1887
Volume 44, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0172-8865
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9730
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

English is the most used language in the Falkland Islands; however, Spanish was also spoken in the 19th century, when beef livestock farming was one of the economic engines of the Islands. Such businesses used to be managed by gauchos from South America, and their presence is still evident in the lexicon of Falkland Islands English. This article presents a novel methodological approach to the elaboration of loanwords corpora. Loanwords are later analysed in terms of their occurrence, frequency, appearance in dictionaries and the semantic fields they have penetrated. We have attempted to account for the volume of words that Spanish speakers lent to the Islands’ English. We observed that Spanish loanwords are mainly – though not exclusively – related to horse tack and horse types: it is clear from our data that most words are tightly connected to gauchos’ vernacular and not exclusively with their equestrian duties.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21017.rod
2022-11-29
2024-02-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Beccaceci, Marcelo
    2017Gauchos de Malvinas. Buenos Aires: South World.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blake, Sally, Jane Cameron, and Joan Spruce
    2011Diddle Dee to Wire Gates. A Dictionary of Falklands Vocabulary. Stanley: Jane and Alastair Cameron Memorial Trust.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cambridge Dictionary
    Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press https://dictionary.cambridge.org (accessedJanuary 13, 2021).
  4. Colgate, Eddie
    2002Falling off a Horse in the Falkland Islands. Easton: George Mann Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Darwin, Charles
    1839Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of His Majesty’s Ships Adventure and Beagle between the Years 1826 and 1836, Describing their Examination of the Southern Shores of South America, and the Beagle’s Circumnavigation of the Globe. Journal and Remarks. 1832–1836. London: Henry Colburn.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Hipólito Solari, Yrigoyen
    1959Así son Las Malvinas. Buenos Aires: Hachette
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Lorenz, Federico
    2014Todo lo que Necesitás Saber Sobre Malvinas. Buenos Aires: Paidós.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Migone, Mario Luis
    199633 Años de Vida Malvinera. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Publicaciones Navales.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
    Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. https://www.merriam-webster.com (accessedJanuary 15, 2021).
  10. Moreno, Juan Carlos
    1950Nuestras Malvinas. Buenos Aires: El Ateneo.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Oxford English Dictionary Online
    Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.oed.com (accessedJanuary 12, 2021).
  12. Roberts, Gerald
    2002 “Origins and Associations of Spanish Words in the Falklands Islands up to 1950”. Falkland Islands Journal81: 32–51.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Spruce, Joan
    1992Corrals and Gauchos: Some of the People and Places Involved in the Cattle Industry. Bangor: Peregrine Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Steen, Kimberly
    2000 “The Traditional Role of Falkland Islands Horses”. Falkland Islands Journal, 7 (part 4).
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Strange, Ian
    1973 “Introduction of Stock to the Falkland Islands”. The Falkland Islands Journal.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Vidal, Berta E.
    1982El Léxico de las Malvinas. Buenos Aires: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Algeo, John
    2010The Origins and Development of the English Language. Boston: Wadsworth.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bloomfield, Leonard
    1933Language. New York: Holt.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Boumphrey, Robert Stevely
    1967 “Place-Names of the Falkland Islands”. The Falkland Islands Journal.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Britain, David, and Andrea Sudbury
    2010 “Falkland Island English”. InDaniel Schreier, Peter Trudgill, Edgar W. Schneider, and Jeffrey P. Williams, eds.The Lesser-Known Varieties of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 209–223. 10.1017/CBO9780511676529.012
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511676529.012 [Google Scholar]
  21. Croft, William
    2000Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Field, Fredric
    2002Linguistic Borrowing in Bilingual Contexts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.62
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.62 [Google Scholar]
  23. Ehret, Christopher
    1976 “Linguistic Evidence and its Correlation with Archaeology”. World Archaeology81: 5–18. 10.1080/00438243.1976.9979649
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1976.9979649 [Google Scholar]
  24. Government of the Falkland Islands
    Government of the Falkland Islands 20072006 Census Report. Stanley: Policy and Economic Development Unit.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gómez Rendón, Jorge
    2008 “Typological and Social Constraints on Language Contact: Amerindian Languages in Contact with Spanish”. Ph.D. Dissertation, Amsterdam University.
  26. Haspelmath, Martin
    2008 “Loanword Typology: Steps Toward a Systematic Cross-Linguistic Study of Lexical Borrowability”. InThomas Stolz, ed.Aspects of Language Contact: New Theoretical, Methodological and Empirical Findings with Special Focus on Romancisation Processes. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 43–62.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Haspelmath, Martin, and Uri Tadmor
    2009Loanwords in the World’s Languages: A Comparative Handbook. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110218442
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218442 [Google Scholar]
  28. Haugen, Einar
    1950 “The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing”. Language261: 210–231. 10.2307/410058
    https://doi.org/10.2307/410058 [Google Scholar]
  29. 1956Bilingualism in the Americas. A Bibliography and Research Guide. American Dialect Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hickey, Raymond
    2012 “Introduction”. InRaymond Hickey, ed.Blackwell Handbook of Language Contact. London: Blackwell, 1–26. 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199826773.003.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199826773.003.0001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hoenigswald, Henry
    1966 “A Proposal for the Study of Folk-Linguistics”. InWilliam Bright, ed.Sociolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton, 16–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kachru, Braj
    1985 “Standards, Codification and Sociolinguistic Realism: The English Language in the Outer Circle”. InRandolph Quirk, ed.English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literatures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 11–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Labov, William
    1994Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol.11: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kiddle, Lawrence
    1952 “Spanish Loan Words in American Indian Languages”. Hispania351: 179–184. 10.2307/333207
    https://doi.org/10.2307/333207 [Google Scholar]
  35. Kurtböke, Petek
    1998 “A Corpus-Driven Study of Turkish-English Language Contact in Australia”. Ph.D. Dissertation, Monash University.
  36. Matras, Yaron
    2009Language Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511809873
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511809873 [Google Scholar]
  37. Meyerhoff, Miriam
    2012 “Uncovering Hidden Constraints in Micro-Corpora of Contact Englishes”. InJoybrato Mukherjee, and Magnus Huber, eds.Corpus Linguistics and Variation in English. Leiden: Brill, 109–130.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Myers-Scotton, Carol
    1993Duelling Languages: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 2002Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  40. Peperkamp, Sharon
    2005 “A Psycholinguistic Theory of Loanword Adaptations”. Berkeley Linguistics Society301: 341–352. 10.3765/bls.v30i1.919
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v30i1.919 [Google Scholar]
  41. Poplack, Shana, and David Sankoff
    1984 “Borrowing: The Synchrony of Integration”. Linguistics221: 99–135. 10.1515/ling.1984.22.1.99
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1984.22.1.99 [Google Scholar]
  42. Preston, Dennis
    2005 “What is Folk Linguistics? Why should you Care?”. Lingua Posnaniensis471: 143–162.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Rodríguez, Yliana V.
    2022 “Spanish Place Names of the Falkland Islands: A Novel Classification System”. Names701. 10.5195/names.2022.2376
    https://doi.org/10.5195/names.2022.2376 [Google Scholar]
  44. fc. “An Ethnolinguistic Approach to Contact Onomastics: Falkland Islanders Attitudes to Gaucho Place Names”.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Rodríguez, Yliana V., and Adolfo Elizaincín
    . fc.a. “Competing Place Names: Malvinas vs. Falklands. A Case of Linguistic Conflict”. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. . fc.b. “A Socio-Historical Overview of Falkland Islands English in Contact with Spanish”.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2022 “Huellas lingüísticas del aporte guaraní en el español del Uruguay: la dispersión diatópica de algunos guaranismos”. InLenka Zajícová, ed.Lenguas indígenas de América Latina. Contextos, contactos, conflictos, Frankfurt: Vervuert, 189–216. 10.31819/9783968692616‑010
    https://doi.org/10.31819/9783968692616-010 [Google Scholar]
  48. Rodríguez, Yliana V., Paz González, and Adolfo Elizaincín
    . fc. “Los préstamos lingüísticos como registro de la historia: indigenismos en el inglés de las Islas Malvinas/Falkland”.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sapir, Edward
    1912 “Language and Environment”. American Anthropologist141: 226–242. 10.1525/aa.1912.14.2.02a00020
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1912.14.2.02a00020 [Google Scholar]
  50. 1921Language. An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Spruce, Joan
    2011 “Introduction”. InSally Blake, ed.Diddle Dee to Wire Gates. A Dictionary of Falklands Vocabulary. Jane and Alastair Cameron Memorial Trust, 148–151.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Spruce, Joan, and Natalie Smith
    2019Falkland Rural Heritage. Fox Bay: Falkland Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Stolz, Christel, and Thomas Stolz
    2001 “Hispanicised Comparative Constructions in Indigenous Languages of Austronesia and the Americas”. InKlaus Zimmerman, ed.Lo propio y lo ajeno en las lenguas austronésicas amerindias. Frankfurt am Main: Iberoamericana Vervuert, 35–56. 10.31819/9783865278906‑003
    https://doi.org/10.31819/9783865278906-003 [Google Scholar]
  54. Sudbury, Andrea
    2000 “Dialect Contact and Koineization in the Falkland Islands: Development of a Southern Hemisphere Variety?” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Essex.
  55. 2001 “Is Falkland Islands English a Southern Hemisphere Variety?” English World-Wide221: 55–80. 10.1075/eww.22.1.04sud
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.22.1.04sud [Google Scholar]
  56. 2005 “English on the Falklands”. InRaymond Hickey, ed.Legacies of Colonial English Studies in Transported Dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 402–417. 10.1017/CBO9780511486920.017
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486920.017 [Google Scholar]
  57. Thomason, Sarah
    2001Language Contact. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Thomason, Sarah, and Terrence Kaufman
    1988Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520912793
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520912793 [Google Scholar]
  59. Trudgill, Peter
    1986Dialects in Contact. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. van Coetsem, Frans
    1988Loan Phonology and the Two Transfer Types in Language Contact. Dordrecht: Foris. 10.1515/9783110884869
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110884869 [Google Scholar]
  61. Weinreich, Uriel
    1953Languages in Contact. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Wells, John
    1982Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511611759
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611759 [Google Scholar]
  63. Whitney, William D.
    1881 “On Mixture in Language”. Transactions of the American Philosophical Association121: 5–26. 10.2307/2935666
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2935666 [Google Scholar]
  64. Winford, Donald
    2003An Introduction to Contact Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Woodman, Paul
    2006 “The Toponymy of the Falkland Islands as Recorded on Maps and in Gazetteers”. UK Permanent Committee on Geographical Names https://web.archive.org/web/20121022063956/www.pcgn.org.uk/Falkland%20Islands-July2006.pdf (accessedAugust 10, 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Zenner, Eline, Dirk Speelman, and Dirk Geeraerts
    2012 “Cognitive Sociolinguistics Meets Loanword Research: Measuring Variation in the Success of Anglicisms in Dutch”. Cognitive Linguistics231: 749–792. 10.1515/cog‑2012‑0023
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cog-2012-0023 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21017.rod
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21017.rod
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error