1887
Volume 25, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0929-998X
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9765
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to explore possible connections between ‘grammatical metaphor’ and ‘grammaticalization’, especially with a view to identifying synergies and fostering cross-fertilization of insights between SFL and ‘grammaticalization theory’. After a characterization of the concepts of grammatical metaphor and grammaticalization, it is argued that the two notions are intricately connected. Their connection is explored at two levels: a theoretical-conceptual and a descriptive level. At the theoretical-conceptual level, it is argued that metaphoricity and codification are two sides of the same coin, providing complementary perspectives on synchronic variation and diachronic ‘change’, which can be deconstructed if one changes the time depth or the angle of the perspective. At the descriptive level it is shown that interpersonal grammatical metaphors can be seen as a breeding ground for grammaticalization. Aspects of the syntagmatic nature of interpersonal metaphors are identified as bridging contexts for their grammaticalization into expressions of epistemic assessment, and two grammaticalization paths are identified on the basis of interacting vectors of grammaticalization and metaphoricity, viz. a path into discourse markers and one into epistemic adverbials.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/fol.17014.tav
2018-08-10
2019-08-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aijmer, Karin
    1972Some aspects of psychological predicates (Stockholm Studies in English 14). Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 1994I think: An English modal particle. Lund: Lund University Manuscript.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bolinger, Dwight
    1967 The imperative in English. InTo honour Roman Jakobson. Vol.1, 335–362. The Hague: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boye, Kasper & Peter Harder
    2007 Complement-taking predicates: Usage and linguistic structure. Studies in Language31(3). 569–606. doi: 10.1075/sl.31.3.03boy
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.31.3.03boy [Google Scholar]
  5. Brinton, Laurel J.
    1996Pragmatic markers in English: Grammaticalization and discourse function. Berlin: Mouton. doi: 10.1515/9783110907582
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110907582 [Google Scholar]
  6. Butler, Christopher S.
    2003Structure and function: A guide to three major structural-functional theories. Part 1: Approaches to the simplex clause. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bybee, Joan L.
    2003 Cognitive processes in grammaticalization. InMichael Tomasello (ed.), The new psychology of language: Cognitive and functional approaches to language structure. Vol. 2, 145–167. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Caffarel, Alice, J. R. Martin & Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen
    (eds.) 2004aLanguage typology: A functional perspective. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.253
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.253 [Google Scholar]
  9. 2004b Introduction. In: Alice Caffarel, J. R. Martin & Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen (eds.), 1–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Campbell, Lyle
    2001 What’s wrong with grammaticalization?Language Sciences23. 113–161. doi: 10.1016/S0388‑0001(00)00019‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(00)00019-X [Google Scholar]
  11. Davidse, Kristin
    1994 Fact projection. InKeith Carlon, Kristin Davidse & Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn (eds.), Perspectives on English: Studies in honour of Professor Emma Vorlat, 259–286. Leuven: Peeters.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 1999Categories of experiential grammar (Monographs in Systemic Linguistics 11). Nottingham: Nottingham Trent University.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Davies, Eirian C.
    1979The semantics of syntax: Mood and condition in English. London: Croom Helm.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Davies, Eirlys
    1986The English imperative. London: Croom Helm.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. De Smet, Hendrik & Jean-Christophe Verstraete
    2006 Coming to terms with subjectivity. Cognitive Linguistics17(3). 365–392.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Degand, Liesbeth & Jacqueline Evers-Vermeul
    2015 Grammaticalization or pragmaticalization of discourse markers? More than a terminological issue. Journal of Historical Pragmatics16(1). 59–85. doi: 10.1075/jhp.16.1.03deg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.16.1.03deg [Google Scholar]
  17. Fawcett, Robin P.
    1980Cognitive linguistics and social interaction: Towards an integrated model of a systemic functional grammar and the other components of a communicating mind. Heidelberg: Groos.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 2000A theory of syntax for Systemic Functional Linguistics. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.206
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.206 [Google Scholar]
  19. 2002The functional syntax handbook: Analyzing English at the level of form. London: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fischer, Olga C. M.
    2010 An analogical approach to grammaticalization. In: Katerina Stathi, Elke Gehweiler, Ekkehard König (eds.), 181–218.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 2013 An inquiry into unidirectionality as a foundational element of grammaticalization: On the role played by analogy and the synchronic grammar system in processes of language change. Studies in Language37(3). 515–533. doi: 10.1075/sl.37.3.03fis
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.37.3.03fis [Google Scholar]
  22. Goatly, Andrew
    1996 Green grammar and grammatical metaphor, or Language and the myth of power, or Metaphors we die by. Journal of Pragmatics25(4). 537–560. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(95)00057‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00057-7 [Google Scholar]
  23. Halliday, M. A. K.
    1956 Grammatical categories in modern Chinese: An early sketch of the theory. Transactions of the Philological Society1956. 180–202.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 1961 Antilanguages. American Anthropologist78(3). 570–584. doi: 10.1525/aa.1976.78.3.02a00050
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1976.78.3.02a00050 [Google Scholar]
  25. 1976 Antilanguages. American Anthropologist78(3). 570–584. doi: 10.1525/aa.1976.78.3.02a00050
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1976.78.3.02a00050 [Google Scholar]
  26. 1970 Modes of meaning and modes of expression: Types of grammatical structure, and their determination by different semantic functions. In: D. J. Allerton, Edward Carney & David Holdcroft (eds.), Function and context in linguistic analysis: A festschrift for William Haas. Cambridge: CUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 1979 Modes of meaning and modes of expression: Types of grammatical structure, and their determination by different semantic functions. InD. J. Allerton, Edward Carney & David Holdcroft (eds.), Function and context in linguistic analysis: A festschrift for William Haas, 57–79. Cambridge: CUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 1982 The de-automatization of grammar: From Priestley’s “An inspector calls”. InJohn A. Anderson (ed.), Language form and linguistic variation: Papers dedicated to Angus McIntosh, 129–159. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.15.09hal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.15.09hal [Google Scholar]
  29. 1984 Language as code and language as behaviour: A systemic-functional interpretation of the nature and ontogenesis of dialogue. InRobin P. Fawcett, M. A. K. Halliday, Sydney Lamb & Adam Makkai (eds.), The semiotics of culture and language. Volume 1: Language as social semiotic (Open Linguistics Series), 3–55. London: Pinter.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 1985 Language and the order of nature. In: Nigel Fabb, Derek Attridge, Alan Durant & Colin MacCabe (eds.), The linguistics of writing: Arguments between language and literature, 135–154. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 1987 Language and the order of nature. InNigel Fabb, Derek Attridge, Alan Durant & Colin MacCabe (eds.), The linguistics of writing: Arguments between language and literature, 135–154. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 1988 New ways of meaning: The challenge to applied linguistics. In: Martin Pütz (ed.), Thirty years of linguistic evolution, 59–95. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 1992a New ways of meaning: The challenge to applied linguistics. InMartin Pütz (ed.), Thirty years of linguistic evolution, 59–95. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 1992b How do you mean?InMartin Davies & Louise Ravelli (eds.), Advances in Systemic Linguistics: Recent theory and practice, 20–35. London: Pinter.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 1996 On grammar and grammatics. InRuqaiya Hasan, Carmel Cloran & David G. Butt (eds.), Functional descriptions: Theory in practice, 1–38. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.121.03hal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.121.03hal [Google Scholar]
  36. 1998 Things and relations: Regrammaticising experience as technical knowledge. InJ. R. Martin & Robert Veel (eds.), Reading science: Critical and functional perspectives on discourses of science, 185–235. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 2008 Working with meaning: Towards an appliable linguistics. InJonathan Webster (ed.), Meaning in context: Implementing intelligent applications of language studies, 7–23. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Halliday, M. A. K. & Ruqaiya Hasan
    1976Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Halliday, M. A. K. & J. R. Martin
    1993Writing science: Literacy and discursive power. London: Falmer.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Halliday, M. A. K. & Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen
    1999Construing experience through meaning: A language-based approach to cognition. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 2013Halliday’s Introduction to Functional Grammar, 4th edn.Oxon: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Haspelmath, Martin
    2004 On directionality in language change with particular reference to grammaticalization. In: Olga C. M. Fischer, Muriel Norde & Harry Perridon (eds.), 17–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Hopper, Paul J. & Elizabeth Closs Traugott
    1993Grammaticalization. Cambridge: CUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Huntley, Martin
    1984 The semantics of English imperatives. Linguistics and Philosophy7. 103–133. doi: 10.1007/BF00630809
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00630809 [Google Scholar]
  45. IFG1 = Halliday 1985 and subsequent editions indicated by numbers
  46. Joseph, Brian D.
    2001 Is there such a thing as “grammaticalization”?Language Sciences23. 113–161.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2004 Rescuing traditional (historical) linguistics from grammaticalization theory. In: Olga C. M. Fischer, Muriel Norde & Harry Perridon (eds.), 45–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lamb, Sidney M.
    1962Outline of Stratificational Grammar. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Langacker, Ronald W.
    1990 Subjectification. Cognitive Linguistics1. 5–38. doi: 10.1515/cogl.1990.1.1.5
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.1990.1.1.5 [Google Scholar]
  50. 1991Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Vol. II: Descriptive application. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 1999 Losing control: Grammaticalization, subjectification and transparency. InAndreas Blank & Peter Koch (eds.), Historical semantics and cognition, 147–175. Berlin: Mouton. doi: 10.1515/9783110804195.147
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110804195.147 [Google Scholar]
  52. 2000Grammar and conceptualization. Berlin: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 2011 Grammaticalization and Cognitive Grammar. InBernd Heine & Heiko Narrog (eds.), The Oxford handbook of grammaticalization, 79–91. Oxford: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Lehmann, Christian
    1985 Grammaticalization: Synchronic variation and diachronic change. Lingua e stile10(3). 303–318.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 1995/1982Thoughts on grammaticalization. Munich: Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Lemke, Jay L.
    1984Semiotics and education. Toronto: Victoria University.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Lyons, John
    1981Language, meaning and context. Bungay: Fontana.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Martin, J. R.
    1992English text: system and structure. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 1995 Interpersonal meaning, persuasion and public discourse: Packing semiotic punch. Australian Journal of Linguistics15. 33–67. doi: 10.1080/07268609508599515
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268609508599515 [Google Scholar]
  60. 1997 Analysing genre: Functional parameters. InFrances Christie & J. R. Martin (eds.), Genres and institutions, 3–39. London: Cassell.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 2008 Incongruent and proud: de/vilifying ‘nominalisation’. Discourse & Society19(6). 801–810.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Martin, J. R. & Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen
    1991 Systemic typology and topology. InFrances Christie (ed.), Literacy in social processes, 345–383. Northern Territory University, Darwin: Centre for Studies in Language and Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Martin, J. R. & David Rose
    2003Working with discourse. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.
    2002 Combining clauses into clause complexes: A multi-faceted view. InJoan Bybee & Michael Noonan (eds.), Complex sentences in grammar and discourse: Essays in honor of Sandra A. Thompson, 235–320. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.110.13mat
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.110.13mat [Google Scholar]
  65. 2004 Descriptive motifs and generalizations. In: Alice Caffarel, J. R. Martin & Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen (eds.), 537–574.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Narrog, Heiko
    2015 (Inter)subjectification and its limits in secondary grammaticalization. Language Sciences47. 148–160. doi: 10.1016/j.langsci.2014.07.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2014.07.010 [Google Scholar]
  67. Newmeyer, Frederick J.
    2001 Deconstructing grammaticalization. Language Sciences23. 187–229. doi: 10.1016/S0388‑0001(00)00021‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(00)00021-8 [Google Scholar]
  68. Noël, Dirk
    2016 For a radically usage-based diachronic construction grammar. Belgian Journal of Linguistics30. 39–53. doi: 10.1075/bjl.30.03noe
    https://doi.org/10.1075/bjl.30.03noe [Google Scholar]
  69. 2017 The development of non-deontic BE BOUND TO in a radically usage-based diachronic construction grammar perspective. Lingua199. 72–93.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Norde, Muriel
    2009Degrammaticalization. Oxford: OUP. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207923.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207923.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  71. Petré, Peter
    2016 Unidirectionality as a cycle of convention and innovation. Belgian Journal of Linguistics30(1). 115–146.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Stathi, Katerina, Elke Gehweiler & Ekkehard König
    (eds.) 2010Grammaticalization: Current views and issues (Studies in Language Companion Series 119). Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/slcs.119
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.119 [Google Scholar]
  73. Steiner, Erich
    2012 Introduction. InSilvia Hansen-Schirra, Stella Neumann & Erich Steiner (eds.), Cross-linguistic corpora for the study of translations, 1–17. Berlin: de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110260328.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110260328.1 [Google Scholar]
  74. Sweetser, Eve E.
    1990From etymology to pragmatics. Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. Cambridge: CUP. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511620904
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620904 [Google Scholar]
  75. Tabor, Whitney & Elizabeth C. Traugott
    1998 Structural scope expansion and grammaticalization. InAnna Giacalone Ramat & Paul J. Hopper (eds.), The Limits of Grammaticalization (Typological Studies in Language 37), 229–272. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.37.11tab
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.37.11tab [Google Scholar]
  76. Taverniers, Miriam
    2002Systemic-Functional Linguistics and the notion of grammatical metaphor: A theoretical study and the proposal for a semiotic-functional integrative model. Ghent: Ghent University PhD thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 2003 Grammatical metaphor in SFL: A historiography of the introduction and initial study of the concept. InAnne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen, Miriam Taverniers & Louise Ravelli (eds.), Grammatical metaphor: Views from Systemic Functional Linguistics, 5–33. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.236.02tav
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.236.02tav [Google Scholar]
  78. 2004 Grammatical metaphors in English. Moderna Språk98(1). 17–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 2006 Grammatical metaphor and lexical metaphor: Different perspectives on semantic variation. Neophilologus90(2). 321–332. doi: 10.1007/s11061‑005‑0531‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11061-005-0531-y [Google Scholar]
  80. 2008 Interpersonal grammatical metaphor as double scoping and double grounding. Word59(1–2). 83–109. doi: 10.1080/00437956.2008.11432582
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.2008.11432582 [Google Scholar]
  81. 2011 Grammatical metaphor. In: Tom Bartlett & Gerard O’Grady (eds.), The Routledge handbook of Systemic Functional Linguistics, 354–371. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 2017a Grammatical metaphor. InTom Bartlett & Gerard O’Grady (eds.), The Routledge handbook of Systemic Functional Linguistics, 354–371. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 2017b Metaphor in pragmatics. InAnne Barron, Gu Yueguo & Gerard Steen (eds.), The Routledge handbook of pragmatics, 323–340. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. . forthc. a. Semantics. In: Geoff Thompson, Wendy L. Bowcher, Lise Fontaine & Jennifer Yameng Liang eds. Cambridge handbook of Systemic Functional Linguistics. Cambridge: CUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. . forthc. b. Grammatical metaphor as a construction type: A semiotic-functional model. London: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Thibault, Paul J.
    1995 Mood and the ecosocial dynamics of semiotic exchange. In: Ruqaiya Hasan & Peter H. Fries (eds.), On subject and theme: A discourse functional perspective (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 118), 51–89. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.118.03thi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.118.03thi [Google Scholar]
  87. Thompson, Sandra A. & Anthony Mulac
    1991 A quantitative perspective on the grammaticization of epistemic parentheticals in English. InElizabeth Closs Traugott & Bernd Heine (eds.), Approaches to grammaticalization. Vol. 2: Focus on types of grammatical markers, 313–329. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.19.2.16tho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.19.2.16tho [Google Scholar]
  88. Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
    1974 Explorations in linguistic elaboration: Language change, language acquisition and the genesis of spatio-temporal terms. InJohn Anderson & Charles Jones (eds.), Historical linguistics, 263–314. Dordrecht: North Holland.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 1975 Spatial expressions of tense and temporal sequencing: A contribution to the study of semantic fields. Semiotica15(3). 207–230. doi: 10.1515/semi.1975.15.3.207
    https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1975.15.3.207 [Google Scholar]
  90. 1978 On the expression of spatio-temporal relations in language. InJoseph Greenberg, Charles A. Ferguson & Edith A. Moravcsik (eds.), Universals of human language. Vol. 3: Word structure, 369–400. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 1982 From propositional to textual and expressive meanings: Some semantic-pragmatic aspects of grammaticalization. InWinfred P. Lehmann & Yakov Malkiel (eds.), Perspectives on historical linguistics, 245–271. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.24.09clo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.24.09clo [Google Scholar]
  92. 1989 On the rise of epistemic meanings in English. An example of subjectification in semantic change. Language65. 31–55. doi: 10.2307/414841
    https://doi.org/10.2307/414841 [Google Scholar]
  93. 1995 Subjectification in grammaticalisation. InDieter Stein & Susan Wright (eds.), Subjectivity and subjectivisation: Linguistic perspectives, 31–54. Cambridge: CUP. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511554469.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511554469.003 [Google Scholar]
  94. 1997 The role and development of discourse markers in a theory of grammaticalization. InLinda van Bergen & Richard M. Hogg (eds.), Papers from the 12th international conference on historical linguistics. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 2007 The concepts of constructional mismatch and type-shifting from the perspective of grammaticalization. Cognitive Linguistics18(4). 523–557. doi: 10.1515/COG.2007.027
    https://doi.org/10.1515/COG.2007.027 [Google Scholar]
  96. 2010 (Inter)subjectivity and (inter)subjectification: A reassessment. InKristin Davidse, Lieven Vandelanotte & Hubert Cuyckens (eds.), Subjectification, intersubjectification and grammaticalization, 29–71. Berlin: de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110226102.1.29
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110226102.1.29 [Google Scholar]
  97. Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Richard B. Dasher
    2002Regularity in semantic change. Cambridge: CUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Graeme Trousdale
    2013Constructionalization and constructional changes. Cambridge: CUP. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679898.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679898.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  99. Trousdale, Graeme
    2010 Issues in constructional approaches to grammaticalization in English. In: Katerina Stathi, Elke Gehweiler & Ekkehard König (eds.), 51–72.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/fol.17014.tav
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/fol.17014.tav
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error