1887
Volume 37, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0172-8865
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9730
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Existing second language acquisition research converges on a picture where learners of English exhibit marked divergence from native speakers in their use of information-packaging constructions, even at advanced stages of acquisition. This study extends the investigation of these constructions to an emerging institutionalised second language variety, Hong Kong English. Based on the Hong Kong and British components of the International Corpus of English, the study examines the formal and functional properties of -clefts and -clefts, revealing regional variation in a number of areas, particularly in the use of constructions. Importantly, the grammar of the contact variety is found to be shaped by the transfer of gradient grammatical rules from the substrate language, and by stratification along stylistic parameters.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/eww.37.2.07yao
2016-06-24
2019-10-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bao, Zhiming
    2010 “A Usage-Based Approach to Substratum Transfer: The Case of Four Unproductive Features in Singapore English”. Language86: 792–820.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Benson, Phil
    2002 “Hong Kong Words: Variation and Context”. In Kingsley Bolton , ed., Hong Kong English: Autonomy and Creativity. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 161–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Biber, Douglas , Stig Johansson , Geoffrey Leech , Susan Conrad , and Edward Finegan
    1999Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bolton, Kingsley
    ed. 2002Hong Kong English: Autonomy and Creativity. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 2003Chinese Englishes. A Sociolinguistic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bolton, Kingsley , and Shirley Geok-lin Lim
    2002 “Futures for Hong Kong English”. In Kingsley Bolton , ed.Hong Kong English: Autonomy and Creativity. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 295–313.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Boström Aronsson, Mia
    2003 “On Clefts and Information Structure in Swedish EFL Writing”. In Sylviane Granger , and Stephanie Petch-Tyson , eds.Extending the Scope of Corpus-Based Research: New Applications, New Challenges. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 197–210.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2005 “Themes in Swedish Advanced Learners’ Written English”. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Gothenburg.
  9. Callies, Marcus
    2009Information Highlighting in Advanced Learner English. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.186
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.186 [Google Scholar]
  10. Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
    2012 “Population Aged 5 and Over by Duration of Residence in Hong Kong, Ethnicity and Usual Language”. www.census2011.gov.hk/en/main-table/A124.html (accessedJanuary 30, 2015)
  11. Census and Statistics Department
    2014 “Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics. June 2014 Feature Article. Use of Language in Hong Kong in 2012”. www.statistics.gov.hk/pub/B71406FB2014XXXXB0100.pdf (accessedJanuary 30, 2015)
  12. Chafe, Wallace L
    1976 “Givenness, Contrastiveness, Definiteness, Subjects, Topics, and Point of View”. In Charles N. Li , ed.Subject and Topic. New York: Academic Press, 25–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chan, Alice Y.W
    2004 “Syntactic Transfer: Evidence from the Interlanguage of Hong Kong Chinese ESL Learners”. The Modern Language Journal88: 56–74. doi: 10.1111/j.0026‑7902.2004.00218.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0026-7902.2004.00218.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Cheng, Lisa Lai-shen
    2008 “Deconstructing the Shì…De Construction”. The Linguistic Review25: 235–266. doi: 10.1515/TLIR.2008.007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/TLIR.2008.007 [Google Scholar]
  15. Cheng, Winnie , Chris Greaves , and Martin Warren
    2008A Corpus-Driven Study of Discourse Intonation. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/scl.32
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.32 [Google Scholar]
  16. Chomsky, Noam
    1977 “On wh-Movement”. In Peter Culicover , Thomas Wasow , and Adrian Akmajian , eds.Formal Syntax. New York: Academic Press, 71–132.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Collins, Peter
    1991Clefts and Pseudo-Cleft Constructions in English. London: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203202463
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203202463 [Google Scholar]
  18. 2009 “Information-Packaging Constructions”. In Pam Peters , Peter Collins , and Adam Smith , eds.Comparative Studies in Australian and New Zealand English: Grammar and Beyond. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 293–314. doi: 10.1075/veaw.g39.17col
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g39.17col [Google Scholar]
  19. Declerck, Ranaat
    1984 “The Pragmatics of it-Clefts and wh-Clefts”. Lingua64: 251–289. doi: 10.1016/0024‑3841(84)90065‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(84)90065-2 [Google Scholar]
  20. Deroey, Katrien L.B
    2012 “ What They Highlight Is…: The Discourse Functions of Basic wh-Clefts in Lectures”. Journal of English for Academic Purposes11: 112–124. doi: 10.1016/j.jeap.2011.10.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2011.10.002 [Google Scholar]
  21. Deshors, Sandra C
    2014 “A Case for a Unified Treatment of EFL and ESL: A Multifactorial Approach”. English World-Wide35: 277–305. doi: 10.1075/eww.35.3.02des
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.35.3.02des [Google Scholar]
  22. Deterding, David , Jennie Wong , and Andy Kirkpatrick
    2008 “The Pronunciation of Hong Kong English”. English World-Wide29: 148–175. doi: 10.1075/eww.29.2.03det
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.29.2.03det [Google Scholar]
  23. Evans, Stephen
    2009 “The Evolution of the English-Language Speech Community in Hong Kong”. English World-Wide30: 278–301. doi: 10.1075/eww.30.3.03eva
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.30.3.03eva [Google Scholar]
  24. 2011 “Hong Kong English and the Professional World”. World Englishes30: 293–316. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2011.01655.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2011.01655.x [Google Scholar]
  25. Fang, Mei
    1995 “Hanyu Duibi Jiaodian de Jufa Biaoxian Shouduan”. Zhongguo Yuwen4: 279–288.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gass, Susan
    1996 “Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory: The Role of Language Transfer”. In William C. Ritchie , and Tej K. Bhatia , eds.Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. San Diego CA: Academic Press, 317–345.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gazdar, Gerald , Ewan Klein , Geoffrey K. Pullum , and Ivan A. Sag
    1985Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gisborne, Nikolas
    2007 “Aspects of the Morphosyntactic Typology of Hong Kong English”. English World-Wide30: 149–169. doi: 10.1075/eww.30.2.03gis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.30.2.03gis [Google Scholar]
  29. Gómez-González, María A
    2001The Theme-Topic Interface. Evidence from English. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.71
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.71 [Google Scholar]
  30. Götz, Sandra , and Marco Schilk
    2011 “Formulaic Sequences in Spoken ENL, ESL and EFL: Focus on British English, Indian English and Learner English of Advanced German Learners”. In Joybrato Mukherjee , and Marianne Hundt , eds.Exploring Second-Language Varieties of English and Learner Englishes: Bridging a Paradigm Gap. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 79–100. doi: 10.1075/scl.44.05sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.44.05sch [Google Scholar]
  31. Gundel, Jeanette K. , Nancy Hedberg , and Ron Zacharski
    1993 “Cognitive Status and the Form of Referring Expressions in Discourse”. Language69: 274–307. doi: 10.2307/416535
    https://doi.org/10.2307/416535 [Google Scholar]
  32. Haegeman, Liliane , André Meinunger , and Aleksandra Vercauteren
    2014 “The Architecture of it-Clefts”. Journal of Linguistics50: 269–296. doi: 10.1017/S0022226713000042
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226713000042 [Google Scholar]
  33. Halliday, Michael Alexander Kirkwood
    1985An Introduction to Functional Grammar (1st ed.). London: Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hedberg, Nancy , and Lorna Fadden
    2007 “The Information Structure of it-clefts, wh-Clefts and Reverse wh-Clefts in English”. In Nancy Hedberg , and Ron Zacharski , eds.The Grammar-Pragmatics Interface: Essays in Honor of Jeanette K. Gundel. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 49–76. doi: 10.1075/pbns.155.05hed
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.155.05hed [Google Scholar]
  35. Herriman, Jennifer
    2003 “Negotiating Identity: The Interpersonal Function of wh-Clefts in English”. Functions of Language10: 1–30. doi: 10.1075/fol.10.1.02her
    https://doi.org/10.1075/fol.10.1.02her [Google Scholar]
  36. Hinkel, Eli
    2002Second Language Writers’ Text. Linguistic and Rhetorical Features. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Hopper, Paul J. , and Elizabeth Closs Traugott
    2003Grammaticalization (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139165525
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525 [Google Scholar]
  38. Huang, James C.-T
    1984 “On the Distribution and Reference of Empty Pronouns”. Linguistic Inquiry15: 531–574.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 1998Logical Relations in Chinese and the Theory of Grammar. New York: Garland Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Hung, Tony T.N
    2000 “Towards a Phonology of Hong Kong English”. World Englishes19: 337–356. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00183
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00183 [Google Scholar]
  41. Lambrecht, Knud
    2001 “A Framework for the Analysis of Cleft Constructions”. Linguistics39: 463–516. doi: 10.1515/ling.2001.021
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2001.021 [Google Scholar]
  42. Li, David C.S
    2009 “The Functions and Status of English in Hong Kong: A Post-1997 Update”. English World-Wide20: 67–110. doi: 10.1075/eww.20.1.03li
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.20.1.03li [Google Scholar]
  43. Li, Charles N. , and Sandra A. Thompson
    1981Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Liu, Yuehua , Wenyu Pan , and Wei Gu
    2001Shiyong Xiandai Hanyu Yufa. Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Luke, Kang Kwong , and Jack C. Richards
    1982 “English in Hong Kong: Functions and Status”. English World-Wide3: 47–64. doi: 10.1075/eww.3.1.04kan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.3.1.04kan [Google Scholar]
  46. Mair, Christian
    2002 “Creolisms in an Emerging Standard: Written English in Jamaica”. English World-Wide23: 31–58. doi: 10.1075/eww.23.1.03mai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.23.1.03mai [Google Scholar]
  47. Matthews, Stephen , and Virginia Yip
    1994Cantonese: A Comprehensive Grammar. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Mesthrie, Rajend
    2006 “Anti-Deletions in an L2 Grammar: A Study of Black South African English Mesolect”. English World-Wide27: 111–145. doi: 10.1075/eww.27.2.02mes
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.27.2.02mes [Google Scholar]
  49. Mufwene, Salikoko S
    2001The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511612862
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612862 [Google Scholar]
  50. Mukherjee, Joybrato , and Stefan Th. Gries
    2009 “Collostructional Nativisation in New Englishes: Verb-Construction Associations in the International Corpus of English”. English World-Wide30: 27–51. doi: 10.1075/eww.30.1.03muk
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.30.1.03muk [Google Scholar]
  51. Nesselhauf, Nadia
    2009 “Co-Selection Phenomena across New Englishes: Parallels (and Differences) to Foreign Learner Varieties”. English World-Wide30: 1–26. doi: 10.1075/eww.30.1.02nes
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.30.1.02nes [Google Scholar]
  52. Oberlander Jon , and Judy Delin
    1996 “The Function and Interpretation of Reverse Wh-Clefts in Spoken Discourse”. Language and Speech39: 185–227.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Prince, Ellen
    1978 “A Comparison of wh-Clefts and it-Clefts in Discourse”. Language54: 883–906. doi: 10.2307/413238
    https://doi.org/10.2307/413238 [Google Scholar]
  54. Quirk, Randolph , Sidney Greenbaum , Geoffrey Leech , and Jan Svartvik
    1985A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Rowley-Jolivet, Elizabeth , and Shirley Carter-Thomas
    2005 “Genre Awareness and Rhetorical Appropriacy: Manipulation of Information Structure by NS and NNS Scientists in the International Conference Setting”. English for Specific Purposes24: 41–64. doi: 10.1016/j.esp.2003.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2003.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  56. Schachter, Jacqueline
    1974 “An Error in Error Analysis”. Language Learning24: 205–214. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1974.tb00502.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1974.tb00502.x [Google Scholar]
  57. Schneider, Edgar W
    2007Postcolonial English. Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  58. Sharwood Smith, Michael
    2013 “Only Connect: The Interface Debate in Second Language Acquisition”. Psycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Second Language Learning and Teaching. Berlin: Springer, 27–39. doi: 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑23547‑4_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-23547-4_2 [Google Scholar]
  59. Shi, Yu-Zhi
    2005 “Lun Panduan, Jiaodian, Qiangdiao yu Duibi zhi Guanxi: ‘Shi’ de Yufa Gongneng he Shiyong Tiaojian”. Yuyan Yanjiu25: 43–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Sorace, Antonella , and Ludovica Serratrice
    2009 “Internal and External Interfaces in Bilingual Language Development: Revisiting the Processing vs. Representation Distinction”. The International Journal of Bilingualism13: 195–210. doi: 10.1177/1367006909339810
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006909339810 [Google Scholar]
  61. Teng, Shou-hsin
    1979 “Remarks on Cleft Sentences in Chinese”. Journal of Chinese Linguistics7: 101–113.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Tsao, Feng-fu
    1990Sentence and Clause Structure in Chinese: A Functional Perspective. Taipei: Student Book Co., Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria , and Antonella Sorace
    2006 “Differentiating Interfaces: L2 Performance in Syntax–Semantics and Syntax–Discourse Phenomena”. In David Bamman , Tatiana Magnitskaia , and Colleen Zaller , eds.Proceedings of the 30th Boston University Conference on Language Development. Somerville: Cascadilla Press, 653–664.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Wang, Li
    2004/1980Hanyu Shigao. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Wang, Lifei , and Gong Chen
    2008 “Daxuesheng Yingyu Xiezuo Zhong Fenlieju de Tezheng”. Waiyu Jiaoxue yu Yanjiu40: 362–367.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Ward, Gregory , Betty Birner , and Rodney Huddleston
    2002 “Information Packaging”. In Rodney Huddleston , and Geoffrey K. Pullum et al The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1363–1448.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. White, Lydia
    2011 “Second Language Acquisition at the Interfaces”. Lingua121: 577–590. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2010.05.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2010.05.005 [Google Scholar]
  68. Williams, Jessica
    1987 “Non-Native Varieties of English: A Special Case of Language Acquisition”. English World-Wide8: 161–199. doi: 10.1075/eww.8.2.02wil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.8.2.02wil [Google Scholar]
  69. Yip, Virginia , and Stephen Matthews
    1991 “Relative Complexity: Beyond Avoidance”. CUHK Papers in Linguistics3: 112–124.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Zerbian, Sabine
    2015 “Syntactic and Prosodic Focus Marking in Contact Varieties of South African English”. English World-Wide36: 228–258. doi: 10.1075/eww.36.2.04zer
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.2.04zer [Google Scholar]
  71. Zhan, Fangqiong
    2012 “The Structure and Function of the Chinese Copular Construction”. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/eww.37.2.07yao
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): British English , Hong Kong English , it-cleft; wh-cleft , register and variation
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error