Volume 38, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0172-8865
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9730
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


The present paper explores structural nativization in relative clauses in three varieties of English (India, Hong Kong, and Singapore Englishes). All three of these emerged as the consequence of British colonization, developed as varieties through educational systems, and are now consolidating as independent, linguistically different (local) prestige varieties. An analysis of comparable samples from the spoken component of the (ICE) is carried out; in addition to the varieties mentioned above, data from ICE-GB are included for comparison. The analysis shows that certain features and structures predominate in specific varieties, and also illustrates constructions which are specific to the Asian varieties under investigation. These nativized relative clauses can be explained as cross-linguistic tendencies that go beyond the influence of the local language(s), and hence they are further analyzed in light of cognitive determinants of learning, which favor isomorphism and aim at maximizing transparency.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alsagoff, Lubna , and Ho Chee Lick
    1998 “The Relative Clause in Colloquial Singapore English”. World Englishes17: 127–138. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00087
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00087 [Google Scholar]
  2. Asher, Ronald E. , and T. C. Kumari
    1997Malayalam. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bamgbose, Ayo
    1998 “Torn between the Norms: Innovations in World Englishes”. World Englishes17: 1–14. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00078
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00078 [Google Scholar]
  4. Biewer, Carolin
    2015South Pacific Englishes. A Sociolinguistic and Morphosyntactic Profile of Fiji English, Samoan English and Cook Islands English. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/veaw.g52
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g52 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bolton, Kingsley
    2006 “World Englishes Today”. In Braj B. Kachru , Yamuna Kachru , and Cecil L. Nelson , eds.The Handbook of World Englishes. Oxford: Blackwell, 240–269. doi: 10.1002/9780470757598.ch15
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757598.ch15 [Google Scholar]
  6. Britain, David
    2007 “Grammatical Variation in England”. In David Britain , ed.Language in the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 75–104. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511620782.006
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620782.006 [Google Scholar]
  7. Brunner, Thomas
    2014 “Structural Nativization, Typology and Complexity: Noun Phrase structures in British, Kenyan and Singaporean English”. English Language and Linguistics18: 23–48. doi: 10.1017/S1360674313000269
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674313000269 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bybee, Joan
    2007Frequency of Use and the Organization of Language. New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301571.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301571.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cheshire, Jenny , David Adger , and Sue Fox
    2013 “Relative Who and the Actuation Problem”. Lingua126: 51–77. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2012.11.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2012.11.014 [Google Scholar]
  10. Comrie, Bernard , and Tania Kuteva
    2013 “Relativization on Subjects”. In Matthew Dryer , and Martin Haspelmath , eds.The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. wals.info/chapter/122 (accessedDecember 15, 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Denison, David , and Marianne Hundt
    2013 “Defining Relatives”. Journal of English Linguistics41: 135–167. doi: 10.1177/0075424213483572
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424213483572 [Google Scholar]
  12. Diessel, Holger
    2009 “On the Role of Frequency and Similarity in the Acquisition of Subject and Non-subject Relative Clauses”. In Talmy Givón , and Masayoshi Shibatani , eds.Syntactic Complexity: Diachrony, Acquisition, Neurocognition, Evolution. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 251–276. doi: 10.1075/tsl.85.11ont
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.85.11ont [Google Scholar]
  13. Dryer, Matthew S.
    2013 “Order of Relative Clause and Noun”. In Matthew S. Dryer , and Martin Haspelmath , eds.The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. wals.info/chapter/90 (accessedDecember 15, 2015)
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Frajzyngier, Zygmunt
    2014 “Functional Syntax in Historical Perspective”. In Claire Bowern , and Beth Evans , eds.Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics. London: Routledge, 308–325.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gilquin, Gaëtanelle
    2015 “At the Interface of Contact Linguistics and Second Language Research”. English World-Wide36: 91–124. doi: 10.1075/eww.36.1.05gil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.36.1.05gil [Google Scholar]
  16. Gisborne, Nikolas
    2000 “Relative Clauses in Hong Kong English”. World Englishes19: 357–371. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00184
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00184 [Google Scholar]
  17. Greenbaum, Sidney
    1996 “Introducing ICE”. In Sidney Greenbaum , ed.Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 3–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gut, Ulrike
    2011 “Studying Structural Innovations in New English Varieties”. In Joybrato Mukherjee , and Marianne Hundt , eds.Exploring Second-Language Varieties of English and Learner Englishes: Bridging a Paradigm Gap. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins, 101–124. doi: 10.1075/scl.44.06gut
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.44.06gut [Google Scholar]
  19. Gut, Ulrike , and Lilian Coronel
    2012 “Relatives Worldwide”. In Marianne Hundt , and Ulrike Gut , eds.Mapping Unity and Diversity Worldwide: Corpus-Based Studies of New Englishes. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 215–242. doi: 10.1075/veaw.g43.09gut
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g43.09gut [Google Scholar]
  20. Guy, Gregory R. , and Robert Bayley
    1995 “On the Choice of Relative Pronouns in English”. American Speech70: 148–172 doi: 10.2307/455813
    https://doi.org/10.2307/455813 [Google Scholar]
  21. Hackert, Stephanie
    2012The Emergence of the English Native Speaker. A Chapter in Nineteenth-Century Linguistic Thought. Berlin: De Grutyer. doi: 10.1515/9781614511052
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614511052 [Google Scholar]
  22. Hawkins, John A.
    2003 “Why are Zero-marked Phrases Close to their Heads?” In Gunther Rohdenburg , and Britta Mondorf , eds.Determinants of Grammatical Variation in English. Berlin: De Gruyter, 175–204. doi: 10.1515/9783110900019.175
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110900019.175 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2007Efficiency and Complexity in Grammars. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Heine, Bernd , and Tania Kuteva
    2005Language Contact and Grammatical Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511614132
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614132 [Google Scholar]
  25. Hendery, Rachel
    2012Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A Case Study in Methods of Diachronic Typology. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.101
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.101 [Google Scholar]
  26. Herrmann, Tanja
    2003 “Relative Clauses in Dialects of English: A Typological Approach”. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Freiburg, Germany.
  27. Hinrichs, Lars , Benedikt Szmrecsanyi , and Axel Bohmann
    2015 “ Which-hunting and the Standard English Relative Clause”. Language91: 806–836. doi: 10.1353/lan.2015.0062
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2015.0062 [Google Scholar]
  28. Huber, Magnus
    2012 “Syntactic and Variational Complexity in British and Ghanaian English Relative Clause Formation in the Written Parts of the International Corpus of English”. In Bernd Kortmann , and Benedikt Szmrecsanyi , eds.Linguistic Complexity. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter, 218–242. doi: 10.1515/9783110229226.218
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110229226.218 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hundt, Marianne
    2016 “Error, Feature, (Incipient) Change – or Something else altogether?” In Elena Seoane , and Cristina Suárez-Gómez , eds.World Englishes: New Theoretical and Methodological Considerations. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 37–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2015 “World Englishes”. In Douglas Biber , and Randi Reppen , eds.The Cambridge Handbook of English Corpus Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 381–400. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139764377.022
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139764377.022 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hundt, Marianne , David Denison , and Gerold Schneider
    2012 “Retrieving Relatives from Historical Data”. Language and Linguistic Computing27: 3–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    1984 “The Use of Typological Markedness Conditions as Predictors in Second Language Acquisition”. In Roger A. Andersen , ed.Second Language Acquisition. Rowley: Newbury House, 39–58.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Jacobsson, Bengt
    1994 “Nonrestrictive That-clauses Revisited”. Studia Neophilologica66: 181–195. doi: 10.1080/00393279408588139
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00393279408588139 [Google Scholar]
  34. Kandiah, Thiru
    1998 “The Emergence of New Englishes”. In Joseph A. Foley , Thiru Kandiah , Bao Zhiming , Anthea F. Gupta , Lubna Algasoff , Ho Chee Lick , Lionel Wee , I. S. Talib , and Wendy Bokhorst-Heng , eds.English in New Cultural Contexts: Reflections from Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 73–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Keenan, Edward L.
    1985 “Relative clauses”. In Timothy Shopen , ed.Language Typology and Syntactic Description. Vol. II: Complex Constructions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 141–170.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Keenan, Edward L. , and Bernd Comrie
    1977 “Noun Phrase Accessibility and Universal Grammar”. Linguistic Inquiry8: 63–99.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Killingley, Siew-Yue
    1993Cantonese. Munich: Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kortmann, Bernd , and Benedikt Szmrecsanyi
    2009 “World Englishes between Simplification and Complexification”. In Thomas Hoffmann , Lucia Siebers , and Egar W. Schneider , eds.World Englishes: Problems, Properties and Prospects. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins, 265–285. doi: 10.1075/veaw.g40.17kor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g40.17kor [Google Scholar]
  39. Kortmann, Bernd , and Kerstin Lunkenheimer
    eds. 2013The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English [eWAVE]. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Available atwww.ewave-atlas.org/ (accessedDecember 15, 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kretzschmar, William A.
    2014 “Emergence of ‘New Varieties’ in Speech as a Complex System”. In Sarah Buschfeld , Thomas Hoffmann , Magnus Huber , and Alexander Kautzsch , eds.The Evolution of Englishes: The Dynamic Model and Beyond. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 142–159.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Lange, Claudia
    2012The Syntax of Spoken Indian English. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/veaw.g45
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g45 [Google Scholar]
  42. Leech, Geoffrey , Marianne Hundt , Christian Mair , and Nicholas Smith
    2009Change in Contemporary English. A Grammatical Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511642210
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511642210 [Google Scholar]
  43. Leufkens, Sterre
    2015 “Transparency in Language. A Typological Study”. Ph.D. Dissertation. Utrecht: LOT. Available atdare.uva.nl/document/2/155071 (accessedJanuary 15, 2016).
  44. Mair, Christian
    2003 “Kreolismen und verbales Identitätsmanagement in geschriebenen jamaikanischen Englisch. In Elisabeth Vogel , Antonia Napp , and Wolfram Lutterer , eds.Zwischen Ausgrenzung und Hybridisierung. Würzburg: Ergon, 79–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 2013 “The World System of Englishes. Accounting for the Transnational Importance of Mobile and Mediated Vernacular”. English World-Wide34: 253–278. doi: 10.1075/eww.34.3.01mai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.34.3.01mai [Google Scholar]
  46. McCawley, James D.
    2004 “Remarks on Adsentential Adnominal and Extraposed Relative Clauses in Hindi”. In Veneeta Dayal , and Anoop Mahajan , eds.Clause Structure in South Asian Languages. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 291–311, doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑2719‑2_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-2719-2_10 [Google Scholar]
  47. Meisel, Jürgen M.
    2011 “Bilingual Acquisition and Theories of Diachronic Change: Bilingualism as Cause and Effect of Grammatical Change”. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition14: 121–145. doi: 10.1017/S1366728910000143
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728910000143 [Google Scholar]
  48. Meisel, Jürgen M. , Martin Elsig , and Esther Rinke
    2013Language Acquisition and Change. A Morphosyntactic Perspesctive. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. doi: 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748642250.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748642250.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  49. Mesthrie, Rajend
    2010 “New Englishes and the Native Speaker Debate”. Language Sciences32: 594–601. doi: 10.1016/j.langsci.2010.08.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2010.08.002 [Google Scholar]
  50. Mesthrie, Rajend , and Rakesh M. Bhatt
    2008World Englishes: The Study of New Linguistic Varieties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511791321
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791321 [Google Scholar]
  51. Miller, Jim
    2006 “Spoken and Written English”. In Bas Aarts , and April McMahon , eds.The Handbook of English Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell, 603–624. doi: 10.1002/9780470753002.ch28
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470753002.ch28 [Google Scholar]
  52. Mufwene, Salikoko S.
    2014 “Language Ecology, Language Evolution, and the Actuation Question”. In Tor Afarli , and Brit Maelhum , eds.Language Contact and Change: Grammatical Structure Encounters the Fluidity of Language. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 13–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Mukherjee, Joybrato , and Sebastian Hoffmann
    2006 “Describing Verb-complementational Profiles of New Englishes: a Pilot Study of Indian English”. English World-Wide27: 147–173. doi: 10.1075/eww.27.2.03muk
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.27.2.03muk [Google Scholar]
  54. Mukherjee, Joybrato , and Stefan Gries
    2009 “Verb-construction Associations in the International Corpus of English”. English World-Wide30: 27–51. doi: 10.1075/eww.30.1.03muk
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.30.1.03muk [Google Scholar]
  55. Mukherjee, Joybrato , and Marco Schilk
    2012 “Exploring Variation and Change in New Englishes: Looking into the International Corpus of English (ICE) and beyond”. In Terttu Nevalainen , and Elizabeth C. Traugott , eds.The Oxford Handbook of the History of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 189–199.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Prince, Ellen F.
    1997 “On the Functions of left-dislocation in English Discourse”. In Akio Kamio , ed.Directions in Functional Linguistics. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 117–143. doi: 10.1075/slcs.36.08pri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.36.08pri [Google Scholar]
  57. Rissanen, Matti
    1999 “Syntax”. In Roger Lass , ed.The Cambride History of the English Language, Vol3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 187–331.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Rohdenburg, Günter
    1996 “Cognitive Complexity and Increased Grammatical Explicitness in English”. Cognitive Linguistics7: 149–182. doi: 10.1515/cogl.1996.7.2.149
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.1996.7.2.149 [Google Scholar]
  59. Schaub, Steffen
    2016 “The Influence of Register on Noun Phrase Complexity on Varieties of English”. In Christof Schubert , and Christina Sanchez-Stockhammer , eds.Variational Text Linguistics: Revisiting Register in English. Berlin: De Gruyter, 251–270.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Schneider, Edgar W.
    2004 “How to Trace Structural Nativization: Particle Verbs in World Englishes”. World Englishes23: 227–249. doi: 10.1111/j.0883‑2919.2004.00348.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0883-2919.2004.00348.x [Google Scholar]
  61. 2007Postcolonial English: Varieties around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  62. 2012 “Exploring the Interface between World Englishes and Second Language Acquisition – and Implications for English as a Lingua Franca”. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca1: 57–91. doi: 10.1515/jelf‑2012‑0004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2012-0004 [Google Scholar]
  63. Seoane, Elena , and Cristina Suárez-Gómez
    2013 “The Expression of the Perfect in East and South-East Asian Englishes”. English World-Wide34: 1–25. doi: 10.1075/eww.34.1.01seo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.34.1.01seo [Google Scholar]
  64. Seoane, Elena , Lucía Loureiro-Porto , and Cristina Suárez-Gómez
    2016 “The ICE project looks at Iberia: The International Corpus of Gibraltar English”. Paper presented at40th AEDEAN International Conference. University of Zaragoza at Huesca, 9–12 November 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Sigley, Robert
    1997 “The Influence of Formality and Channel on Relative Pronoun Choice in New Zealand English”. English Language and Linguistics1: 207–232. doi: 10.1017/S1360674300000514
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674300000514 [Google Scholar]
  66. Slobin, Dan I.
    1983 “What the Natives Have in Mind”. In Roger A. Andersen , ed.Pidginization and Creolization as Language Acquisition. Rowley: Newbury House, 246–253
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Srivastav, Venetta
    1991 “The Syntax and Semantics of Correlatives”. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory9: 637–686. doi: 10.1007/BF00134752
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00134752 [Google Scholar]
  68. Steger, Maria , and Edgar W. Schneider
    2012 “Complexity as a Function of Iconicity. The Case of Complement Clause Constructions in New Englishes”. In Bernd Kortmann , and Benkedict Szmrecsanyi , eds.Linguistic Complexity. Second Language Acquisition, Indigenization, Contact. Berlin: De Gruyter, 156–191. doi: 10.1515/9783110229226.156
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110229226.156 [Google Scholar]
  69. Suárez-Gómez, Cristina
    2014 “Relative Clauses in Asian Englishes.” Journal of English Linguistics42: 245–268, doi: 10.1177/0075424214540528
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424214540528 [Google Scholar]
  70. 2015 “The Places where English is Spoken: Adverbial Relative Clauses in World Englishes”. World Englishes34: 620–635. doi: 10.1111/weng.12165
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12165 [Google Scholar]
  71. Tagliamonte, Sali
    2002 “Variation and Change in the British Relative Marker System”. In Patricia Poussa , ed.Dialect contact on the North Sea Littoral. Munich: Lincom Europa, 147–165.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Thomason, Sarah G.
    2001Language Contact. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. doi: 10.1016/B0‑08‑043076‑7/03032‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/03032-1 [Google Scholar]
  73. Thomason, Sarah G. , and Terrence Kaufmann
    1988Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Tottie, Gunnel
    1997 “Overseas Relatives: British-American Differences in Relative Marker Usage”. In Jan Aarts , Inge de Mönnink , and Herman Wekker , eds.Studies in English Language and Teaching. In honour of Flor Aarts. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 153–165.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Tottie, Gunnel , and Dawn Harvie
    2000 “It’s all Relative: Relativization Strategies in Early African American English”. In Shana Poplack , ed.The English History of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell, 198–230.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Tottie, Gunnel , and Michael Rey
    1997 “Relativization Strategies in Earlier African American Vernacular English”. Language Variation and Change9: 219–247 doi: 10.1017/S0954394500001885
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500001885 [Google Scholar]
  77. The People’s Linguistic Survey of India. Bhasha Research and Publication Centre. Available atpeopleslinguisticsurvey.org/ (accessedOctober 15, 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Trudgill, Peter
    2009 “Sociolinguistic Typology and Complexification”. In Geoffrey Sampson , David Gil , and Peter Trudgill , eds.Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 98–109.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Van Rooy, Bertus
    2011 “A Principled Distinction between Error and Conventionalized Innovation in African Englishes”. In Joybrato Mukherjee , and Marianne Hundt , eds.Exploring Second-Language Varieties of English and Learner English. Bridging a Paradigm Gap. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins, 189–207.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Williams, Jessica
    1987 “Non-native Varieties of English. A Special Case of Language Acquisition”. English World-Wide8: 161–199. doi: 10.1075/eww.8.2.02wil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.8.2.02wil [Google Scholar]
  81. Wiliams, Jessica
    1989 “Pronoun Copies, Pronominal Anaphora and Zero Anaphora in Second Language Production”. In Susan Gass , Carolyn Madden , Dennis Preston , and Larry Selinker , eds.Variation in Second-Language Acquisition. Vol. 1: Discourse and Pragmatics. Clevendon: Multilingual Matters, 153–189.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Winford, Donald
    2009 “The Interplay of ‘Universals’ and Contact-induced Change in the Emergence of New Englishes”. In Markku Filppula , Juhani Klemola , and Heli Paulasto , eds.Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond. London: Routledge, 206–230.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Windstedt, Richard O.
    1913Malay Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Wulff, Stefanie , Nicholas Lester , and Maria T. Martinez-Garcia
    2014 “ That-variation in German and Spanish L2 English”, Language and Cognition6: 271–299. doi: 10.1017/langcog.2014.5
    https://doi.org/10.1017/langcog.2014.5 [Google Scholar]
  85. Yip, Virginia , and Stephen Matthews
    1991 “Relative Complexity: Beyond Avoidance”. Chinese University of Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics3: 112–124.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error