1887
image of The ages of pragmatic particles in Colloquial Singapore English
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The study aims to work towards a diachronic reconstruction of pragmatic particles in Colloquial Singapore English (CSE, also known as “Singlish”) by exploiting an unused historical data source: The held by the National Archives of Singapore (OHI-NAS). We investigate the distribution of five pragmatic particles (, , , , and ) in 101 interviews conducted between 1979 and 2009 in speakers born between 1899 and 1983. reconstructs the origin of these particles in different substrate languages, with the first two particles ( and ) being traceable to earlier Bazaar Malay and/or Hokkien, while the latter three (, , and ) are of later Cantonese origin. The results of the present study show that and are the most frequent particles attested earliest. Their frequency of use increases over time, being additionally contingent on the gender and age of the speakers, their educational level, and their ethnic background. The particles and are mostly used in assertive contexts.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21016.li
2022-09-20
2022-10-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. OHI-NAS
    OHI-NAS 2020Oral History Interviews. Online Archives. National Archives of Singapore 2020, <https://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/ (accessedSeptember 9, 2021).
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ansaldo, Umberto
    2004 “The Evolution of Singapore English: Finding the Matrix”. InLisa Lim, ed.Singapore English: A Grammatical Description. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 129–152. 10.1075/veaw.g33.08ans
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g33.08ans [Google Scholar]
  3. Bao, Zhiming
    2005 “The Aspectual System of Singapore English and the Systemic Substratist Explanation”. Journal of Linguistics41: 237–267. 10.1017/S0022226705003269
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226705003269 [Google Scholar]
  4. 2015The Making of Vernacular Singapore English: System, Transfer and Filter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139135375
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139135375 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bao, Zhiming, and Huaqing Hong
    2006 “Diglossia and Register Variation in Singapore English”. World Englishes25: 105–114. 10.1111/j.0083‑2919.2006.00449.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0083-2919.2006.00449.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Bao, Zhiming
    2021 The Origins of Singapore English: A Sociohistorical Sketch”. InPeter Siemund, and Jakob R. E. Leimgruber, eds.Multilingual Global Cities: Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai. London: Routledge, 19–37.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baskaran, Lohanayahi
    1987 “Aspects of Malaysian English Syntax”. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of London.
  8. Botha, Werner
    2018 “A Social Network Approach to Particles in Singapore English”. World Englishes37: 261–281. 10.1111/weng.12250
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12250 [Google Scholar]
  9. Buschfeld, Sarah
    2021 “Multilingual Language Acquisition in Singapore”. InPeter Siemund, and Jakob R. E. Leimgruber, eds.Multilingual Global Cities: Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai. London: Routledge, 205–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cavallaro, Francesco, and Bee Chin Ng
    2021 “Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Singapore”. InPeter Siemund, and Jakob R. E. Leimgruber, eds.Multilingual Global Cities: Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai. London: Routledge, 133–159.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chua, Vincent
    2015 “How do Singaporeans Connect? Ties among Chinese, Malays, and Indians”. American Behavioral Scientist59: 1115–1128. 10.1177/0002764215580617
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764215580617 [Google Scholar]
  12. Dixon, L. Quentin
    2005 “Bilingual Education Policy in Singapore: An Analysis of its Sociohistorical Roots and Current Academic Outcomes”. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism8: 25–47. 10.1080/jBEB.v8.i1.pg25
    https://doi.org/10.1080/jBEB.v8.i1.pg25 [Google Scholar]
  13. Gupta, Anthea F.
    1989 “Singapore Colloquial English and Standard English”. Singapore Journal of Education10: 33–39. 10.1080/02188798908547659
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02188798908547659 [Google Scholar]
  14. 1992 “The Pragmatic Particles of Singapore Colloquial English”. Journal of Pragmatics18: 31–57. 10.1016/0378‑2166(92)90106‑L
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(92)90106-L [Google Scholar]
  15. 1994The Step-Tongue: Children’s English in Singapore. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Greenwell, Brandon M.
    2017 “pdp: An R Package for Constructing Partial Dependence Plots”. The R Journal9: 421–436. 10.32614/RJ‑2017‑016
    https://doi.org/10.32614/RJ-2017-016 [Google Scholar]
  17. Harell, Frank E. Jr.
    2019 Hmisc: Harrell Miscellaneous. R package version 4.2.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=Hmisc. (accessedDecember 13, 2020).
  18. Haugen, Einar
    1972The Ecology of Language. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hirschman, Charles
    1986 “The Making of Race in Colonial Malaya: Political Economy and Racial Ideology”. Sociological Forum1: 330–361. 10.1007/BF01115742
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01115742 [Google Scholar]
  20. Ho, Mian Lian, and John T. Platt
    1993Dynamics of a Contact Continuum: Singaporean English. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hodder, Brian W.
    1953 “Racial Groupings in Singapore”. Malayan Journal of Tropical Geography1: 25–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Klöter, Henning, and Mårten Söderblom Saarela
    eds. 2020Language Diversity in the Sino-Phone World. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781003049890
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003049890 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kwan-Terry, Anna
    1978 “The Meaning and the Source of the ‘la’ and the ‘what’ Particles in Singapore English”. RELC Journal9: 22–36. 10.1177/003368827800900202
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368827800900202 [Google Scholar]
  24. 1989 “The Specification of Stage by a Child Learning English and Cantonese Simultaneously: A Study of Acquisition Processes”. InHans W. Dechert, and Manfred Raupach, eds.Interlingual Processes. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 33–48.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lee, Edmond Eu Fah
    2001 “Profile of the Singapore Chinese Dialect Groups”. Department of Statisitcs, Singapore 2001, <https://www.singstat.gov.sg/ (accessedDecember 30, 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Leimgruber, Jakob R. E.
    2013Singapore English: Structure, Variation, and Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139225755
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139225755 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2016 “Bah in Singapore English”. World Englishes35: 78–97. 10.1111/weng.12175
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12175 [Google Scholar]
  28. Leimgruber, Jakob R. E., Jun Jie Lim, Wilkinson Gonzales, Daniel Wong, and Mie Hiramoto
    2020 “Ethnic and Gender Variation in the Use of Colloquial Singapore English Discourse Particles”. English Language and Linguistics: 1–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. LePoer, Barbara Leitch
    ed. 1991Singapore: A Country Study (2nd ed.). Washington: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ler, Vivien Soon Lay
    2005 “An In-Depth Study of Discourse Particles in Singapore English”. Ph.D. Dissertation, National University of Singapore.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ler, Soon Lay Vivien
    2006 “A Relevance-Theoretic Approach to Discourse Particles in Singapore English”. InKerstin Fischer, ed.Approaches to Discourse Particles. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 149–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Levshina, Natalia
    2021 “Conditional Inference Trees and Random Forests”. InMagali Paquot, and Stefan Gries, eds.Practical Handbook of Corpus Linguistics. New York: Springer, 607–640.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Li, Lijun
    2021 “Language Contact: A Historical Sociolinguistic Reconstruction of Colloquial Singapore English in Relation to its Chinese Substrates”. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hamburg.
  34. Li, Lijun, and Peter Siemund
    2021 “From Phasal Polarity Expression to Aspectual Marker: Grammaticalization of ‘already’ in Asian and African Varieties of English”. InRaija Kramer, ed.The Expression of Phasal Polarity in African Languages. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 509–537. 10.1515/9783110646290‑021
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110646290-021 [Google Scholar]
  35. Lim, Lisa
    ed. 2004Singapore English: A Grammatical Description. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g33
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g33 [Google Scholar]
  36. 2007 “Mergers and Acquisitions: On the Ages and Origins of Singapore English Particles”. World Englishes26: 446–473. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2007.00522.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2007.00522.x [Google Scholar]
  37. 2010 “Migrants and ‘Mother Tongues’: Extralinguistic Forces in the Ecology of English in Singapore”. InLisa Lim, Anne Pakir, and Lionel Wee, eds.English in Singapore: Modernity and Management. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 19–54. 10.5790/hongkong/9789888028436.003.0002
    https://doi.org/10.5790/hongkong/9789888028436.003.0002 [Google Scholar]
  38. Low, Ee Ling, and David Deterding
    2003 “A Corpus-Based Description of Particles in Spoken Singapore English”. InEe Ling Low, and David Deterding, eds.English in Singapore: Research on Grammar. Singapore: McGraw Hill, 58–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Mair, Victor. H.
    2013 “The Classification of Sinitic Languages: What is ‘Chinese’?”. InGuangshun Cao, Hilary Chappell, Redounane Djamouri, and Thekla Wiebusch, eds.Breaking Down the Barriers: Interdisciplinary Studies in Chinese Linguistics and Beyond. Taipei: Academia Sinica, 735–754.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Platt, John T.
    1975 “The Singapore English Speech Continuum and Its Basilect ‘Singlish’ as a ‘Creoloid’”. Anthropological Linguistics17: 363–374.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Platt, John T., and Mian Lian Ho
    1989 “Discourse Particles in Singaporean English: Substratum Influences and Universals”. World Englishes8: 215–221. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1989.tb00656.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1989.tb00656.x [Google Scholar]
  42. R Core Team
    R Core Team 2019R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Version 3.5.1 https://www.R-project.org/.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Richards, Jack C., and Mary Tay
    1977 “The la Particle in Singapore English”. InWilliam J. Crewe, ed.The English Language in Singapore. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 141–155.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Schneider, Edgar W.
    2007Postcolonial English: Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  45. Siemund, Peter, and Lijun Li
    2017 “Towards a Diachronic Reconstruction of Colloquial Singapore English”. InDebra Ziegeler, and Zhiming Bao, eds.Negation and Contact. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 11–32. 10.1075/slcs.183.02sie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.183.02sie [Google Scholar]
  46. Siemund, Peter, Monika E. Schulz, and Martin Schweinberger
    2014 “Studying the Linguistic Ecology of Singapore: A Comparison of College and University Students”. World Englishes33: 340–362. 10.1111/weng.12094
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12094 [Google Scholar]
  47. Siemund, Peter, and Jakob R. E. Leimgruber
    eds. 2021Multilingual Global Cities: Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Smakman, Dick, and Stephanie Wagenaar
    2013 “Discourse Particles in Colloquial Singapore English: Discourse Particles in Colloquial Singapore English”. World Englishes32: 308–324. 10.1111/weng.12033
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12033 [Google Scholar]
  49. Strobl, Carolin, Anne-Laure Boulesteix, Thomas Kneib, Thomas Augustin, and Achim Zeileis
    2008 “Conditional Variable Importance for Random Forests”. BMC Bioinformatics9: 307. 10.1186/1471‑2105‑9‑307
    https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-9-307 [Google Scholar]
  50. Tagliamonte, Sali A., and R. Harald, Baayen
    2012 “Models, Forests, and Trees of York English: Was/Were Variation as a Case Study for Statistical Practice”. Language Variation and Change24: 135–178. 10.1017/S0954394512000129
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394512000129 [Google Scholar]
  51. Tan, Charlene, and Pak Tee Ng
    2011 “Functional Differentiation: A Critique of the Bilingual Policy in Singapore”. Journal of Asian Public Policy4: 331–341. 10.1080/17516234.2011.630227
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17516234.2011.630227 [Google Scholar]
  52. Teo, Ming Chew
    2020Crosslinguistic Influence in Singapore English: Linguistic and Social Aspects. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780429463853
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429463853 [Google Scholar]
  53. Wee, Lionel
    2004 “Reduplication and Discourse Particles”. InLisa Lim, ed.Singapore English: A Grammatical Description. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 105–128. 10.1075/veaw.g33.07wee
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g33.07wee [Google Scholar]
  54. 2010 “The Particle ya in Colloquial Singapore English”. World Englishes29: 45–58. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2009.01624.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2009.01624.x [Google Scholar]
  55. Wong, Jock
    2005 “‘Why you so Singlish one?’ A Semantic and Cultural Interpretation of the Singapore English Particle One”. Language in Society34: 239–275. 10.1017/S0047404505050104
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404505050104 [Google Scholar]
  56. Wong, Wee Kim
    2021Census of Population 2020 Statistical Release 1: Demographic Characteristics, Education, Language and Religion. Singapore: Department of Statistics Singapore.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21016.li
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21016.li
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error