1887
Volume 44, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0172-8865
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9730
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Previous language attitude research in Hong Kong compared Hong Kong English (HKE) to exonormative standard Englishes, whereas this study uses five varieties of HKE with more or less localised features. One hundred English language teachers were listener judges in a verbal-guise experiment, and the results showed that most of the speakers received positive evaluations, particularly on solidarity dimensions. The speaker with most local features received the most negative evaluation, but the difference was most evident on status dimensions. Thus, speakers of HKE are seen as likeable, competent and proficient, which suggests that Hong Kong may have entered into the nativisation stage of Kachru’s (1983) model. We argue that the recognition of HKE demonstrated in this study should have implications for English language teaching. We propose adopting pedagogies grounded in local language and culture, which would encourage students and teachers to express themselves in localised English, and express a local identity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21060.lad
2022-11-25
2024-05-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bacon-Shone, John, Kingsley Bolton, and Kang-kwong Luke
    2015Language Use, Proficiency and Attitudes in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bolton, Kingsley, and Helen Kwok
    1990 “The Dynamics of the Hong Kong Accent: Social Identity and Sociolinguistic Description”. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication11: 7–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cavallaro, Francesco, Bee Chin Ng, and Mark F. Seilhamer
    2014 “Singapore Colloquial English: Issues of Prestige and Identity”. World Englishes331: 378–397. 10.1111/weng.12096
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12096 [Google Scholar]
  4. Chan, Jim Y. H.
    2013 “Contextual Variation and Hong Kong English”. World Englishes321: 54–74. 10.1111/weng.12004
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12004 [Google Scholar]
  5. 2016 “A Multi-Perspective Investigation of Attitudes towards English Accents in Hong Kong: Implications for Pronunciation Teaching”. TESOL Quarterly501: 285–313. 10.1002/tesq.218
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.218 [Google Scholar]
  6. 2018 “Gender and Attitudes towards English Varieties: Implications for Teaching English as a Global Language.” System761: 62–79. 10.1016/j.system.2018.04.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.04.010 [Google Scholar]
  7. Chan, Ka Long Roy
    2017 “Attitudes towards Hong Kong English: Native English Teachers and Local English Teachers”. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching261: 85–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2019 “Trilingual Codeswitching in Hong Kong”. Applied Linguistics Research Journal31: 1–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2020 “The Future of Hong Kong English: Codification and Standardisation.” InWei Tang, ed.Hong Kong: Past, Present and Future. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 69–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chan, Ka Long Roy, and Lydia N. C. Chan
    2021 “Segmental Features of Hong Kong English: A Contrastive Analysis”. Journal of Universal Language221: 1–44. 10.22425/jul.2021.22.2.1
    https://doi.org/10.22425/jul.2021.22.2.1 [Google Scholar]
  11. Chan, Ka Long Roy, and Hans J. Ladegaard
    . fc.. What do People Notice in Accent Evaluation Studies? The Importance of Prosody.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cheng, Winnie, and Martin Warren
    2005 “// CAN I Help You//: The Use of Rise and Rise-Fall Tones in the Hong Kong Corpus of Spoken English”. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics101: 5–107. 10.1075/ijcl.10.1.05che
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.10.1.05che [Google Scholar]
  13. Deterding, David, Jennie Wong, and Andy Kirkpatrick
    2008 “The Pronunciation of Hong Kong English”. English World-Wide291: 148–175. 10.1075/eww.29.2.03det
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.29.2.03det [Google Scholar]
  14. Dörnyei, Zoltan, and Tatsuya Taguchi
    2010Questionnaires in Second Language Research: Construction, Administration, and Processing. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Edwards, John
    2010Language Diversity in the Classroom. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Forde, Kevin
    1995 “A Study of Learner Attitudes towards Accents of English”. Hong Kong Polytechnic University Working Papers in ELT and Applied Linguistics11: 59–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Garrett, Peter
    2010Attitudes to Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511844713
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511844713 [Google Scholar]
  18. Groves, Julia
    2011 “‘Linguistic Schizophrenia’ in Hong Kong”. English Today271: 33–42. 10.1017/S0266078411000514
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078411000514 [Google Scholar]
  19. Halliday, Michael
    1968 “The Users and Uses of Language”. InJoshua Fishman, ed.Readings in the Sociology of Language. The Hague: Mouton139–169. 10.1515/9783110805376.139
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110805376.139 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hansen Edwards, Jette G.
    2016 “The Politics of Language and Identity: Attitudes towards Hong Kong English pre and post the Umbrella Movement”. Asian Englishes181: 157–164. 10.1080/13488678.2016.1139937
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2016.1139937 [Google Scholar]
  21. 2018 “TH Variation in Hong Kong English.” English Language and Linguistics231: 439–468. 10.1017/S1360674318000035
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674318000035 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2019The Politics of English in Hong Kong: Attitudes, Identity and Use. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2021 “‘I have to Save this Language, it’s on the Edge like an Endangered Animal’: Perceptions of Language Threat and Linguistic Mainlandisation in Hong Kong”. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development401: 307–326. 10.1080/01434632.2019.1691565
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2019.1691565 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hundt, Marianne, Lena Zipp, and André Huber
    2015 “Attitudes in Fiji towards Varieties of English”. World Englishes341: 688–707. 10.1111/weng.12160
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12160 [Google Scholar]
  25. Hung, Tony T. N.
    2000 “Towards a Phonology of Hong Kong English”. World Englishes191: 337–356. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00183
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00183 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2012 “Hong Kong English”. InEe-Ling Low, and Azirah Hashim, eds.English in Southeast Asia: Features, Policy and Language in Use. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 114–133. 10.1075/veaw.g42.11hun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g42.11hun [Google Scholar]
  27. Joseph, John E.
    2004Language and Identity. National, Ethnic, Religious. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kachru, Braj B.
    1983 “Models for Non-Native Englishes”. InKingsley Bolton, and Braj B. Kachru, eds.World Englishes: Critical Concepts in Linguistics. London: Routledge, 108–130.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ladegaard, Hans J.
    2000 “Language Attitudes and Sociolinguistic Behaviour: Exploring Attitude-Behaviour Relationships in Language”. Journal of Sociolinguistics41: 214–233. 10.1111/1467‑9481.00112
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00112 [Google Scholar]
  30. 2001 “Popular Perceptions of Standard Language: Attitudes to ‘Regional Standards’ in Denmark”. Language Awareness101: 25–40. 10.1080/09658410108667023
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658410108667023 [Google Scholar]
  31. Lai, Mee Ling
    2011 “Cultural Identity and Language Attitudes into the Second Decade of Postcolonial Hong Kong.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development321: 249–264. 10.1080/01434632.2010.539692
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2010.539692 [Google Scholar]
  32. Lam, Tony
    2017 “Intonational Variation in Hong Kong English: A Pilot Study”. Asian Englishes191: 22–43. 10.1080/13488678.2016.1277411
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2016.1277411 [Google Scholar]
  33. Lambert, Wallace E.
    1967 “The Social Psychology of Bilingualism”. Journal of Social Issues231: 91–109. 10.1111/j.1540‑4560.1967.tb00578.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1967.tb00578.x [Google Scholar]
  34. Li, David C. S.
    2009 “Researching Non-Native Speakers’ Views toward Intelligibility and Identity.” InFarzad Sharifian, ed.English as an International Language: Perspectives and Pedagogical Issues. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 81–118. 10.21832/9781847691231‑008
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691231-008 [Google Scholar]
  35. Li Wei, Alfred Tsang, Nick Wong, and Pedro Lok
    2020 “Kongish Daily: Researching Translanguaging Creativity and Subversiveness”. International Journal of Multilingualism171: 309–335. 10.1080/14790718.2020.1766465
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2020.1766465 [Google Scholar]
  36. Low, Ee-Ling
    2010 “Sounding Local and Going Global: Current Research and Implications for Pronunciation Teaching”. InLisa Lim, Anne Pakir, and Lionel Wee, eds.English in Singapore: Modernity and Management. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 235–260. 10.5790/hongkong/9789888028436.003.0010
    https://doi.org/10.5790/hongkong/9789888028436.003.0010 [Google Scholar]
  37. Luk, Jasmine C. M.
    1998 “Hong Kong Students’ Awareness of and Reactions to Accent Difference”. Multilingua171: 93–106. 10.1515/mult.1998.17.1.93
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1998.17.1.93 [Google Scholar]
  38. Luke, Kang-kwong, and Jack C. Richards
    1982 “English in Hong Kong: Functions and Status”. English World-Wide31: 47–63. 10.1075/eww.3.1.04kan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.3.1.04kan [Google Scholar]
  39. McKenzie, Robert M.
    2008 “Social Factors and Non-Native Attitudes towards Varieties of Spoken English: A Japanese Case Study”. International Journal of Applied Linguistics181: 63–88. 10.1111/j.1473‑4192.2008.00179.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2008.00179.x [Google Scholar]
  40. McKeown, Jamie, and Hans J. Ladegaard
    2017 “Evidentiality and Identity Positioning in Online Disputes about Language use in Hong Kong”. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice171: 53–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Munro, Murray J.
    2011 “Intelligibility: Buzzword or Buzzworthy?” InJohn Levis, and Kimberly LeVelle, eds.Proceedings of the 2nd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference. Ames: Iowa State University, 7–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Nelson, Cecil L.
    2011Intelligibility in World Englishes: Theory and Application. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sasayama, Shoko
    2013 “Japanese College Students’ Attitudes towards Japan English and American English”. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development341: 264–278. 10.1080/01434632.2013.767341
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2013.767341 [Google Scholar]
  44. Schneider, Edgar W.
    2007Postcolonial English: Varieties Around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  45. Setter, Jane, Cathy S. P. Wong, and Brian H. S. Chan
    2010Hong Kong English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 10.1515/9780748635979
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9780748635979 [Google Scholar]
  46. Sewell, Andrew J.
    2012 “The Hong Kong English Accent: Variation and Acceptability.” Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics131: 1–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2016English Pronunciation Models in a Globalized World. Accent, Acceptability and Hong Kong English. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315780467
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315780467 [Google Scholar]
  48. Sewell, Andrew J., and Jason Chan
    2010 “Patterns of Variation in the Consonantal Phonology of Hong Kong English.” English World-Wide311: 13. 10.1075/eww.31.2.02sew
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.31.2.02sew [Google Scholar]
  49. Trudgill, Peter
    1975Accent, Dialect and the School. London: Edward Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Tsui, Amy B. M., and David Bunton
    2000 “The Discourse and Attitudes of English Teachers in Hong Kong”. World Englishes191: 287–304. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00180
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00180 [Google Scholar]
  51. Warren, Paul
    2015Uptalk: The Phenomenon of Rising Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781316403570
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316403570 [Google Scholar]
  52. Zhang, Qi
    2014Investigating Hong Kong English. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Zahn, Christopher J., and Robert Hopper
    1985 “Measuring Language Attitudes: The Speech Evaluation Instrument.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology41: 113–123. 10.1177/0261927X8500400203
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X8500400203 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21060.lad
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/eww.21060.lad
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error