1887
image of Even Americans pre-aspirate

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses on a phenomenon known as pre-aspiration, defined as a period of glottal friction found in the sequences of sonorants and phonetically voiceless obstruents, as in [hɪt], [hæt], [hɪs], and [kæʃ]. Pre-aspiration has been reported in North American English ( ); however, there are no systematic studies of pre-aspiration in this part of the English-speaking world. Our study therefore considers the following main questions. 1. Is pre-aspiration present in American English and how frequent is it? 2. Does it vary by region? We also map variation related to speaking task, sex, and a range of language-internal factors. Our analyses of data from the Nationwide Speech Project Corpus ( ) confirm that pre-aspiration is a feature of American English, with rates of application reaching between 0–20 percent, depending on the region and the task. Furthermore, the more formal the task, the higher the rate of pre-aspiration application.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00065.hej
2021-04-26
2021-05-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/10.1075/eww.00065.hej/eww.00065.hej.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00065.hej&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Clopper, Cynthia G., and David B. Pisoni
    2006 “The Nationwide Speech Project: A New Corpus of American English Dialects.” Speech Communication48: 633–644. 10.1016/j.specom.2005.09.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2005.09.010 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bates, Douglas, Martin Maechler, Ben Bolker, and Steve Walker
    2015 “Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4”. Journal of Statistical Software67: 1–48. 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  3. Benoit, Kenneth, David Muhr, and Kohei Watanabe
    2020Stopwords: Multilingual Stopword Lists. R package version 2.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=stopwords
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boersma, Paul, and David Weenink
    2018Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer. Version 6.0.41, www.praat.org/ (accessedAugust 15, 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brysbaert, Marc, and Borris New
    2009 “Moving Beyond Kučera and Francis: A Critical Evaluation of Current Word Frequency Norms and the Introduction of a New and Improved Word Frequency Measure for American English”. Behavior Research Methods41(4): 977–990. 10.3758/BRM.41.4.977
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.4.977 [Google Scholar]
  6. Byrd, Dani
    1993 “54,000 American Stops”. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics83: 97–115.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Clayards, Meghan, and Thea Knowles
    2015 “Prominence Enhances Voiceless-ness and Not Place Distinction in English Voiceless Sibilants”. InThe Scottish Consortium, eds.Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow. https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs-proceedings/ICPhS2015/proceedings.html (accessedSeptember 1, 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Clayton, Ian
    2017 “Preaspiration in Hebrides English”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association47: 155–181. 10.1017/S002510031700007X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S002510031700007X [Google Scholar]
  9. Clopper, Cynthia G., and Janet B. Pierrehumbert
    2008 “Effects of Semantic Predictability and Regional Dialect on Vowel Space Reduction”. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America124(3): 1682–1688. doi:  10.1121/1.2953322
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2953322 [Google Scholar]
  10. Davidson, Lisa
    2011 “Characteristics of Stop Releases in American English Spontaneous Speech”. Speech Communication53: 1042–1058. 10.1016/j.specom.2011.05.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2011.05.010 [Google Scholar]
  11. Docherty, Gerald, and Paul Foulkes
    1999 “Sociophonetic Variation in ‘Glottals’ in Newcastle English.” InJohn J. Ohala, Yoko Hasegawa, Manjari Ohala, Daniel Granville, and Ashlee C. Bailey, eds.Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, San Francisco, 1037–1040. https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs-proceedings/ICPhS1999/papers/p14_1037.pdf (accessedSeptember 1, 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Eddington, David, and Caitlin Channer
    2010 “American English Has Goʔ a Loʔ of Glottal Stops: Social Diffusion and Linguistic Motivation”. American Speech85: 338–351. 10.1215/00031283‑2010‑019
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-2010-019 [Google Scholar]
  13. Fiasson, Romain
    2016 “Frication, Pre-aspiration and Tapping of Medial /t/ in New Zealand English”. Te Reo59: 47–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fleiss, Joseph L.
    1981Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fox, John, and Sanford Weisberg
    2019An R Companion to Applied Regression (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://socialsciences.mcmaster.ca/jfox/Books/Companion/index.html (accessedOctober 1, 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fromont, Robert, and Jennifer Hay
    2012 “LaBB-CAT: An Annotation Store”. InPaul Cook and Scott Nowson, ed.Proceedings of the Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop, Dunedin, 113–117. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/volumes/U12-1/ (accessedFebruary 10, 2021).
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gordeeva, Olga, and James M. Scobbie
    2010 “Preaspiration as a Correlate of Word-Final Voice in Scottish English Fricatives”. InSusanne Fuchs, Martine Toda, and Marzena Żygis, eds.Turbulent Sounds: An Interdisciplinary Guide. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 167–207. 10.1515/9783110226584.167
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226584.167 [Google Scholar]
  18. 2013 “A Phonetically Versatile Contrast: Pulmonic and Glottalic Voicelessness in Scottish English Obstruents and Voice Quality”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association43: 249–271. 10.1017/S0025100313000200
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100313000200 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hejná, Míša
    2015 “Pre-Aspiration in Welsh English: A Case Study of Aberystwyth”. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manchester.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 2016a “Multiplicity of the Acoustic Correlates of the Fortis-Lenis Contrast: Plosives in Aberystwyth English”. InInternational Speech Communication Association, eds.Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (Interspeech 2016), San Francisco: 3147–3151. www.proceedings.com/32771.html (accessedSeptember 8, 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 2016b “Pre-aspiration: Manual on Acoustic Analysis 1.1”. Manuscript released on LingBuzz, https://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/003184 (accessedSeptember 23, 2019).
  22. Hejná, Míša, and Anna B. Jespersen
    2019 “Focus on Consonants: Prosodic Prominence and the Fortis-Lenis Contrast in English”. InAnne Mette Nyvad, Míša Hejná, Anders Højens, Anna B. Jespersen, and Mette Hjorten Sørense, eds.A Sound Approach to Language Matters. In Honor of Ocke-Schwen Bohn. Aarhus: Aarhus University, 237–270.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hejná, Míša, and Jane Scanlon
    2015 “New Laryngeal Allophony in Manchester English”. InThe Scottish Consortium, eds.Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow. https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs-proceedings/ICPhS1999/papers/p14_1037.pdf (accessedSeptember 1, 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Helgason, Pétur
    2002 “Preaspiration in the Nordic Languages. Synchronic and Diachronic Aspects”. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stockholm University.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jatteau, Adèle, and Míša Hejná
    2018 “Gradient Dissimilation in Halh Mongolian: Implication for Diachrony”. Papers in Historical Phonology3: 28–75. 10.2218/pihph.3.2018.2821
    https://doi.org/10.2218/pihph.3.2018.2821 [Google Scholar]
  26. Jones, Mark J., and Carmen Llamas
    2003 “Fricated Pre-aspirated /t/ in Middlesbrough English: An Acoustic Study”. InMaria-Josep Solé, Daniel Recasens, and Joaquín Romero, eds.Porceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Barcelona, 655–658. https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs/icphs2003 (accessedSeptember 1, 2012)
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Jones, Mark J., and Kirsty McDougall
    2009 “The Acoustic Character of Fricated /t/ in Australian English: A Comparison with /s/ and /ʃ/”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association39: 265–289. 10.1017/S0025100309990132
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100309990132 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kettig, Thomas
    2015 “The BAD-LAD Split: A Phonetic Investigation”. M.Phil Dissertation, University of Cambridge.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kingston, John
    1990 “Articulatory Binding”. InJohn Kingston, and Mary E. Beckman, eds.Papers in Laboratory Phonology I. Between the Grammar and the Physics of Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 406–434. 10.1017/CBO9780511627736.023
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511627736.023 [Google Scholar]
  30. Labov, William
    2010Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol. 3: Cognitive and Cultural Factors. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444327496
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444327496 [Google Scholar]
  31. Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg
    2006The Atlas of North American English. Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. McKenna, Edoardo
    2013 “The Origin of Consonantal Pre-aspiration in Gàidhlig, Icelandic and Faroese: A Discussion”. InRobert McColl Millar, and Janet Cruickshank, eds.After the Storm: Papers from the Forum for Research on the Languages of Scotland and Ulster Triennial Meeting, Aberdeen 2012. Aberdeen: Forum for Research on the Languages of Scotland and Ireland, 82–99.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Morris, Jonathan
    2010 “Phonetic Variation in Northern Wales: Preaspiration”. InMiriam Meyerhoff, Chie Adachi, Agata Daleszynska, and Anna Strycharz, eds.Proceedings of the Second Summer School of Sociolinguistics, The University of Edinburgh 14 – 20 June 2010. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh. orca.cf.ac.uk/64918/1/Jon.pdf (accessedMarch 10, 2017).
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Morris, Jonathan, and Míša Hejná
    2020 “Pre-aspiration in Bethesda Welsh: A Sociophonetic Analysis”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association50(2): 168–192. 10.1017/S0025100318000221
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100318000221 [Google Scholar]
  35. Nance, Claire, and Jane Stuart-Smith
    2013 “Pre-Aspiration and Post-Aspiration in Scottish Gaelic Stop Consonants”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association43: 129–152. 10.1017/S0025100313000042
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100313000042 [Google Scholar]
  36. Di Napoli, Jessica
    2015 “Glottalization at Phrase Boundaries in Tuscan and Roman Italian”. InJoaquín Romero, and María Riera, eds.The Phonetics-Phonology Interface. Representations and Methodologies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 125–148. 10.1075/cilt.335.07nap
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.335.07nap [Google Scholar]
  37. Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe
    1985 “Preaspiration in Phonological Stop Contrasts”. Ph.D Dissertation, University College of North Wales.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2019R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.r-project.org/ (accessedOctober 1, 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Rosenfelder, Ingrid, Josef Fruehwald, Keelan Evanini, Scott Seyfarth, Kyle Gorman, Hilary Prichard, and Jiahong Yuan [Google Scholar]
  40. Rotondi, Michael A.
    2018KappaSize: Sample Size Estimation Functions for Studies of Interobserver Agreement. R package version 1.2. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/kappaSize/kappaSize.pdf (accessedOctober 1, 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Schleef, Erik
    2013 “Glottal Replacement of /t/ in Two Capitals: Effects of Word Frequency and Morphological Compositionality”. Language Variation and Change25: 201–223. 10.1017/S0954394513000094
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394513000094 [Google Scholar]
  42. Steriade, Donca
    1998 “Alternatives to Syllable-Based Accounts of Consonantal Phonotactics”. InOsamu Fujimura, Brian D. Joseph and Bohumil Palek, eds.Proceedings of LP ‘98. Prague: The Karolinum Press, 205–245.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Stevens, Mary
    2010 “How Widespread is Preaspiration in Italy? A Preliminary Acoustic Phonetic Overview”. InSusanne Schötz, and Gilbert Ambrazaitis, eds.Proceedings from Fonetik 2010, Lund, June 2–4, 2010. Lund: Lund University Centre for Languages and Literature, 97–102.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Su, Venetia W. Y.
    2007 “The gender variable in Australian English stop consonant production”. Honours dissertation, University of Melbourne.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Tait, Casey, and Marija Tabain
    2016 “Patterns of Gender Variation in the Speech of Primary School-Aged Children in Australian English: The Case of /p t k/”. InChristopher Carignan and Michael D. Tylor, eds.Proceedings of the 16th Australian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology, (SST 2016), Parramatta, 65–68. https://assta.org/sst-2016-proceedings/ (accessedSeptember 1, 2017).
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Watson, Kevin
    2007 “The Phonetics and Phonology of Plosive Lenition in Liverpool English”. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Lancaster.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00065.hej
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00065.hej
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: corpus phonology; phonetics; American English accents; variation; pre-aspiration
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error