1887
Volume 28, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0929-998X
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9765
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This article claims that the conjecturing clause-taking predicate in Modern Chinese (e.g. ‘People that the escaped policeman had probably been involved in the case.’) is actually a parenthetical structure. Diachronically, it does not develop from an NP-taking predicate (e.g. ‘I the statement a lot.’) or a doubting clause-taking predicate (e.g. ‘Du Yifu often that he had had times of buddy loyalty with his son.’). Rather, it develops from a prosodically separated conjecturing predicate. The goal of this paper is to show that its formation did not follow the commonly accepted matrix clause pathway, whereby a parenthetical clause-taking predicate develops from a corresponding matrix clause structure. Instead, it followed a hypothesized conjoining pathway, which involves the loss of a phonetic gap between a prosodically separated predicate and the clause with which it occurs.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/fol.19029.lon
2020-11-04
2021-12-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aijmer, Karin
    1997I think: An English modal particle. InToril Swan & Olaf Jansen Westvik (eds.), Modality in Germanic languages: Historical and comparative perspectives, 1–47. Berlin: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110889932.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110889932.1 [Google Scholar]
  2. Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad & Edward Finegan
    1999Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bogaert, Julie van
    2010 A constructional taxonomy of I think and related expressions: Accounting for the variability of complement-taking mental predicates. English Language and Linguistics14(3). 399–427. 10.1017/S1360674310000134
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674310000134 [Google Scholar]
  4. 2011I think and other complement-taking mental predicates: A case of and for constructional grammaticalization. Linguistics49(2). 295–332.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boye, Kasper & Peter Harder
    2007 Complement-taking predicates: Usage and linguistic structure. Studies in Language31(3). 569–606. 10.1075/sl.31.3.03boy
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.31.3.03boy [Google Scholar]
  6. Brinton, Laurel J.
    1996Pragmatic markers in English: Grammaticalization and discourse functions. Berlin: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110907582
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110907582 [Google Scholar]
  7. 2008The comment clause in English: Syntactic origins and pragmatic development. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511551789
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551789 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2017The evolution of pragmatic markers in English: Pathways of change. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/9781316416013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316416013 [Google Scholar]
  9. Chen, Shiqiang (陈士强)
    2007 General contents and abstracts of Tripitaka. Collection of Sutras, vol.3 (《大藏经总目提要·经藏三》). Shanghai: Shanghai Classics Press (上海:上海古籍出版社).
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chen, Shou (陈寿)
    2011 History of Three Kingdoms, vol.2 (《三国志(下)》). Shanghai: Shanghai Classics Press (上海:上海古籍出版社).
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Compiling Committee of Yongle Beizang (“永乐北藏”整理委员会)
    Compiling Committee of Yongle Beizang (“永乐北藏”整理委员会) 1440 Yongle Beizang, vol.89 (《永乐北藏·八十九》). Beijing: Thread Binding Press (北京:线装书局).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dehé, Nicole
    2014Parentheticals in spoken English: The syntax-prosody relation. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9781139032391
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139032391 [Google Scholar]
  13. Dixon, R. M. W.
    2006 Complement clauses and complementation strategies in typological perspective. InR. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), Complementation: A cross-linguistic typology, 1–48. Oxford: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fischer, Olga
    2007 The development of English parentheticals: A case of grammaticalization?InUte Smit (eds.), Tracing English through time: Explorations in language variation. A festschrift for Herbert Schendl on the occasion of his 65th Birthday, 103–118. Vienna: Braumüller.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ge, Tianming (葛天明)
    2000 Bright mirror cases (《明镜公案》). Beijing: China Opera Press (北京:中国戏剧出版社).
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Han, Lei (韩蕾)
    2001 On the semantics, objects, and sentence meanings of huaiyi (“怀疑”的词义、宾语和句义). Journal of Xuzhou Normal University (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition) (《徐州师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版)》) 27(1). 35–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hooper, Joan B.
    1975 On assertive predicates. InJohn P. Kimball (ed.), Syntax and semantics, vol.4, 91–124. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Horn, Laurence R.
    1978 Some aspects of negation. InJoseph Greenberg, Charles Ferguson & Edith Moravcsik (eds.), Universals of human language, 127–210. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Huang, Shuanfan
    2013Chinese grammar at work. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/scld.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scld.1 [Google Scholar]
  20. Huddleston, Rodney & Geoffrey K. Pullum
    2002The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/9781316423530
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316423530 [Google Scholar]
  21. Iyeiri, Yoko
    2009 The historical development of the verb doubt and its various patterns of complementation. InUte Römer & Rainer Schulze (eds.), Exploring the lexis–grammar interface, 153–169. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.35.11iye
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.35.11iye [Google Scholar]
  22. 2010Verbs of implicit negation and their complements in the history of English. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/z.155
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.155 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kaltenböck, Gunther
    2011 Explaining divergence: The case of clause-initial I think. InDoris Schönefeld (ed.), Converging evidence: Methodological and theoretical issues for linguistic research, 81–112. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/hcp.33.07kal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.33.07kal [Google Scholar]
  24. Kuteva, Tania, Bernd Heine, Bo Hong, Haiping Long, Heiko Narrog & Seongha Rhee
    2019World lexicon of grammaticalization, 2nd edn.Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/9781316479704
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316479704 [Google Scholar]
  25. Laoshe (老舍)
    1993 Complete works of Laoshe, vol.3 (《老舍全集(第三卷)》). Wuhan: Changjiang Literature and Arts Press (武汉:长江文艺出版社).
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Li, Xingya (李兴亚)
    1987 The meaning of huaiyi and its object types (“怀疑”的意义和宾语的类型). Studies of the Chinese Language (《中国语文》) 197(2). 114–117.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Li, Xingya (李兴亚) & Zongjiang Li (李宗江)
    1992 More on the meaning and object types of huaiyi (再谈“怀疑”的意义和宾语的类型). InLinguistic Society of Henan Province (河南省语言学会) (ed.), Research collections of Chinese, vol.2 (《汉语论丛第二辑》), 43–47. Kaifeng: Henan University Press (开封:河南大学出版社).
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Li, Yunxi (李运熹)
    1988 Further discussion on the meaning of huaiyi (也谈“怀疑”的意义). Studies of the Chinese Language (《中国语文》) 203(2). 133.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Liang, Donghan (梁东汉)
    2006 New edition of Shuowen Jiezi (《新编说文解字》). Taiyuan: Shanxi Educational Press (太原:山西教育出版社).
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Liu, Bin (刘彬) & Yulin Yuan (袁毓林)
    2018 On the lexical ambiguity of the Chinese verb huáiyí and its meaning construal strategy (“怀疑”的词汇歧义和意义识解策略). Foreign Language Teaching and Research (《外语教学与研究》) 50(1). 15–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Liu, Jinglin (刘敬林)
    2003 Annotations on yi (释“疑”). Research in Ancient Chinese Language (《古汉语研究》) 61(4). 95–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Liu, Yuying (刘玉瑛) & Jingzhong Mei (梅敬忠)
    (compiling) 1994 Ancient and Contemporary Love Stories (《古今情海》). Changchun: Jilin Arts and History Press (长春:吉林文史出版社).
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Long, Haiping, Bernd Heine, Guijun Ruan & Mengyue Wu
    2018 The grammaticalizational relation between two Modern Chinese wo xiang ‘I think’ constructions. Language Sciences66. 212–225. 10.1016/j.langsci.2017.10.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2017.10.003 [Google Scholar]
  34. Long, Haiping, Xiaoxian Xu, Mengyue Wu & Francesco-Alessio Ursini
    2019 Formation of the Modern Chinese clause-taking imperative ni kan ‘you see’: A conjoining pathway account. Lingua232. 1–24. 10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102745
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102745 [Google Scholar]
  35. Lu, Chengfa (鲁承发)
    2016 A new study on the extension mechanism and construal strategy of the sense of the Chinese verb huaiyi: Also on the syntactic influence of the game between “the least effort principle in expression” and the “the least effort principle in understanding” (“怀疑”意义的引申机制与识解策略新探——兼谈“表达省力”与“理解省力”博弈对句法的影响). Language Teaching and Linguistic Studies (《语言教学与研究》) 179(3). 93–101.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lü, Shuxiang (吕叔湘)
    1985 Question, negation, and affirmation (疑问·否定·肯定). Studies of the Chinese Language (《中国语文》) 187(4). 241–250.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Meng, Cong (孟琮) & Huaide Zheng (郑怀德)
    1999 Usage lexicon of Chinese verbs (《汉语动词用法词典》). Beijing: Commercial Press (北京:商务印书馆).
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Palander-Collin, Minna
    1999Grammaticalization and social embedding: i think and methinks in Middle and Early Modern English. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech & Jan Svartvik
    1985A comprehensive grammar of the English language. New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ross, John Robert
    1973 Slifting. InMaurice Gross, Morris Halle & Marcel-Paul Schützenberger (eds.), The formal analysis of natural languages: Proceedings of the first international conference, 133–169. Hague: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110885248‑009
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110885248-009 [Google Scholar]
  41. Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten
    2014 Complement clauses and complementation systems: A cross-linguistic study of grammatical organization. Jena: University of Jena PhD thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Sun, Chaofen
    2006Chinese: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511755019
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511755019 [Google Scholar]
  43. Tan, Zuowen (檀作文)
    2016 Zeng Guofan’s home letters (《曾国藩家书》). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company (北京:中华书局).
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Thompson, Sandra A.
    2002 Object complement and conversation: Towards a realistic account. Studies in Language26(1). 125–163. 10.1075/sl.26.1.05tho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.26.1.05tho [Google Scholar]
  45. Thompson, Sandra A. & Anthony Mulac
    1991 A quantitative perspective on the grammaticalization of epistemic parentheticals in English. InElizabeth Closs Traugott & Bernd Heine (eds.), Approaches to grammaticalization, vol.2, 313–329. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.19.2.16tho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.19.2.16tho [Google Scholar]
  46. Yuan, Yulin (袁毓林)
    2014 On the sense extension mechanism and semantic construal strategy of the Chinese verb huaiyi (“怀疑”的意义引申机制和语义识解策略). Studies in Language and Linguistics (《语言研究》) 34(3). 1–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Zhang, Baosheng (张宝胜)
    2007 Manuscripts on studies of Chinese (《汉语研究论稿》). Shanghai: Xuelin Press (上海:学林出版社).
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/fol.19029.lon
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/fol.19029.lon
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error