EUROSLA Yearbook: Volume 3 (2003)
  • ISSN 1568-1491
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9749
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This paper examines the representation of English WH-phrase movement in the grammars of Japanese elementary and intermediate EFL learners. It argues that elementary level speakers allow movement of the kind *How manyi did Bill think ti students are smart? and that this is because they treat WH-movement as scrambling. By contrast, intermediate EFL learners do not allow such movement. Given that scrambling is optional, the elementary subjects should also allow WH-phrases in situ. However, this is not the case for some of the speakers. It is suggested that in these cases, informants have an obligatory stylistic WH-fronting rule. It was also found that while the intermediate proficiency EFL learners have acquired the movement property of English WH-phrases, they have not acquired their quantificational force. It is argued that this follows if the Fquant Absorption parameter proposed by Watanabe (2000) has not been reset from its Japanese value.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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