1887
Volume 41, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0172-8865
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9730
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Descriptions of Australian Aboriginal English list the neutralisation of the Standard English contrast between so-called voiced and voiceless stops as one characteristic feature. This paper reports on the results of an acoustic analysis of data collected in a production task by monolingual speakers of Standard Australian English in Sydney, of Aboriginal English on Croker Island, Northern Territory, and bilingual speakers of Iwaidja/Aboriginal English and Kunwinjku/Aboriginal English on Croker Island. The results show that average values for Voice Onset Time, the main correlate of the “stop voicing contrast” in English, and Closure Duration collected from Aboriginal speakers of English do not significantly differ from that of speakers of Standard Australian English, irrespective of language background. This result proves that the stop contrast is not neutralised by these Aboriginal speakers of English. However, it can be shown that phonetic voicing manifesting itself in Voice Termination Time is a prevalent and characteristic feature of Aboriginal English on Croker Island. This feature aligns Aboriginal English on Croker Island with local Aboriginal languages and differentiates it from Standard Australian English.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00045.mai
2020-06-09
2020-07-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Antoniou, Mark, Catherine T. Best, Michael Tyler, and Christian Kroos
    2011 “Inter-Language Interference in VOT Production by L2-Dominant Bilinguals: Asymmetries in Phonetic Code-Switching”. Journal of Phonetics39: 558–580. 10.1016/j.wocn.2011.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2011.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  2. Baayen, R. Harald, Douglas Davidson, and Douglas J. Bates
    2008 “Mixed-Effects Modeling with Crossed Random Effects for Subjects and Items”. Journal of Memory and Language59: 390–412. 10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005 [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, Brett, Rikke Bundgaard-Nielsen, and Simone Graetzer
    2014 “The Obstruent Inventory of Roper Kriol”. Australian Journal of Linguistics34: 307–344. 10.1080/07268602.2014.898222
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268602.2014.898222 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baskaran, Loga
    2004 “Malaysian English: Phonology”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1034–1046.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates, Douglas, Martin Maechler, Ben Bolker, Steve Walker
    2015 “Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4”. Journal of Statistical Software67: 1–48. 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  6. Best, Catherine T. and Michael Tyler
    2007 “Nonnative and Second-Language Speech Perception”. InOcke-Schwen Bohn, and Murray J. Munro, eds.Language Experience in Second Language Learning: In Honor of James Emil Flege. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 13–34. 10.1075/lllt.17.07bes
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.17.07bes [Google Scholar]
  7. Birch, Bruce and Nicholas Evans
    . n.d.Iwaidja Dictionary. Canberra: Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Boersma, Paul and David Weenink
    2012Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer (version 5.3.18) www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/ (accessed9 October 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Burridge, Kate
    2004 “Synopsis: Phonetics and Phonology of English in the Pacific and Australasia”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1089–1097.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Burridge, Kate, and Bernd Kortmann
    eds. 2008Varities of English Vol 3: The Pacific and Australasia. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110208412
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110208412 [Google Scholar]
  11. Butcher, Andrew R.
    2008 “Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English”. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics22: 625–642. 10.1080/02699200802223535
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699200802223535 [Google Scholar]
  12. Byrd, Dani
    1993 “54,000 American Stops”. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics83: 97–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Clark, Urszula
    2004 “The English West Midlands”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter. 134–162.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cox, Felicity and Sallyanne Palethorpe
    2007 “Australian English”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association37: 341–350. 10.1017/S0025100307003192
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100307003192 [Google Scholar]
  15. Cruttenden, Alan
    2014Gimson’s Pronunication of English (8th ed.). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Disbray, Samantha and Deborah Loakes
    2013 “Writing Aboriginal English and Creoles: Five Case Studies in Australian Education Contexts”. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics36: 285–301. 10.1075/aral.36.3.04dis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aral.36.3.04dis [Google Scholar]
  17. Eades, Diana
    2014 “Aboriginal English”. InHarold Koch, and Rachel Nordlinger, eds.The Languages and Linguistics of Australia: A Comprehensive Guide. Berlin: De Gruyter, 417–447.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Evans, Nicholas
    2003Bininj Gun-Wok: A Pan-Dialectal Grammar of Mayali, Kunwinjku and Kune. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fletcher, Janet and Andrew Butcher
    2014 “Sound Patterns of Australian Languages”. InHarold Koch, and Rachel Nordlinger, eds.The Languages and Linguistics of Australia. Berlin: De Gruyter, 91–138.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Garde, Murray
    . n.d.Bininj Kunwok Dictionary. Jabiru: Bininj Kunwok Regional Language Centre. https://www.njamed.com (accessedFebruary 16, 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Harris, John
    1986Northern Territory Pidgins and the Origin of Kriol. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Honeybone, Patrick
    2012 “Lenition in English”. InTerttu Nevalainen, and Elizabeth Closs Traugott, eds.The Oxford Handbook of the History of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 773–787.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Horvath, Barbara
    2004 “Australian English: Phonology”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter, 625–644.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Huber, Magnus
    2004 “Ghanian English: Phonology”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter, 842–865.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jones, Caroline and Felicity Meakins
    2013 “Variation in Voice Onset Time in Stops in Gurindji Kriol: Picture Naming and Conversational Speech”. Australian Journal of Linguistics33: 196–220. 10.1080/07268602.2013.814525
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268602.2013.814525 [Google Scholar]
  26. Kretzschmar, William A.
    2004 “Standard American Pronunciation”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter, 257–269.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kuznetsova, Alexandra, Brockhoff, Per B., Christensen Rune Haubo Bojesen
    2017 “lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models”. Journal of Statistical Software82: 1–26. 10.18637/jss.v082.i13
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v082.i13 [Google Scholar]
  28. Ladefoged, Peter
    1971Preliminaries to Linguistic Phonetics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lisker, Leigh
    1986 “‘Voicing’ in English: A Catalogue of Acoustic Features Signaling /b/ versus /p/ in Trochees”. Language and Speech29: 1–11. 10.1177/002383098602900102
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002383098602900102 [Google Scholar]
  30. Lisker, Leigh and Arthur S. Abramson
    1967 “Some Effects of Context On Voice Onset Time in English Stops”. Language and Speech10: 1–28. 10.1177/002383096701000101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002383096701000101 [Google Scholar]
  31. Mailhammer, Robert
    . fc. English on Croker Island: The Synchronic and Diachronic Dynamics of Contact and Variation. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mailhammer, Robert and Mark Harvey
    2018 “A Reconstruction of the Proto-Iwaidjan Phoneme System”. Australian Journal of Linguistics38: 329–359. 10.1080/07268602.2018.1470455
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268602.2018.1470455 [Google Scholar]
  33. Malcolm, Ian
    2000 “Aboriginal English: From Contact Variety to Social Dialect”. InJeff Siegel, ed.Processes of Language Contact: Studies from Australia and the South Pacific. Saint Laurent: Fides, 123–144.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 2008 “Australian Creoles and Aboriginal English: Phonetics and Phonology”. InKate Burridge, and Bernd Kortmann, eds.Varieties of English Vol. 3: The Pacific and Australasia. Berlin: De Gruyter, 124–141.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 2018Australian Aboriginal English. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781501503368
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501503368 [Google Scholar]
  36. Malcolm, Ian and Ellen Grote
    2007 “Aboriginal English: Restructured Variety for Cultural Maintenance”. InGerhard Leitner, and Ian Malcolm, eds.The Habitat of Australia’s Aboriginal Languages. Berlin: De Gruyter, 153–179.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Meakins, Felicity
    2014 “Language Contact Varieties”. InHarold Koch, and Rachel Nordlinger, eds.The Languages and Linguistics of Australia. Berlin: De Gruyter, 365–416.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Muysken, Pieter
    2013 “Language Contact Outcomes as the Result of Bilingual Optimization Strategies”. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition16: 709–730. 10.1017/S1366728912000727
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000727 [Google Scholar]
  39. Penhallurick, Robert
    2004 “Welsh English”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter, 98–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Port, Robert F. and Jonathan Dalby
    1982 “Consonant/Vowel Ratio as a Cue for Voicing in English”. Perception & Psychophysics32: 141–152. 10.3758/BF03204273
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03204273 [Google Scholar]
  41. Pym, Noreen and Bonnie Larrimore
    1979Papers on Iwaidja Phonology and Grammar. Darwin: SIL.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2017R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Schneider, Edgar W.
    2007Postcolonial English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  44. Shaw, Jason A., Christopher Carignan, Tonya Agostini, Robert Mailhammer, Mark Harvey, and Donald Derrick
    . fc. “Phonological Contrast and Phonetic Variation: The Case of Velars in Iwaidja”. Language.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Stoakes, Hywel
    2013 “An Acoustic and Aerodynmaic Analysis of Consonant Articulation in Bininj Gun-Wok”. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Melbourne.
  46. Stuart-Smith, Jane
    2004 “Scottish English: Phonology”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter, 47–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Sundara, Megha, Linda Polka and Shari Baum
    2006 “Production of Coronal Stops by Simultaneous Bilingual Adults”. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition9: 97–114. 10.1017/S1366728905002403
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728905002403 [Google Scholar]
  48. Warren, Paul and Laurie Bauer
    2004 “Maori English: Phonology”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter, 603–624.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Weldon, Tracey L.
    2004 “Gullah: Phonology”. InEdgar W. Schneider, Kate Burridge, Bernd Kortmann, Rajend Mesthrie, and Clive Upton, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 1: Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter, 393–406.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Westbury, John R. and Patricia A. Keating
    1986 “On the Naturalness of Stop Consonant Voicing”. Journal of Linguistics22: 145–166. 10.1017/S0022226700010598
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700010598 [Google Scholar]
  51. Winford, Donald
    2003An Introduction to Contact Linguistics. Maldon: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Yip, Virginia and Stephen Matthews
    2007The Bilingual Child: Early Development and Language Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620744
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620744 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00045.mai
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00045.mai
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Australian Aboriginal English , closure duration , Iwaidja , Kunwinjku , lenition and VOT
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error