1887
Volume 45, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0172-8865
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9730
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Variable use of the canonical participle for the canonical preterite is attested cross-dialectally in English. However, most variationist studies of this phenomenon focus on variability for one or a few verbs rather than the full set of verbs with canonically distinct preterites and participles. This study examines participle-for-preterite variation across this full set of verbs in Tyneside English. We find that variability is lexically and morphophonologically restricted, and overall subject to change from above toward use of the canonical preterite. At the same time, there may be a countervailing trend in which low-frequency verbs that form the participle by changing the stressed vowel to /ʌ/ are changing toward usage of the participle for the preterite. We suggest that the pattern of variation indicates that, although the canonical forms of two categories are varying, the categories themselves remain distinct in speakers’ grammars.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00081.ser
2023-10-26
2024-06-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Corrigan, Karen P., Isabelle Buchstaller, Adam Mearns, and Hermann Moisl
    2012The Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English (DECTE). 〈https://research.ncl.ac.uk/decte〉.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adamson, Luke
    2019 “On Containment and Syncretism: English Preterites and Participles”. InPatrick Farrell, ed.Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America41: paper54. 10.3765/plsa.v4i1.4555
    https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v4i1.4555 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderwald, Lieselotte
    2009The Morphology of English Dialects: Verb Formation in Non-Standard English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511576539
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576539 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baranowski, Maciej
    2017 “Class Matters: The Sociolinguistics of GOOSE and GOAT in Manchester English”. Language Variation and Change291: 301–339. 10.1017/S0954394517000217
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394517000217 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates, Douglas, Martin Mächler, Ben Bolker, and Steve Walker
    2015 “Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4”. Journal of Statistical Software671: 1–48. 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  6. Beal, Joan
    2004 “English Dialects in the North of England: Morphology and Syntax”. InBernd Kortmann, and Edgar Schneider, eds.A Handbook of Varieties of English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 114–141.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bybee, Joan L.
    1985Morphology: A Study of the Relation Between Meaning and Form. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.9 [Google Scholar]
  8. Caha, Pavel
    2009 “The Nanosyntax of Case”. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universitetet i Tromsø.
  9. Carroll, Ryan, Ragnar Svare, and Joseph Salmons
    2012 “Quantifying the Evolutionary Dynamics of German Verbs”. Journal of Historical Linguistics21: 153–172. 10.1075/jhl.2.2.01car
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhl.2.2.01car [Google Scholar]
  10. Chambers, Jack K.
    1995Sociolinguistic Theory: Linguistic Variation and Its Social Significance. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chatten, Alicia, Kimberly Baxter, Erwanne Mas, Jailyn Pena, Guy Tabachnick, Daniel Duncan, and Laurel MacKenzie
    2022 “‘I’ve Always Spoke Like This, You See’: Preterite-for-Participle Leveling in American and British Englishes”. American Speech. 10.1215/00031283‑9940654
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-9940654 [Google Scholar]
  12. Dammel, Antje, Jessica Nowak, and Mirjam Schmuck
    2010 “Strong-Verb Paradigm Leveling in Four Germanic Languages: A Category Frequency Approach”. Journal of Germanic Linguistics221: 337–359. 10.1017/S1470542710000097
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1470542710000097 [Google Scholar]
  13. De Smet, Isabeau, and Freek Van de Velde
    2019 “Reassessing the Evolution of West Germanic Preterite Inflection”. Diachronica361: 139–180. 10.1075/dia.18020.des
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.18020.des [Google Scholar]
  14. Duncan, Daniel
    2021 “Variation and the Participle-Preterite Relation”. Paper presented atMorphosyntactic Variation and Change in the 21st Century, Cambridge University.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Eisikovits, Edina
    1987 “Variation in the Lexical Verb in Inner-Sydney English”. Australian Journal of Linguistics71: 1–24. 10.1080/07268608708599371
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268608708599371 [Google Scholar]
  16. Embick, David
    2008 “Variation and Morphosyntactic Theory: Competition Fractionated”. Language and Linguistics Compass21: 59–78. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2007.00038.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00038.x [Google Scholar]
  17. Fryd, Marc
    2017 “Some Remarks on HAVE-less Perfect Constructions in English”. InMarc Fryd, and Pierre-Don Giancarli, eds.Aorists and Perfects: Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives. Leiden: Brill, 203–244. 10.1163/9789004326651_010
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004326651_010 [Google Scholar]
  18. Geeraert, Kristina
    2012 “I Drunk or I Have Drank? An Investigation of Levelling in the English Strong Verb Paradigm”. InPre-Proceedings of the International Conference on Linguistic Evidence: Empirical, Theoretical, and Computational Perspectives, 117–122. Tübingen: Karls University of Tübingen.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Geeraert, Kristina, and John Newman
    2011 “I Haven’t Drank in Weeks: The Use of Past Tense Forms as Past Participles in English Corpora”. InJohn Newman, Harald Baayen, and Sally Rice, eds.Corpus-Based Studies in Language Use, Language Learning, and Language Documentation. Leiden: Brill, 11–33. 10.1163/9789401206884_003
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401206884_003 [Google Scholar]
  20. Godfrey, John J., and Edward Holliman
    1997Switchboard-1 Release 2. 〈https://catalog.ldc.upenn.edu/LDC97S62〉.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Guy, Gregory R.
    2019 “Variation and Mental Representation”. InDavid W. Lightfoot, and Jonathan Havenhill, eds.Variable Properties in Language: Their Nature and Acquisition. Washington: Georgetown University Press, 129–140. 10.2307/j.ctvfxv99p.15
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvfxv99p.15 [Google Scholar]
  22. Halle, Morris, and Alec Marantz
    1993 “Distributed Morphology and the Pieces of Inflection”. InKen Hale, and Samuel Jay Keyser, eds.The View from Building 20. Cambridge: MIT Press, 111–176.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hill, Eugen
    2010 “A Case Study in Grammaticalized Inflectional Morphology: Origin and Development of the Germanic Weak Preterite”. Diachronica271: 411–458. 10.1075/dia.27.3.02hil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.27.3.02hil [Google Scholar]
  24. van Heuven, Walter J. B., Pawel Mandera, Emmanuel Keuleers, and Marc Brysbaert
    2014 “SUBTLEX-UK: A New and Improved Word Frequency Database for British English”. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology671: 1176–1190. 10.1080/17470218.2013.850521
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.850521 [Google Scholar]
  25. Hooper, Joan B.
    1976 “Word Frequency in Lexical Diffusion and the Source of Morphophonological Change”. InWilliam M. Christie, Jr., ed.Current Progress in Historical Linguistics: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Tucson, Arizona, 12–16 January 1976. Amsterdam: North Holland, 96–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Janda, Richard D.
    2020 “Perturbations, Practices, Predictions, and Postludes in a Bioheuristic Historical Linguistics”. InRichard D. Janda, Brian D. Joseph, and Barbara S. Vance, eds.The Handbook of Historical Linguistics, Volume II. Hoboken: Wiley Blackwell, 523–650. 10.1002/9781118732168.ch24
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118732168.ch24 [Google Scholar]
  27. Jankowski, Bridget L., and Sali A. Tagliamonte
    2022 “‘He Come Out and Give Me a Beer but He Never Seen the Bear’: Vernacular Preterites in Ontario Dialects”. English World-Wide431: 267–296. 10.1075/eww.20014.jan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.20014.jan [Google Scholar]
  28. Johnson, Gregory
    2014 “Restructuring and Infinitives: The View from Appalachia”. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University.
  29. Kemp, Renee, Emily Moline, Chelsea Escalante, Alexander Mendes, and Robert Bayley
    2016 “Where Have All the Participles Went? Using Twitter Data to Teach about Language”. American Speech911: 226–235. 10.1215/00031283‑3633129
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-3633129 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kortmann, Bernd, and Susanne Wagner
    2005 “The Freiburg English Dialect Project and Corpus (FRED)”. InBernd Kortmann, Tanja Herrmann, Lukas Pietsch, and Susanne Wagner, eds.A Comparative Grammar of British English Dialects, Volume I: Agreement, Gender, Relative Clauses. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 1–20. 10.1515/9783110197518.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110197518.1 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kroch, Anthony
    1994 “Morphosyntactic Variation”. InKatherine Beals, Jeannette Denton, Robert Knippen, Lynette Melnar, Hisami Suzuki, and Erica Zeinfeld, eds.Papers from the 30th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society: Volume 2: The Parasession on Variation and Linguistic Theory. Chicago: Chicago Linguistics Society, 180–201.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Labov, William, and Ingrid Rosenfelder
    2011The Philadelphia Neighborhood Corpus of LING 560 Studies, 1972–2010 (PNC). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Levey, Stephen
    2006 “Tense Variation in Preadolescent Narratives”. Journal of English Linguistics341: 126–152. 10.1177/0075424206290256
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424206290256 [Google Scholar]
  34. Levey, Stephen, Susan Fox, and Laura Kastronic
    2017 “A Big City Perspective on Come/Came Variation: Evidence from London, U.K.”. English World-Wide381: 181–210. 10.1075/eww.38.2.03lev
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.38.2.03lev [Google Scholar]
  35. Lieberman, Erez, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Joe Jackson, Tina Tang, and Martin A. Novak
    2007 “Quantifying the Evolutionary Dynamics of Language”. Nature4491: 713–716. 10.1038/nature06137
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06137 [Google Scholar]
  36. Orton, Harold, Stewart Sanderson, and John Widdowson
    eds. 1998/1978The Linguistic Atlas of England. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Orton, Harold, and Wilfrid J. Halladay
    eds. 1963Survey of English Dialects (B) The Basic Material, Volume I: The Six Northern Counties and the Isle of Man, Part III. Leeds: E.J. Arnold & Son.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2020R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Version 4.0.3www.R-project.org/〉 (accessedOctober 10 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Sampson, Geoffrey
    2002 “Regional Variation in the English Verb Qualifier System”. English Language and Linguistics61: 17–30. 10.1017/S1360674302001028
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674302001028 [Google Scholar]
  40. Stenström, Anna-Brita, Gisle Andersen, and Ingrid Kristine Hasund
    2002Trends in Teenage Talk: Corpus Compilation, Analysis and Findings. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.8 [Google Scholar]
  41. Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    2013Grammatical Variation in British English Dialects: A Study in Corpus-Based Dialectometry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tagliamonte, Sali
    2001 “Come/Came Variation in English Dialects”. American Speech761: 42–61. 10.1215/00031283‑76‑1‑42
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-76-1-42 [Google Scholar]
  43. Tortora, Christina, Frances Blanchette, Teresa O’Neill, and Steven Arriaga
    2015 “Variation in Appalachian Non-Present Verb Forms”. Paper presented atFormal Ways of Analyzing Variation (FWAV) 2, University of Iceland.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00081.ser
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/eww.00081.ser
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): morphosyntax; participle; preterite; Tyneside English; variationist sociolinguistics
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error