1887
image of Exploring age-related changes in the realisation of (t)
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

An understanding of linguistic heterogeneity in older speakers is crucial for the study of language variation and change. To date, intra-speaker malleability in older populations remains under-researched, in varieties of English and more generally. This paper contributes panel data to the question of how aging individuals engage with ongoing changes in the realisation of (t) in the Tyneside region in the North-East of England. We examine the variable ways in which six speakers recorded in their 20s/30s and re-interviewed in their 60s/70s adapt to community-wide change. The finding that some speakers exhibit malleability in their variable realisation of (t) substantiates a life-course perspective over a strict maturational explanation. More specifically, our analysis explores the contribution of long-term (in)stability to lifespan-specific identity construction in the Tyneside area. Our findings support calls for the incorporation of sophisticated statistical methods in combination with social constructivist approaches into panel research on older age populations.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21011.buc
2022-05-10
2022-05-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allen, Mike
    2017The Sage Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods (Vols.1–4). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. 10.4135/9781483381411
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483381411 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ashby, Michael, and Joanna Przedlacka
    2014 “Measuring Incompleteness: Acoustic Correlates of Glottal Articulations”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association3: 283–296. 10.1017/S002510031400019X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S002510031400019X [Google Scholar]
  3. Baayen, R. Harald, Douglas J. Davidson, and Douglas M. Bates
    2008 “Mixed-Effects Modeling with Crossed Random Effects for Subjects and Items”. Journal of Memory and Language59: 390–412. 10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005 [Google Scholar]
  4. Barnfield, Kate, and Isabelle Buchstaller
    2010 “Intensification on Tyneside: Longitudinal Developments and New Trends”. English World-Wide31: 252–287. 10.1075/eww.31.3.02bar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.31.3.02bar [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates, Douglas, Martin Maechler, Ben Bolker, and Steve Walker
    2014 “Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4”. Journal of Statistical Software67: 1–48.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bayard, Donn
    1990 “Minder, Mork and Mindy? (-t) Glottalisation and Post-Vocalic (-r) in Younger New Zealand English Speakers”. InAllan Bell, and Janet Holmes, eds.New Zealand Ways of Speaking English. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 149–164.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Beal, Joan
    2009 “Enregisterment, Commodification and Historical Context: ‘Geordie’ versus ‘Sheffieldish’”. American Speech84: 138–156. 10.1215/00031283‑2009‑012
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-2009-012 [Google Scholar]
  8. Beal, Joan, Lourdes Burbano-Elizondo, and Carmen Llamas
    2012Urban North-Eastern English: Tyneside to Teesside. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 10.1515/9780748664450
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9780748664450 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bell, Alan
    1984 “Language Style as Audience Design”. InNicholas Coupland, and Adam Jaworski, eds.Sociolinguistics: A Reader and Coursebook. New York: St Martin’s Press Inc., 240–250.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bengtson, Vern, Glenn Elder Jr., and Norella Putney
    2005 “The Lifecourse Perspective on Ageing: Linked Lives, Timing, and History”. InMalcolm Johnson, Vern Bengtson, Peter Coleman, and Thomas Kirkwood, eds.The Cambridge Handbook of Age and Ageing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 493–501. 10.1017/CBO9780511610714.053
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511610714.053 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bourdieu, Pierre, and Luc Boltanski
    1975 “Le fétichisme de la langue”. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales1: 2–32. 10.3406/arss.1975.3417
    https://doi.org/10.3406/arss.1975.3417 [Google Scholar]
  12. Britain, David
    2012 “English in England”. InRaymond Hickey, ed.Areal Features of the Anglophone World. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 23–52. 10.1515/9783110279429.23
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110279429.23 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brook, Marisa, Bridget L. Jankowski, Lex Konnelly, and Sali A. Tagliamonte
    2018 “‘I Don’t Come Off as Timid Anymore’: Real-Time Change in Early Adulthood Against the Backdrop of the Community”. Journal of Sociolinguistics22: 351–374. 10.1111/josl.12310
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12310 [Google Scholar]
  14. Buchstaller, Isabelle
    2006 “Diagnostics of Age-Graded Linguistic Behaviour”. Journal of Sociolinguistics10: 3–30. 10.1111/j.1360‑6441.2006.00315.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-6441.2006.00315.x [Google Scholar]
  15. 2016 “Investigating the Effect of Socio-Cognitive Salience and Speaker-Based Factors in Morpho-Syntactic Life-Span Change”. Journal of English Linguistics44: 199–229. 10.1177/0075424216639645
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424216639645 [Google Scholar]
  16. Buchstaller, Isabelle, Karen Corrigan, Anders Holmberg, Patrick Honeybone, and Warren Maguire
    2013 “T-to-R and the Northern Subject Rule: Questionnaire-Based Spatial, Social and Structural Linguistics”. Journal of English Linguistics17: 85–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Buchstaller, Isabelle, Anne Krause, Anja Auer, and Stefanie Otte
    2017 “Levelling Across the Life-Span? Tracing the face Vowel in Panel Data from the North East of England”. Journal of Sociolinguistics21: 3–33. 10.1111/josl.12227
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12227 [Google Scholar]
  18. Buchstaller, Isabelle, and Adam Mearns
    2018 “The Effect of Economic Trajectory and Speaker Profile on Lifespan Change: Evidence from Stative Possessives on Tyneside”. InSandra Jansen, and Natalie Braber, eds.Sociolinguistics in England. London: Palgrave, 215–241. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑56288‑3_9
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-56288-3_9 [Google Scholar]
  19. Callaghan, Paul
    . n.d. “North East England – Moving from an Industrial Economy to a Knowledge Economy”. https://www.oecd.org/education/imhe/39552858.pdf (accessedSeptember 9, 2021).
  20. Carr, Philip
    1991 “Lexical Properties of Postlexical Rules: Postlexical Derived Environment and the Elsewhere Condition”. Lingua85: 255–268. 10.1016/0024‑3841(91)90044‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(91)90044-6 [Google Scholar]
  21. CLARIN-D/SfS-Uni. Tübingen
    CLARIN-D/SfS-Uni. Tübingen 2012 “WebLicht: Web-Based Linguistic Chaining Tool”. https://weblicht.sfs.uni-tuebingen.de (accessed26 November, 2012).
  22. Chambers, Jack K.
    2003Sociolinguistic Theory. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Coupland, Nikolas
    2016 “Labov, Vernacularity and Sociolinguistic Change”. Journal of Sociolinguistics20: 409–430. 10.1111/josl.12191
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12191 [Google Scholar]
  24. Dickson, Victoria, and Lauren Hall-Lew
    2017 “Class, Gender, and Rhoticity: The Social Stratification of Non-Prevocalic /r/ in Edinburgh Speech”. Journal of English Linguistics45: 229–259. 10.1177/0075424217718024
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424217718024 [Google Scholar]
  25. Dilley, Laura, Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel, and Mari Ostendorf
    1996 “Glottalization of Word-Initial Vowels as a Function of Prosodic Structure”. Journal of Phonetics24: 423–444. 10.1006/jpho.1996.0023
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1996.0023 [Google Scholar]
  26. Docherty, Gerard, and Paul Foulkes
    1995 “Acoustic Profiling of Glottal and Glottalised Variants of English Stops”. InProceedings of the 13th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, 350–353.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 1999a “Derby and Newcastle: Instrumental Phonetics and Variationist Studies”. InPaul Foulkes, and Gerard J. Docherty, eds.Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 47–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 1999b “Sociophonetic Variation in ‘Glottals’ in Newcastle English”. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Berkeley: University of California, 1037–1040.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Docherty, Gerard, Paul Foulkes, James Milroy, Lesley Milroy, and David Walshaw
    1997 “Descriptive Adequacy in Phonology: A Variationist Perspective”. Journal of Linguistics33: 275–310. 10.1017/S002222679700649X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S002222679700649X [Google Scholar]
  30. Downes, William
    1998Language and Society (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139163781
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139163781 [Google Scholar]
  31. Drager, Katie, and Jennifer Hay
    2012 “Exploiting Random Intercepts: Two Case Studies in Sociophonetics”. Language Variation and Change24: 59–78. 10.1017/S0954394512000014
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394512000014 [Google Scholar]
  32. Eckert, Penelope
    2019 “The Individual in the Semiotic Landscape”. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics4: 1–15. 10.5334/gjgl.640
    https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.640 [Google Scholar]
  33. Fabricius, Anne
    2000 “T-Glottalling Between Stigma and Prestige: A Sociolinguistic Study of Modern RP”. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Copenhagen Business School.
  34. Foulkes, Paul, and Gerard Docherty
    1999 “Urban Voices: An Overview”. InPaul Foulkes, and Gerard J. Docherty, eds.Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 1–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Foulkes, Paul, Gerard Docherty, and Dominic Watt
    1999 “Tracking the Emergence of Structured Variation: Realizations of (t) by Newcastle Children”. Leeds Working Papers in Linguistics and Phonetics7: 1–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Foulkes, Paul, and Gerard Docherty
    2006 “The Social Life of Phonetics and Phonology”. Journal of Phonetics34: 409–438. 10.1016/j.wocn.2005.08.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2005.08.002 [Google Scholar]
  37. Fox, John, and Sanford Weisberg
    2019An R Companion to Applied Regression (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Garellek, Marc
    2013 “Production and Perception of Glottal Stops”. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
  39. Gordon, Elizabeth, Lyle Campbell, Jennifer Hay, Margaret Maclagan, Andrea Sudbury, and Peter Trudgill
    2004New Zealand English: Its Origins and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486678
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486678 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gries, Stefan
    2013Statistics for Linguistics with R: A Practical Introduction. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110307474
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110307474 [Google Scholar]
  41. Harrington, Jonathan
    2006 “An Acoustic Analysis of ‘Happy-Tensing’ in the Queen’s Christmas Broadcasts”. Journal of Phonetics34: 439–457. 10.1016/j.wocn.2005.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2005.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  42. Harrington, Jonathan, Sallyanne Palethorpe, and Catherine Watson
    2007 “Age-Related Changes in Fundamental Frequency and Formants: A Longitudinal Study of Four Speakers”. InProceedings of Interspeech 2007, 2753–2756. < 10.21437/Interspeech.2007‑716.
    https://doi.org/10.21437/Interspeech.2007-716 [Google Scholar]
  43. Hayes, Bruce
    2009 “Syllabification in English.” https://linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/120a/HayesAmbisyllabicity.pdf (accessed15 March, 2021)
  44. Hodgson, Catherine, and Charles David
    . n.d.. “Case Study North East England (UK)”. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/evaluation/pdf/expost2006/wp4_cs_north_east_england.pdf (accessedSeptember 30, 2021).
  45. Holmes, Janet
    1995 “Glottal Stops in New Zealand English: An Analysis of Variants of Word-Final /t/”. Linguistics33: 433–463. 10.1515/ling.1995.33.3.433
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1995.33.3.433 [Google Scholar]
  46. Jansen, Sandra
    2013 “‘I Don’t Sound like a Geordie!’: Phonological and Morphosyntactic Features of Carlisle English”. InNils-Lennart Johannesson, Gunnel Melchers, and Beyza Björkman, eds.Of Butterflies and Birds, of Dialects and Genres: Essays in Honour of Philip Shaw. Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 209–224.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Johnstone, Barbara, Jennifer Andrus, and Andrew Danielson
    2006 “Mobility, Indexicality, and the Enregisterment of ‘Pittsburghese’”. Journal of English Linguistics34: 77–104. 10.1177/0075424206290692
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424206290692 [Google Scholar]
  48. Kerswill, Paul E.
    2003 “Dialect Levelling and Geographical Diffusion in British English”. InDavid Britain, and Jenny Cheshire, eds.Social Dialectology: In Honour of Peter Trudgill. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 223–243. 10.1075/impact.16.16ker
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.16.16ker [Google Scholar]
  49. Kingsmore, Rona
    1995Ulster Scots Speech: A Sociolinguistic Study. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Knowles, Jared, and Carl Frederick [Google Scholar]
  51. Ladefoged, Peter
    1990 “Some Proposals Concerning Glottal Consonants”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association20: 24–26. 10.1017/S0025100300004217
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100300004217 [Google Scholar]
  52. Llamas, Carmen
    2015 “Middlesbrough”. InRaymond Hickey, ed.Researching Northern Englishes. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 251–270. 10.1075/veaw.g55.11lla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g55.11lla [Google Scholar]
  53. Local, John, John Kelly, and William Wells
    1986 “Towards a Phonology of Conversation: Turntaking in Tyneside”. Journal of Linguistics22: 411–437. 10.1017/S0022226700010859
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700010859 [Google Scholar]
  54. MacFarlane, Andrew, and Jane Stuart-Smith
    2012 “‘One of them Sounds Sort of Glasgow Uniish’: Social Judgements and Fine Phonetic Variation in Glasgow”. Lingua7: 764–778. 10.1016/j.lingua.2012.01.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2012.01.007 [Google Scholar]
  55. MacKenzie, Laurel
    2017 “Frequency Effects Over the Lifespan: A Case Study of Attenborough’s r’s”. Linguistics Vanguard3 . 10.1515/lingvan‑2017‑0005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2017-0005 [Google Scholar]
  56. MacKenzie, Laurel, and Gillian Sankoff
    2009 “A Quantitative Analysis of Diphthongization in Montreal French”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics15: 92–100.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Marshall, Jonathan
    2001 “The Sociolinguistic Status of the Glottal Stop in Northeast Scots”. Reading Working Papers in Linguistics5: 49–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Mayer, Karl Ulrich, and Michael Wagner
    1993 “Socio-Economic Resources and Differential Aging”. Ageing and Society5: 517–550. 10.1017/S0144686X00001355
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X00001355 [Google Scholar]
  59. Mearns, Adam
    2015 “Tyneside”. InRaymond Hickey, ed.Researching Northern English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 161–181. 10.1075/veaw.g55.07mea
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g55.07mea [Google Scholar]
  60. Mearns, Adam, Karen Corrigan, and Isabelle Buchstaller
    2016 “The Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English and The Talk of the Toon: Issues in Preservation and Public Engagement”. InKaren Corrigan, and Adam Mearns, eds.Creating and Digitizing Language Corpora – Volume 3: Databases for Public Engagement. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 177–120. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑38645‑8_7
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-38645-8_7 [Google Scholar]
  61. Mechler, Johanna, and Isabelle Buchstaller
    2019 “[In]stability in the Use of a Stable Variable”. Linguistics Vanguard5 . 10.1515/lingvan‑2018‑0024
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2018-0024 [Google Scholar]
  62. Mees, Inger M.
    1987 “Glottal Stop as a Prestigious Feature in Cardiff English”. English World-Wide8: 25–39. 10.1075/eww.8.1.04mee
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.8.1.04mee [Google Scholar]
  63. Mees, Inger, and Beverley Collins
    1999 “Cardiff: A Real-Time Study of Glottalisation”. InPaul Foulkes, and Gerard Docherty, eds.Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 185–202.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Milroy, Lesley, James Milroy, Gerry Docherty, Paul Foulkes, and David Walshaw
    1999 “Phonological Variation and Change in Contemporary English: Evidence from Newcastle Upon Tyne and Derby”. Cuadernos de Filologica Inglesa8:35–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Milroy, James, Lesley Milroy, and Sue Hartley
    1994 “Local and Supralocal Change in British English: The Case of Glottalisation”. English World-Wide15: 1–32. 10.1075/eww.15.1.02mil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.15.1.02mil [Google Scholar]
  66. Milroy, James, Lesley Milroy, Sue Hartley, and David Walshaw
    1994 “Glottal Stops and Tyneside Glottalization: Competing Patterns of Variation and Change in British English”. Language Variation and Change6: 327–357. 10.1017/S095439450000171X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439450000171X [Google Scholar]
  67. Minkova, Donka, and Kie Ross Zuraw
    2016 “Ambisyllabicity in English: Present and Past”. InMerja Kytö, and Päivi Pahta, eds.The Cambridge Handbook of English Historical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 424–443. 10.1017/CBO9781139600231.026
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139600231.026 [Google Scholar]
  68. Newbrook, Mark
    1986Sociolinguistic Reflexes of Dialect Interference in West Wirral. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Office for National Statistics
    Office for National Statistics. n.d. “Unemployment”. https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peoplenotinwork/unemployment (accessedAugust 2, 2017).
  70. Pichler, Heike, Suzanne Evans Wagner, and Ashley Hesson
    2018 “Old-Age Language Variation and Change: Confronting Variationist Ageism”. Language Linguistics Compass12 < 10.1111/lnc3.12281.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12281 [Google Scholar]
  71. Prichard, Hilary, and Meredith Tamminga
    2012 “The Impact of Higher Education on Philadelphia Vowels”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics18: 87–95.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2021R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Version 4.0.3. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.r-project.org/.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Reubold, Ulrich, Jonathan Harrington, and Felicitas Kleber
    2010 “Vocal Aging Effects on F0 and the First Formant: A Longitudinal Analysis in Adult Speakers”. Speech Communication52: 638–651. 10.1016/j.specom.2010.02.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2010.02.012 [Google Scholar]
  74. Reubold, Ulrich, and Jonathan Harrington
    2017 “The Influence of Age on Estimating Sound Change Acoustically from Longitudinal Data”. InKaren Beaman, and Isabelle Buchstaller, eds.Panel Studies of Variation and Change, New York: Routledge, 129–151. 10.4324/9781315696591‑6
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315696591-6 [Google Scholar]
  75. Rickford, John, and Faye McNair-Knox
    1994 “Addressee- and Topic-Influenced Style Shift: A Quantitative Socio-Linguistic Study”. InDouglas Biber, and Edward Finegan, eds.Perspectives on Register: Situating Register Variation within Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 235–276.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Rigg, L.
    1987 “A Quantitative Study of Sociolinguistic Patterns of Variation in Adult Tyneside Speakers”. BA Undergraduate dissertation, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
  77. Sankoff, Gillian
    2004 “Adolescents, Young Adults and the Critical Period: Two Case Studies from ‘Seven Up’”. InCarmen Fought, ed.Sociolinguistic Variation: Critical Reflections. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 121–139.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Sankoff, David, and Suzanne Laberge
    1978 “The Linguistic Market and the Statistical Explanation of Variability”. InDavid Sankoff, ed.Linguistic Variation: Models and Methods. New York: Academic Press, 239–250.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Sankoff, Gillian, and Hélène Blondeau
    2007 “Language Change Across the Lifespan: /r/ in Montreal French”. Language83: 560–588. 10.1353/lan.2007.0106
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0106 [Google Scholar]
  80. Sankoff, Gillian, and Wagner, Suzanne Evans
    2006 “Age-Grading in Retrograde Movement: The Inflected Future in Montréal French”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics12: 203–216.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Sankoff, Gillian, and Suzanne Wagner
    2020 “The Long Tail of Language Change: A Trend and Panel Study of Québécois French Futures”. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue Canadienne De Linguistique65: 246–275. 10.1017/cnj.2020.7
    https://doi.org/10.1017/cnj.2020.7 [Google Scholar]
  82. Schleef, Erik
    2013 “Glottal Replacement of /t/ in Two British Capitals: Effects of Word Frequency and Morphological Compositionality”. Language Variation and Change25: 201–223. 10.1017/S0954394513000094
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394513000094 [Google Scholar]
  83. Shariatmadari, David
    2015 “Why Have We got it in for the Glottal Stop?”. The GuardianApril30 2015 <https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/apr/30/why-have-we-got-it-in-for-glottal-stop (accessedSeptember 30, 2021).
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Smith, Jennifer, and Sophie Holmes-Elliott
    2018 “The Unstoppable Glottal: Tracking Rapid Change in an Iconic British Variable”. English Language and Linguistics22: 323–355. 10.1017/S1360674316000459
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674316000459 [Google Scholar]
  85. Stevens, Mary, and Jonathan Harrington
    2014 “The Individual and the Actuation of Sound Change”. Loquens1: e003. 10.3989/loquens.2014.003
    https://doi.org/10.3989/loquens.2014.003 [Google Scholar]
  86. Stuart-Smith, Jane
    1999 “Glasgow: Accent and Voice Quality”. InPaul Foulkes, and Gerard Docherty, eds.Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 203–223.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Student Hut
    Student Hut 2020 “Best 10 Universities for 2020: The Top Universities in the UK Based on Student Reviews Collected over 2019”. https://studenthut.com/best-universities-uk (accessedMarch 16, 2022).
  88. Sundgren, Eva, Isabelle Buchstaller, and Karen Beaman
    2021 “The Origin of Panel Corpora: The Case of Eskilstuna”. InKaren Beaman, and Isabelle Buchstaller, eds.Language Variation and Language Change Across the Lifespan. Boston: Routledge, 17–55. 10.4324/9780429030314‑1
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429030314-1 [Google Scholar]
  89. Tetreault, Chantal
    2017 “Ethnographic Perspectives on Panel Studies and Longitudinal Research”. InSuzanne Evans Wagner, and Isabelle Buchstaller, eds.Panel Studies of Variation and Change. Boston: Routledge, 235–255. 10.4324/9781315696591‑10
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315696591-10 [Google Scholar]
  90. Tollfree, Laura
    1999 “South East London English: Discrete Versus Continuous Modelling of Consonantal Reduction”. InPaul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty, eds.Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 163–184.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Trudgill, Peter
    1988 “Norwich Revisited: Recent Changes in an English Urban Dialect”. English World-Wide9: 33–49. 10.1075/eww.9.1.03tru
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.9.1.03tru [Google Scholar]
  92. Turton, Danielle
    2019 “t-Glottalling, Flapping and Pre-Glottalisation in British Englishes: Patterns in Phonological and Social Variability”. Paper presented at theCambridge Linguistics Forum. 5 December, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Viereck, Wolfgang
    1968 “A Diachronic-Structural Analysis of a Northern English Urban Dialect”. Leeds Studies in Englishn.s.: 65–79.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Wagner, Suzanne Evans
    2012a “Age Grading in Sociolinguistic Theory”. Language and Linguistics Compass6: 371–382. 10.1002/lnc3.343
    https://doi.org/10.1002/lnc3.343 [Google Scholar]
  95. 2012b “Real-Time Evidence for Age Grad(ing) in Late Adolescence”. Language Variation and Change24: 179–202. 10.1017/S0954394512000099
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394512000099 [Google Scholar]
  96. Wagner, Suzanne Evans, and Isabelle Buchstaller
    eds. 2017Panel Studies in Language Variation and Change. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315696591
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315696591 [Google Scholar]
  97. Wagner, Suzanne Evans, and Gillian Sankoff
    2011 “Age Grading in the Montréal French Inflected Future”. Language Variation and Change23: 275–313. 10.1017/S0954394511000111
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394511000111 [Google Scholar]
  98. Wells, John C.
    1982Accents of English (Vols.1–2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511611759
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611759 [Google Scholar]
  99. Wieling, Martijn, Esteve Valls, Harold Baayen, and John Nerbonne
    2018 “Border Effects Among Catalan Dialects”. InDirk Speelman, Kris Heylen, and Dirk Geeraerts, eds.Mixed-Effects Regression Models in Linguistics. Cham: Springer, 71–97. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑69830‑4_5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69830-4_5 [Google Scholar]
  100. Williams, Ann, and Paul Kerswill
    1999 “Dialect Levelling: Change and Continuity in Milton Keynes, Reading and Hull”. InPaul Foulkes, and Gerald Docherty, eds.Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 141–162.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Yu, Alan
    2013 “Individual Differences in Socio-Cognitive Processing and the Actuation of Sound Change”. InAlan Yu, ed.Origins of Sound Change: Approaches to Phonologization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 201–227. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573745.003.0010
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573745.003.0010 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21011.buc
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21011.buc
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error