1887
Volume 40, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0172-8865
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9730
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The English words for daily meals constitute a complex lexical variable conditioned by social and linguistic factors. Comparative sociolinguistic analysis of 884 speakers from more than a dozen locations in Ontario, Canada reveals a synchronic system with social correlates that are reflexes of the British and American founder populations of the province. Toronto and Loyalist settlements in southern Ontario use the highest rates of while northerners with European and Scots-Irish roots use is taking over as the dominant form among younger speakers, exposing a cascade pattern (Trudgill 1972Labov 2007) that is consistent with sociolinguistic typology (Trudgill 2011).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00027.jan
2019-06-13
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abel, Kerry Margaret
    2006Changing Places: History, Community, and Identity in Northeastern Ontario. Montreal: McGill University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bates, Douglas, Martin Mächler, Ben Bolker, and Steve Walker
    2015 “Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4”. Journal of Statistical Software67: 1–48. 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  3. Belleville Oral History Archive
    Belleville Oral History Archive 1975 “Opportunities for Youth 1975.” Hastings County Historical Society. City of Belleville, Ontario. Canada.
  4. Boberg, Charles
    2010The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511781056
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511781056 [Google Scholar]
  5. Brinton, Laurel J., and Elizabeth Closs Traugott
    2005Lexicalization and Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615962
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615962 [Google Scholar]
  6. Britain, David
    2016 “Which Way to Look?: Perspectives on ‘Urban’ and ‘Rural’ in Dialectology”. InEmma Moore, and Chris Montgomery, eds.A Sense of Place: Studies in Language and Region. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 171–187.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cassidy, Frederic G., and Joan Houston Hall
    eds. 1985–2013Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE). 6Vols.Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chambers, J. K.
    1994 “An Introduction to Dialect Topography”. English World-Wide15: 35–53. 10.1075/eww.15.1.03cha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.15.1.03cha [Google Scholar]
  9. 2004 “‘Canadian Dainty’: The Rise and Decline of Briticisms in Canada”. InRaymond Hickey, ed.Legacies of Colonial English: Studies in Transported Dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 224–263.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 2007 “Geolinguistic Patterns in a Vast Speech Community.” InWladyslaw Cichocki, Wendy Burnett, and Louise Beaulieu, eds.Modern Dialect Studies. Proceedings of Methods XII. Special issue ofLinguistica Atlantica28: 27–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 2010 “English in Canada”. InElaine Gold, and Janice McAlpine, eds.Canadian English: A Linguistic Reader. Queen’s University: Strathy Language Unit, 1–37. www.queensu.ca/strathy/apps/OP6v2.pdf (accessedDecember 21, 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chambers, J. K., and Peter Trudgill
    1998Dialectology (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511805103
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511805103 [Google Scholar]
  13. Chambers, J. K., and Chia-Yi Tony Pi
    2004Atlas of Dialect Topography (On-Line). dialect.topography.chass.utoronto.ca (accessedMay 1, 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Clark, John O. E.
    1987Word Perfect. London: Harrap.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cooke, Nathalie
    2009 “Home Cooking: The Stories Canadian Cookbooks Have to Tell”. InNathalie Cooke, ed.What’s to Eat? Entreés in Canadian Food History. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 228–244.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Crystal, David T.
    2007 “On having Lunch/Dinner”. DCBLOGNovember12 2007 <david-crystal.blogspot.ca/2007/11/on-having-lunchdinner.html (accessedMay 1, 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dollinger, Stefan
    2015The Written Questionnaire in Social Dialectology: History, Theory, Practice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.40
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.40 [Google Scholar]
  18. Google Books Ngram Viewer
    Google Books Ngram Viewer books.google.com/ngrams (accessedOctober 2, 2017).
  19. Heritage, Stuart
    2012 “Tea with Grayson Perry. Or is it Dinner, or Supper?” The GuardianAugust3 2012 <https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2012/aug/03/tea-with-grayson-perry-supper-dinner (accessedMay 1, 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jankowski, Bridget L., and Sali A. Tagliamonte
    2017 “A Lost Canadian Dialect: The Ottawa Valley 1975–2013”. InTanja Säily, Arja Nurmi, Minna Palander-Collin, and Anita Auer, eds.Exploring Future Paths for Historical Sociolinguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 239–274. 10.1075/ahs.7.10jan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ahs.7.10jan [Google Scholar]
  21. Labov, William
    1972Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 1994Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol.1: Internal Factors. Cambridge and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2001Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol.2: Social Factors. Malden and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2003 “Pursuing the Cascade Model”. InDavid Britain, and Jenny Cheshire. Social Dialectology: In Honour of Peter Trudgill. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 9–22. 10.1075/impact.16.03lab
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.16.03lab [Google Scholar]
  25. 2007 “Transmission and Diffusion”. Language83: 344–387. 10.1353/lan.2007.0082
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0082 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2010Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol.3: Cognitive and Cultural Factors. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444327496
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444327496 [Google Scholar]
  27. Lehmann, Gilly
    2002 “Meals and Mealtimes, 1600–1800”. InHarlan Walker, ed.The Meal. Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2001 Devon: Prospect Books, 139–154.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Malkiel, Yakov
    1983 “Some Second and Third Thoughts on Luso-Hispanic almuerzo/almoço ‘lunch’ with Special Attention to Older Sp. yantar/Ptg. jantar ‘dinner’”. Romance Philology, 36: 393–403.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Marckwardt, Albert
    1958American English. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. McArthur, Tom
    1981Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mencken, Henry Louis
    1945The American Language. Supplement I. An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States. New York: Knopf.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 1977The American Language: An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States. Fourth ed. / First Paperback ed.New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Oxford English Dictionary (OED) Online
    Oxford English Dictionary (OED) Online. Oxford University Press, March 2018 (accessedMay 14, 2018).
  34. “Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006: Subprovincial Population Dynamics, Greater Golden Horseshoe” 2006Statistics Canada. www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-550/p14-eng.cfm (accessedMay 1, 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Pringle, Ian, and Enoch Padolsky
    1981 “The Irish Heritage of the English of the Ottawa Valley”. English Studies in Canada7: 338–352. 10.1353/esc.1981.0037
    https://doi.org/10.1353/esc.1981.0037 [Google Scholar]
  36. 1983 “The Linguistic Survey of the Ottawa Valley”. American Speech58: 325–344. 10.2307/455147
    https://doi.org/10.2307/455147 [Google Scholar]
  37. R Development Core Team
    R Development Core Team 2007R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. www.R-project.org (accessed onSeptember 6, 2018)
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Rodríguez-González, Félix
    1993 “The Naming of Meals”. English Today36: 45–52. 10.1017/S026607840000732X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026607840000732X [Google Scholar]
  39. 1999 “Sociolinguistic Variation in the Names of Meals”. Cuadernos de Filología Inglesa8: 97–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Scargill, Matthew H., and Henry J. Warkentyne
    1972 “The Survey of Canadian English: A Report.” English Quarterly5: 47–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Statistics Canada
    Statistics Canada 2001–2016 Canada Census. www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm (accessedMay 14, 2018).
  42. Strobl, Carolin, James D. Malley, and Gerhard Tutz
    2009 “An Introduction to Recursive Partitioning: Rationale, Application, and Characteristics of Classification and Regression Trees, Bagging, and Random Forests”. Psychological Methods14: 323–48. 10.1037/a0016973
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016973 [Google Scholar]
  43. Tagliamonte, Sali A.
    2003–2006 “Linguistic Changes in Canada Entering the 21st Century”. Research Grant. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC). #410-2003-0005.
  44. 2007–2010 “Directions of Change in Canadian English”. Research Grant. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC). #410-070-048.
  45. 2010–2013 “Transmission and diffusion in Canadian English”. Standard Research Grant #410-101-129. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC).
  46. 2012Variationist Sociolinguistics: Change, Observation, Interpretation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2013 “Comparative Sociolinguistics”. InJ. K. Chambers, and Natalie Schilling-Estes, eds.Handbook of Language Variation and Change (2nd ed.). Malden: Blackwell, 128–156. 10.1002/9781118335598.ch6
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118335598.ch6 [Google Scholar]
  48. 2013–2018 “Social Determinants of Linguistic Systems”. Insight Grant: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
  49. Tagliamonte, Sali A., and R. Harald Baayen
    2012 “Models, Forests and Trees of York English: Was/were Variation as a Case Study for Statistical Practice”. Language Variation and Change24: 135–178. 10.1017/S0954394512000129
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394512000129 [Google Scholar]
  50. Trudgill, Peter J.
    1972 “Linguistic Change and Diffusion”. Language in Society3: 229–252.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 2011Sociolinguistic Typology: Social Determinants of Linguistic Complexity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Vaux, Bert, and Scott A. Golder
    2003 “The Harvard Dialect Survey”. Cambridge: Harvard University Linguistics Department. dialect.redlog.net/staticmaps/q_96.html. (accessedMay 1, 2018).
  53. Visser, Margaret
    1991Rituals of Dinner: The Origins, Evolution, Eccentricities, and Meaning of Table Manners. Toronto: Harper Collins.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Wolfram, Walt
    1997 “Dialect in Society”. InFlorian Coulmas, ed.Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell, 107–126. 10.1007/978‑1‑349‑25582‑5_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-25582-5_10 [Google Scholar]
  55. Zaslow, Morris
    1973 “Does Northern Ontario Possess a Regional Identity?” Laurentian University Review4: 9–20.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00027.jan
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00027.jan
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error