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gordon, D. J.
    1950 Review of The Notebooks of Henry James and The Art of Fiction and Other Essays. The Review of English Studies1(2): 179–183. 10.1093/res/I.1.179
    https://doi.org/10.1093/res/I.1.179 [Google Scholar]
  9. Grethlein, Jonas
    2015 Is narrative “The description of fictional mental functioning”?: Heliodorus against Palmer, Zunshine & Co. Style49(3): 257–284. 10.5325/style.49.3.0257
    https://doi.org/10.5325/style.49.3.0257 [Google Scholar]
  10. Hayes, Kevin J.
    (ed.) 2010Henry James: The Contemporary Reviews. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Iversen, Stefan
    2011 States of exception: Decoupling, metarepresentation, and strange voices in narrative fiction. InStrange Voices in Narrative Fiction, Per Krogh Hansen (eds). Berlin: De Gruyter, 125–146.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. James, Henry
    1947The Notebooks of Henry James, F. O. Matthiessen & Kenneth B. Murdock (eds). Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 1970 The art of fiction. Partial Portraits, new intro. byLeon Edel. Ann Arbor MI: The University of Michigan Press, 375–408.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 1987The Complete Notebooks of Henry James, Leon Edel & Lyall H. Powers (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 1996–1999Complete Stories, 5Vols. New York NY: The Library of America.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Labrie, Ross
    1968 Henry James’s idea of consciousness. American Literature39(4): 517–529. 10.2307/2923839
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2923839 [Google Scholar]
  17. Margolin, Uri
    2003 Cognitive science, the thinking mind, and literary narrative. InNarrative Theory and the Cognitive Sciences, David Herman (ed.). Stanford CA: CSLI, 271–294.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Marsh, Huw
    2018 Narrative unreliability and metarepresentation in Ian McEwan’s Atonement; or, why Robbie might be guilty and why nobody seems to notice. Textual Practice32(8): 1325–1343. 10.1080/0950236X.2016.1276955
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0950236X.2016.1276955 [Google Scholar]
  19. Marshall, Adré
    1998The Turn of the Mind: Constituting Consciousness in Henry James. Madison and Teanek: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Palmer, Alan
    2004Fictional Minds. Lincoln NE: The University of Nebraska Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 2010Social Minds in the Novel. Columbus OH: Ohio State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Phelan, James
    2017 Toni Morrison’s determinate ambiguity in “Recitatif”. InSomebody Telling Somebody Else: A Rhetorical Poetics of Narrative. Columbus OH: Ohio State University Press, 150–167. 10.2307/j.ctv15rt209.13
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv15rt209.13 [Google Scholar]
  23. Pinker, Steven
    1998How the Mind Works. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Rembowska-Pluciennik, Magdalena
    2012 The narrative poetics of mindreading. InTexts and Minds: Papers in Cognitive Poetics and Rhetorics, Alina Kwiatkowska (ed.). Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 57–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rimmon, Shlomith
    1977The Concept of Ambiguity: The Example of James. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rosenthal, David
    2000 Consciousness and metacognition. InMetarepresentations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, Dan Sperber (ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 265–295.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ryan, Marie-Laure
    2010 Narratology and cognitive science: A problematic relation. Style44(4): 469–495.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Schneider, Ralf
    2013 The cognitive theory of character reception: An updated proposal. Anglistik: International Journal of English Studies24(2): 117–134.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Sperber, Dan
    (ed.) 2000Metarepresentations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Stanzel, F. K.
    1986A Theory of Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Throesch, Elizabeth L.
    2017 Exceeding “The trap of the reflexive”: Henry James’s dimensions of consciousness. InBefore Einstein: The Fourth Dimension on Fin-de-Siècle Literature and Culture. London: Anthem, 167–194. 10.26530/OAPEN_626390
    https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_626390 [Google Scholar]
  32. Wallace, Irving
    1955The Fabulous Originals: Lives of Extraordinary People Who Inspired Memorable Characters in Fiction. New York NY: Knopf.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. White, Peter A. & David P. Younger
    1988 Differences in the ascription of transient internal states to self and other. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology24: 292–309. 10.1016/0022‑1031(88)90022‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(88)90022-4 [Google Scholar]
  34. Zunshine, Lisa
    2006Why We Read Fiction: Theory of Mind and the Novel. Columbus OH: Ohio State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 2008 Theory of mind and fictions of embodied transparency. Narrative16(1): 65–92. 10.1353/nar.2008.0004
    https://doi.org/10.1353/nar.2008.0004 [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error