Volume 39, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0172-8865
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9730
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Studies in word-formation in English are common compared to the study of new words that are formed by combining the resources of two linguistic systems. Although new word formations within a language are considered to be highly creative, combining words from two different languages provides another level of creativity to bilinguals in different situations. The objective of this paper is to examine the main types of word creation processes employed in mass media texts, particularly in Hindi-English code-mixed words. The focus is on three main processes of word creation: affixation, blending and compounding (including reduplication) and they are discussed from the perspective of productivity/creativity, distribution and underlying motivations. These processes seem to be illustrative of the nativization of inner circle English in India, particularly in mass media where such lexical adaptations lend texts a distinct flavor through innovation in word-formation.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Balteiro, Isabel
    2012 “When Spanish Owns English Words”. English Today28: 9–14. doi: 10.1017/S0266078411000605
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078411000605 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bauer, Laurie
    1983English Word-Formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139165846
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165846 [Google Scholar]
  3. 2001Morphological Productivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511486210
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486210 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bhatia, Tej K.
    2011 “The Multilingual Mind, Optimization Theory, and Hinglish.” InRita Kothari, and Rupert Snell, eds.Chutnefying English: The Phenomenon of Hinglish. Gurgaon: Penguin Books, 37–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 2012 “Advertising and Branding in India”. InJamie Shinhee Lee, and Andrew Moody, eds.English in Asian Popular Culture. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 231–254.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bhatia, Tej K., and William, Ritchie C.
    2006a “Bilingualism in the Global Media and Advertising”. InTej K. Bhatia, and William C. Ritchie, eds.Handbook of Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell, 513–546. doi: 10.1002/9780470756997.ch20
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756997.ch20 [Google Scholar]
  7. 2006b “Bilingualism in South Asia”. InTej K. Bhatia, and William C. Ritchie, eds.Handbook of Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell, 780–807. doi: 10.1002/9780470756997.ch29
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756997.ch29 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2008 “The Bilingual Mind and Linguistic Creativity”. Journal of Creative Communication3: 5–21. doi: 10.1177/097325860800300102
    https://doi.org/10.1177/097325860800300102 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bhatt, Mahesh
    2011 “Voices from Indian Cinema I”. InRita Kothari, and Rupert Snell, eds.Chutnefying English: The Phenomenon of Hinglish. Gurgaon: Penguin Books, 176–184.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bhatt, Rakesh Mohan
    2008 “In Other Words: Language Mixing, Identity Representations, and Third Space”. Journal of Sociolinguistics12: 177–200. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00363.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00363.x [Google Scholar]
  11. Blackledge, Adrian, and Angela Creese
    2010Multilingualism: A Critical Perspective. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bolton, Kingsley
    2010 “Creativity and World Englishes”. World Englishes29: 455–466. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2010.01674.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2010.01674.x [Google Scholar]
  13. Coluzzi, Paolo
    2009 “The Italian Linguistic Landscape: The Cases of Milan and Udine”. International Journal of Multilingualism6: 298–312. doi: 10.1080/14790710902935930
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710902935930 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cook, Guy
    2000Language Play, Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Crystal, David
    1998Language Play. Chicago: The University Press of Chicago.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Eddy, Anna
    2007 “English in the Russian Context: A Macrosociolinuistic Study”. PhD dissertation, Wayne State University.
  17. Furiassi, Cristiano
    2010False Anglicisms in Italian. Milano: Polimetrica.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. García, Ofelia, and Li Wei
    2014Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137385765
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765 [Google Scholar]
  19. Gargesh, Ravinder
    2006 “South Indian Englishes”. InBraj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, and Nelson L. Cecil, eds.Handbook of World Englishes. Oxford: Blackwell, 90–113. doi: 10.1002/9780470757598.ch6
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757598.ch6 [Google Scholar]
  20. Griffin, Jeffrey
    2004 “The Presence of Written English on the Streets of Rome”. English Today20: 3–8. doi: 10.1017/S0266078404002020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078404002020 [Google Scholar]
  21. Jake, Janice L., Carol Myers-Scotton, and Steven Gross
    2005 “A Response to MacSwan (2005): Keeping the Matrix Language”. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition8: 271–276. doi: 10.1017/S1366728905002300
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728905002300 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kachru, Braj B.
    1975 “Lexical Innovations in South Asian English”. International Journal of Sociology of Language4: 55–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 1983The Indianization of English: The English Language in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 1986The Alchemy of English: The Spread, Functions, and Models of Non-Native Englishes. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kachru, Yamuna
    2006aHindi. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/loall.12
    https://doi.org/10.1075/loall.12 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2006b “Mixers Lyricing in Hinglish: Blending and Fusion in Indian Pop Culture”. World Englishes25: 223–233. doi: 10.1111/j.0083‑2919.2006.00461.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0083-2919.2006.00461.x [Google Scholar]
  27. Kathpalia, Sujata S., and Kenneth, Ong K. W.
    2015 “The use of Code-Mixing in Indian Billboard Advertising”. World Englishes34: 557–575. doi: 10.1111/weng.12159
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12159 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kelly-Holmes, Helen
    2000 “Bier, Parfum, Kaas: Language Fetish in European Advertising.” European Journal of Cultural Studies3: 67–82. doi: 10.1177/a010863
    https://doi.org/10.1177/a010863 [Google Scholar]
  29. Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.
    2012Multilingualism and Creativity. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kothari, Rita
    2011 “English AAJKAL: Hinglish in Hindi Cinema”. InRita Kothari, and Rupert Snell, eds.Chutnefying English: The Phenomenon of Hinglish. Gurgaon: Penguin Books, 112–127.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kothari, Rita, and Rupert Snell
    2011Chutnefying English: The Phenomenon of Hinglish. Gurgaon: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lamarre, Patricia
    2014 “Bilingual Winks and Bilingual Wordplay in Montreal’s Linguistic Landscape”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language228: 131–151.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Li Wei
    2011 “Moment Analysis and Translanguaging Space: Discursive Construction of Identities by Multilingual Chinese Youth in Britain”. Journal of Pragmatics43: 1222–1235. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035 [Google Scholar]
  34. 2013 “Codeswitching”. InRobert Bayley, Richard Cameron, and Ceil Lucas, eds.Oxford Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 360–378.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. MacSwan, Jeff
    2005a “Codeswitching and Generative Grammar: A Critique of the MLF Model and Some Remarks on ‘Modified Minimalism’”. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition8: 1–22. doi: 10.1017/S1366728904002068
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728904002068 [Google Scholar]
  36. 2005b “Remarks on Jake, Myers-Scotton and Gross’s Response: There is no ‘Matrix Language’”. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition8: 277–284. doi: 10.1017/S1366728905002312
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728905002312 [Google Scholar]
  37. Martin, Elizabeth
    2002 “Mixing English in French Advertising”. World Englishes21: 375–402. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00256
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00256 [Google Scholar]
  38. 2008 “Language-Mixing in French Print Advertising”. Journal of Creative Communications3: 49–76. doi: 10.1177/097325860800300104
    https://doi.org/10.1177/097325860800300104 [Google Scholar]
  39. Mattiello, Elisa
    2013Extra-Grammatical Morphology in English: Abbreviations, Blends, Reduplicatives and Related Phenomena. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. doi: 10.1515/9783110295399
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110295399 [Google Scholar]
  40. Maximova, Tamara
    2002 “Russian”. InManfred Görlach, ed.English in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 195–212.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Nair, Rukmini Bhaya
    2008 “Language and Youth Culture”. InBraj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, and S. N. Sridhar, eds.Language in South Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 466–494. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511619069.027
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511619069.027 [Google Scholar]
  42. Pal, Soumik, and Siddharth Mishra
    2011 “Hinglish and Youth”. InRita Kothari, and Rupert Snell, eds.Chutnefying English: The Phenomenon of Hinglish. Gurgaon: Penguin Books, 161–175.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Proshina, Zoya G.
    2010 “Slavic Englishes: Education or Culture?”. InAndy Kirkpatrick, ed.The Routledge Handbook of World Englishes. London: Routledge, 299–315.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Pulcini, Virginia
    1995 “Some New English Words in Italian”. Textus8: 267–280.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ricciardelli, Lina A.
    1992 “Creativity and Bilingualism”. The Journal of Creative Behavior26: 242–254. doi: 10.1002/j.2162‑6057.1992.tb01183.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1992.tb01183.x [Google Scholar]
  46. Rivlina, Alexandra
    2005 “‘Threats and Challenges’: English-Russian Interaction Today”. World Englishes34: 436–455. doi: 10.1111/weng.12153
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12153 [Google Scholar]
  47. 2015 “Bilingual Creativity in Russia: English-Russian Language Play”. World Englishes24: 477–486. doi: 10.1111/j.0883‑2919.2005.00431.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0883-2919.2005.00431.x [Google Scholar]
  48. Rowe, Bruce M., and Diane P. Levine
    2006A Concise Introduction to Linguistics. Oxon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sailaja, Pingali
    2011 “Hinglish: Code-Switching in Indian English”. ELT Journal65: 473–480. doi: 10.1093/elt/ccr047
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccr047 [Google Scholar]
  50. Schlick, Maria
    2002 “The English of Shop Signs in Europe”. English Today18: 3–7. doi: 10.1017/S0266078402002018
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078402002018 [Google Scholar]
  51. 2003 “The English of Shop Signs in Europe”. English Today19: 3–17. doi: 10.1017/S0266078403001019
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078403001019 [Google Scholar]
  52. Si, Aung
    2010 “A Diachronic Investigation of Hindi-English Code-Switching, Using Bollywood Film Scripts”. International Journal of Bilingualism15: 388–407. doi: 10.1177/1367006910379300
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006910379300 [Google Scholar]
  53. Simonton, Dean Keith
    2008 “Bilingualism and Creativity”. InJeanette Altarriba, and Roberto R. Heredia, eds.An Introduction to Bilingualism: Principles and Processes. New Jersey: Erlbaum, 147–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Trivedi, Harish
    2011 “Foreword”. InRita Kothari, and Rupert Snell, eds.Chutnefying English: The Phenomenon of Hinglish. Gurgaon: Penguin Books, vii–xxvi.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Vettorel, Paola
    2013 “English in Italian Advertising”. World Englishes32: 261–278. doi: 10.1111/weng.12023
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12023 [Google Scholar]
  56. Vettorel, Paola, and Valeria Franceschi
    2013 “English and Lexical Inventiveness in the Italian Linguistic Landscape”. English Text Construction6: 238–270. doi: 10.1075/etc.6.2.02vet
    https://doi.org/10.1075/etc.6.2.02vet [Google Scholar]
  57. Viswamohan, Aysha
    2004 “Code-Mixing with a Difference”. English Today20: 34–36. doi: 10.1017/S0266078404003062
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078404003062 [Google Scholar]
  58. Yelenevskaya, Maria
    2008 “Russian: From Socialist Realism to Reality Show”. InJudith Rosenhouse, and Rotem Kowner, eds.Globally Speaking: Motives for Adopting English Vocabulary in Other Languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 98–120.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. You, Xiaoye
    2011 “Chinese White-Collar Workers and Multilingual Creativity in the Diaspora”. World Englishes30: 409–427. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2011.01698.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2011.01698.x [Google Scholar]
  60. Zhang, Hong, and Brian Hok-Shing Chan
    2015 “Tanslanguaging in Multimodal Macao Posters: Flexible versus Separate Multilingualism”. International Journal of Bilingualism21: 34–56. doi: 10.1177/1367006915594691
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006915594691 [Google Scholar]
  61. Zhang, Wei
    2012 “Chinese-English Code-Mixing among China’s Netizens”. English Today28: 40–52. doi: 10.1017/S0266078412000260
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078412000260 [Google Scholar]
  62. 2015 “Multilingual Creativity on China’s Internet”. World Englishes34: 231–246. doi: 10.1111/weng.12135
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12135 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): affixation; blending; compounding; Hindi-English words; Neologisms; word-formation processes
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error