Volume 14, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1874-8767
  • E-ISSN: 1874-8775
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This article examines the function of cohesive devices (i.e., the linguistic tools that are usually used to link the various parts of the text) in Beckett’s . In Lucky’s soliloquy, certain cohesive devices are employed intensively so as to impede immediate understanding. At the same time, Beckett’s distinctive use of cohesive devices uniquely establishes a more profound awareness of the work’s message, which this article identifies as strategic coherence. This paper employed an embedded (QUAL:quan) mixed-methods approach and a validated model of cohesion to analyse Lucky’s speech.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abd Allah, Mohamed Jabraddar Mahil
    2019 Investigating cohesive devices in Wordsworth’s poetry. Arab World English Journal3 (1): 157–177.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abduh, Amirullah & Rosmaladewi Rosmaladewi
    2017 Taking the Lextutor on-line tool to examine students’ vocabulary level in business in English students. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education15: 283–286.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Abdul Rahman, Zuhair Abdul Amir
    2013 The use of cohesive devices in descriptive writing by Omani student-teachers. Sage Open3 (4): 1–10. 10.1177/2158244013506715
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244013506715 [Google Scholar]
  4. Abdulrahman, Nishad
    2018 Substitution and ellipsis in the first year university students’ English essay writing. Journal for Researching Education Practice and Theory1 (2): 30–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Abu-Ayyash, Emad A. S. & John Mckenny
    2017 The flesh and the bones of cohesive devices: Towards a comprehensive model. Journal of World Languages4 (2): 94–117. 10.1080/21698252.2017.1417687
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21698252.2017.1417687 [Google Scholar]
  6. Abu-Ayyash, Emad A. S.
    2020 Context and culture via cohesive devices in higher education students’ and professional writers’ opinion articles. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies20 (1): 106–120. 10.17576/gema‑2020‑2001‑07
    https://doi.org/10.17576/gema-2020-2001-07 [Google Scholar]
  7. Akhter, Javed, Khair Muhammad & Naila Naz
    2015 Waiting for Godot: A Marxist study. International Journal of Literature and Arts3 (4): 42–48. 10.11648/j.ijla.20150304.12
    https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijla.20150304.12 [Google Scholar]
  8. Akhter, Javed
    2015 Waiting for Godot: A deconstructive study. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies2(1): 42–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Albee, Edward
    2007 Samuel Beckett. The Princeton University Library Chronicle68 (1–2): 429–430. 10.25290/prinunivlibrchro.68.1‑2.0429
    https://doi.org/10.25290/prinunivlibrchro.68.1-2.0429 [Google Scholar]
  10. Almalki, Sami
    2016 Integrating quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research-challenges and benefits. Journal of Education and Learning5 (3): 288–296. 10.5539/jel.v5n3p288
    https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v5n3p288 [Google Scholar]
  11. Alogaili, Khalid J. Oudah & Ali G. Khalaf
    2018 Universality of Waiting for Godot. International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics4(1): 39–44. 10.18178/IJLLL.2018.4.1.147
    https://doi.org/10.18178/IJLLL.2018.4.1.147 [Google Scholar]
  12. Al-Pachachi, Ahmed. O. & Aseel A. Naser
    2016 The use of cohesive devices in English drama texts for adults and children. Angloamericanae Journal1 (1): 28–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Amin, Momen Yasin, Rangeen Omer Abdulla, Sara Saad Ali & Mahmoud Khalid Ahmed
    2019 Symbolic analysis of Waiting for Godot: A critical comparison between the Bible and Quran symbols in Waiting for Godot. Studies in Literature and language19 (3): 96–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Atkins, Anselm
    1967 Lucky’s speech in Beckett’s Waiting for Godot: A punctuated sense-line arrangement. Educational Theatre Journal19 (4): 426–432. 10.2307/3205022
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3205022 [Google Scholar]
  15. Awwad, Mohammad
    2017 Exophoric and endophoric awareness. Arab World English Journal8 (3): 28–45. 10.24093/awej/vol8no3.3
    https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol8no3.3 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bae, Jungok
    2001 Cohesion and coherence in children’s written English: Immersion and English-only classes. Issues in Applied Linguistics12 (1): 51–88. 10.5070/L4121005043
    https://doi.org/10.5070/L4121005043 [Google Scholar]
  17. Baker, Mona
    2011In Other Words. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203832929
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203832929 [Google Scholar]
  18. Beckett, Samuel
    1954Waiting for Godot. New York: Grove Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Castro, Carolyn D.
    2004 Cohesion and the social construction of meaning in the essays of Filipino college students writing in L2 English. Asia Pacific Education Review5 (2): 215–225. 10.1007/BF03024959
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03024959 [Google Scholar]
  20. Centonze, Laura
    2013 Conjunction in ELF academic discourse: A corpus-based analysis. Lingue e Linguaggi10: 7–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Charlier, Philippe & Saudamini Deo
    2017 Neurological inspiration in Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. The Lancet Neurology16 (2): 108. 10.1016/S1474‑4422(16)30397‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30397-0 [Google Scholar]
  22. Coetzee, John Maxwell
    2017Late Essays 2006–2017. London: Penguin Random House.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cox, Beverly. E., Timothy Shanahan & Elizabeth Sulzby
    1990 Good and poor elementary readers’ use of cohesion in writing. Reading Research Quarterly25 (1): 47–65. 10.2307/747987
    https://doi.org/10.2307/747987 [Google Scholar]
  24. Creswell, John. W.
    2012Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. New Jersey: Pearson education.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Esslin, Martin
    1960 The theatre of the absurd. The Tulane Drama Review4 (4): 3–15. 10.2307/1124873
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1124873 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2015The Theatre of the Absurd. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ghanbari, Mohammad Reza
    2008 A comparative study of the notion of waiting for a savior in religion and in Waiting for Godot. World Applied Sciences Journal3 (5): 733-737.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. González, María de los Ángeles Gómez
    2010 Evaluating lexical cohesion in telephone conversations. Discourse Studies12 (5): 599–623. 10.1177/1461445610371052
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445610371052 [Google Scholar]
  29. Granger, Sylviane & Stephabie Tyson
    1996 Connector usage in the English essay writing of native and non-native EFL speakers of English. World Englishes15 (1): 17–27. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1996.tb00089.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1996.tb00089.x [Google Scholar]
  30. Green, Clarence
    2012 A computational investigation of cohesion and lexical network density in L2 writing. English Language Teaching5 (8): 57–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Halliday, M. A. K. & Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen
    2014Halliday’s Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203783771
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203783771 [Google Scholar]
  32. Halliday, M. A. K. & Ruqaiya Hasan
    1976Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 1989Language, Context, and Text: Aspects of Language in a Social-Semiotic Perspective2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Haney, William S. II
    2001 Beckett out of his mind: The theatre of the absurd. Studies in the Literary Imagination34 (2): 39–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hayat, Mazhur, Saira Akhter & Sajida Iqbal
    2015 Deviations of speech acts in Beckett’s Waiting for Godot: A study in pragmatics. European Scientific journal11(2): 356–373.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Jafarpur, Abdoljavad
    1991 Cohesiveness as a basis for evaluating compositions. System19 (4): 459–465. 10.1016/0346‑251X(91)90026‑L
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(91)90026-L [Google Scholar]
  37. Johnson, Patricia
    1992 Cohesion and coherence in compositions in Malay and English. RELC Journal23 (2): 1–17. 10.1177/003368829202300201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368829202300201 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kaur, Surinder
    2015 A study of cohesion devices in John Keats’ “Ode to Autumn”. Modern Research Studies2 (1): 134–143.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kawase, Tomoyuki
    2019 Coherence relations in research article discussions. English Text Construction12 (2), 235–264. 10.1075/etc.00028.kaw
    https://doi.org/10.1075/etc.00028.kaw [Google Scholar]
  40. Keatinge, Benjamin
    2008 Beckett and language pathology. Journal of Modern Literature31 (4): 86–101. 10.2979/JML.2008.31.4.86
    https://doi.org/10.2979/JML.2008.31.4.86 [Google Scholar]
  41. Khalil, Aziz
    1989 A study of cohesion and coherence in Arab EFL college students’ writing. System17 (3): 359–371. 10.1016/0346‑251X(89)90008‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(89)90008-0 [Google Scholar]
  42. Lawley, Paul
    2008Waiting for Godot: Character Study. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Leech, Geoffrey, Benita Cruickshank & Roz Ivanic
    2001An a-z of English Grammar & Usage. Essex: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Liao, Su-Lien
    2014 Links and blocks: The role of language in Samuel Beckett’s selected plays. International Journal of Cognitive and Language Sciences8 (2): 390–395.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Lin, Ching-Hsi & Yen-Liang Lin
    2019 Grammatical and lexical patterning of make in Asian learner writing: A corpus-based study of ICNALE. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature25 (3): 1–15. 10.17576/3L‑2019‑2503‑01
    https://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2019-2503-01 [Google Scholar]
  46. Liu, Meihua & George Braine
    2005 Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. System33 (4): 623–636. 10.1016/j.system.2005.02.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.02.002 [Google Scholar]
  47. Locke, Terry
    2004Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lodico, Marguerite. G., Dean T. Spaulding & Katherine H. Voegtle
    2010Methods in Educational Research: From Theory to Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Maher, Carmel, Mark Hadfield, Maggie Hutchings & Adam de Eyto
    2018 Ensuring rigor in qualitative data analysis: A design research approach to coding combining Nvivo with traditional material methods. International Journal of Qualitative Methods17 (1): 1–13. 10.1177/1609406918786362
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918786362 [Google Scholar]
  50. Mastropierro, Lorenzo & Michaela Mahlberg
    2017 Key words and translated cohesion in Lovecraft’s At the Mountains of Madness and one of its Italian translations. English Text Construction10 (1): 78–105. 10.1075/etc.10.1.05mas
    https://doi.org/10.1075/etc.10.1.05mas [Google Scholar]
  51. McCarthy, Michael
    1991Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. McNamara, Danielle S.
    2013 The epistemic stance between the author and reader: A driving force in the cohesion of text and writing. Discourse Studies15 (5): 579–595. 10.1177/1461445613501446
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445613501446 [Google Scholar]
  53. McNamara, Danielle S., Scott A. Crossley & Rod Roscoe
    2013 Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system. Psychonomic Society45 (1): 499–515. 10.3758/s13428‑012‑0258‑1
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-012-0258-1 [Google Scholar]
  54. Moreno, Ana. L.
    2003 The role of cohesive devices as textual constraints on relevance: A discourse-as-process view. International Journal of English Studies3 (1): 111–165.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Na, Yoon-Hee
    2011 Cohesive devices in CMC texts produced by American and Korean EFL writers. Linguistic Research28 (3): 743–771. 10.17250/khisli.28.3.201112.014
    https://doi.org/10.17250/khisli.28.3.201112.014 [Google Scholar]
  56. Neuner, Jerome L.
    1987 Cohesive ties and chains in good and poor freshman essays. Research in the Teaching of English21 (1): 92–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Nur, Nur Aliyah
    2015 Analyzing vocabulary level of the students’ essay writing and academic textbook utilizing Lextutor. ETERNAL: English Teaching, Learning and research Journal1 (1): 15–27. 10.24252//Eternal.V11.2015.A6
    https://doi.org/10.24252//Eternal.V11.2015.A6 [Google Scholar]
  58. Othman, Ahmed Khider Ahmed
    2019 Investigation of grammatical cohesive devices errors made by Saudi EFL students in written paragraphs: A case study of the University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. European Scientific Journal15 (2): 1–10. 10.19044/esj.2019.v15n2p1
    https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2019.v15n2p1 [Google Scholar]
  59. Palmer, Juan Carlos
    1999 Coherence and cohesion in the English language classroom: The use of lexical reiteration and pronominalisation. RELC Journal30 (2): 61–85. 10.1177/003368829903000204
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368829903000204 [Google Scholar]
  60. Paramartha, Iwayan. W.
    2013 Substitution as a cohesive device in the dialogue of the drama Pygmalion. Humanis11: 43–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Salkie, Raphael
    1995Text and Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Scott, Mike & Chris Tribble
    2006Textual patterns: Key Words and Corpus Analysis in Language Education. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.22
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.22 [Google Scholar]
  63. Shirazi, Masoumeh A. & Seyed Mohammad Mousavi Nadoushani
    2017 The locus of adversative conjunctions in the research articles: Have they niched or vanished?Sage Open: 1–6. 10.1177/2158244017700946
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017700946 [Google Scholar]
  64. Simpson, Paul
    1992 Teaching stylistics: Analysing cohesion and narrative structure in a short story by Ernest Hemmingway. Language and Literature1 (1): 47–67. 10.1177/096394709200100104
    https://doi.org/10.1177/096394709200100104 [Google Scholar]
  65. Struthers, Lynda, Judith C. Lapadat & Peter D. MacMillan
    2013 Assessing cohesion in children’s writing: Development of a checklist. Assessing Writing18(3): 187–201. 10.1016/j.asw.2013.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2013.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  66. Thornbury, Scott
    2005Beyond the Sentence: Introducing Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Macmillan Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Tilney, Martin
    2018 Cohesive harmony and theme in Peter Carey’s ‘The Last Days of a Famous Mime’. Language and Literature27 (1): 3–20. 10.1177/0963947017753535
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963947017753535 [Google Scholar]
  68. Ullah, Irfan, Liaqat Iqbal & Abdur Rehman
    2016 A study of absurdity in Samuel Beckett’s play Waiting for Godot and Albert Camus novel The Outsider. Global Language Review1 (1): 46–57. 10.31703/glr.2016(I‑I).04
    https://doi.org/10.31703/glr.2016(I-I).04 [Google Scholar]
  69. Unubi, Sunday Abraham
    2017 The use of conjunctions in English and Igala: A contrastive analysis. International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research4 (8): 34–62. 10.22192/ijamr.2017.04.08.006
    https://doi.org/10.22192/ijamr.2017.04.08.006 [Google Scholar]
  70. Velissariou, Aspasia
    1982 Language in ‘Waiting for Godot’. Journal of Beckett Studies8 (1): 45–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Witte, Stephen P. & Lester Faigley
    1981 Coherence, cohesion and writing quality. College Composition and Communication32 (2): 189–204. 10.2307/356693
    https://doi.org/10.2307/356693 [Google Scholar]
  72. Yang, Wenxing & Ying Sun
    2012 The use of cohesive devices in argumentative writing by Chinese EFL learners at different proficiency levels. Linguistics and Education23 (1): 31–48. 10.1016/j.linged.2011.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2011.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  73. Yayli, Demet
    2006 A study of cohesion on ‘Holy Thursday’ poems of William Blake. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi15(1): 437–448.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Yeibo, Ebi
    2012 Aspects of textual cohesion in selected poems of J.P. Clark-Bekederemo. Journal of Language Teaching and Research3 (5): 860–867. 10.4304/jltr.3.5.860‑867
    https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.3.5.860-867 [Google Scholar]
  75. Yeoh, Gilbert
    2000 J. M. Coetzee and Samuel Beckett: Nothingness, minimalism, and indeterminacy. A Review of International English Literature31 (4): 117–137.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Zamawe, F. C.
    2015 The implication of using Nvivo software in qualitative data analysis: Evidence-based reflections. Malawi Medical Journal27(1): 13–15. 10.4314/mmj.v27i1.4
    https://doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v27i1.4 [Google Scholar]
  77. Zhu, Jiang
    2013 Analysis on the artistic features and themes of the theatre of the absurd. Theory and Practice in Language Studies3 (8): 1462–1466. 10.4304/tpls.3.8.1462‑1466
    https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.3.8.1462-1466 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): coherence; cohesion; cohesive devices; strategic coherence; Waiting for Godot
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error