Volume 38, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0172-8865
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9730
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The Afro-Caribbean English-lexifier Creoles (AECs) exhibit fascinating combinations of disparate typological characteristics. I present a model of post-formative (“post-creolization”) contact and change and provide a comprehensive inventory of contact constellations in Africa and the Caribbean. I conduct a comparative analysis of causative constructions in seven African and Caribbean AECs, argue for the notional separation of the traditional creolist terms “superstrate”, “lexifier”, “substrate” and “adstrate”, and account for the linguistic-structural relevance of these distinctions. The model can explain the typological diversity within and across the AECs, help elucidate their genealogical and areal differentiation, and contribute to our understanding of the processes and outcomes of language contact and change in multilingual ecologies.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): adstrate; Africa; areal; Caribbean; causative; Creole; lexifier; substrate; superstrate; typology
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