1887
image of Do ‘say’ verbs really grammaticalize into complementizers through clause combination?
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

When a ‘say’ clause is combined with a quoted-speech clause, one of two hypothetical pathways may be followed: (a) a complementation pathway on which the ‘say’ clause takes the quoted-speech clause as its complement clause and thus becomes its matrix clause; (b) a conjoining pathway which involves no syntactic operation but rather the loss of a prosodic gap between the two. Following the second pathway, ‘say’ may become grammaticalized into a quotative particle. On neither pathway is ‘say’ grammaticalized into a complementizer. It is proposed that cross-linguistically so-called ‘say’ complementizers, including the alleged Chinese complementizer , are more likely to be not complementizers but rather quotative particles.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/fol.21023.den
2022-11-29
2023-01-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.
    2006 Serial verb constructions in typological perspective. InAlexandra Y. Aikhenvald & R. M. W. Dixon (eds.), Serial verb constructions: A cross-linguistic typology, –. New York, NY: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Balusu, Rahul
    2018 The Quotative complementizer says “I’m too baroque for that”. InBhamati Dash & Gurmeet Kaur (eds.), Proceedings of FASAL, vol., –.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Boye, Kasper, Eva van Lier & Eva T. Brink
    2015 Epistemic complementizers: A crosslinguistic survey. Language Sciences. –. 10.1016/j.langsci.2015.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2015.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  4. Boye, Kasper & Petar Kehayov
    (eds.) 2016Complementizer semantics in European languages. Berlin: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110416619
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110416619 [Google Scholar]
  5. Brinton, Laurel J.
    2008The comment clause in English: Syntactic origins and pragmatic development. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511551789
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551789 [Google Scholar]
  6. 2017The evolution of pragmatic markers in English: Pathways of change. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/9781316416013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316416013 [Google Scholar]
  7. Chappell, Hilary
    2008 Variation in the grammaticalization of complementizers from verba dicendi in Sinitic languages. Linguistic Typology(). –. 10.1515/LITY.2008.032
    https://doi.org/10.1515/LITY.2008.032 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2016Say complementizers: Shuō說, waa3話, kong1講. InRint Sybesma, Wolfgang Behr, Yueguo Gu, Zev Handel, C.-T. James Huang & James Myers (eds.), Encyclopedia of Chinese language and linguistics. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2017 From verb of saying to attitudinal discourse marker in Southern Min: (Inter)subjectivity and grammaticalization. InDaniël van Olmen, Hubert Cuyckens & Lobke Ghesquière (eds.), Aspects of grammaticalization: (Inter)subjectification, analogy and directionality, –. Berlin: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cristofaro, Sonia
    2003Subordination. Oxford: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dehé, Nicole
    2014Parentheticals in spoken English: The syntax-prosody relation. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9781139032391
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139032391 [Google Scholar]
  12. Ding, Jian ( 丁健
    ) 2014 Functional approaches to the complementizer shuo in Mandarin Chinese (《汉语标句词“说”的功能语法研究》). Shanghai: Shanghai International Studies University PhD Thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dixon, R. M. W.
    2006 Complement clauses and complementation strategies in typological perspective. InR. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), Complementation: A cross-linguistic typology, –. Oxford: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dong, Xiufang ( 董秀芳
    ) 2008 Blending of direct and indirect quotation in actual texts (实际语篇中直接引语与间接引语的混用现象). Language Sciences (《语言科学》) (). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ebert, Karen H.
    1991 Vom Verbum dicendi zur Konjunktion: Ein Kapitel universaler Grammatikentwicklung. InWalter Bisang & Peter Rinderknecht (eds.), Von Europa bis Ozeanien – Von der Antonymie zum Relativsatz, –. Zürich: Universität Zürich.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Evans, Nicholas
    2013 Some problems in the typology of quotation: A canonical approach. InDunstan Brown, Marina Chumakina & Greville G. Corbett (eds.), Canonical morphology and syntax, –. Oxford: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fang, Mei ( 方梅
    ) 2006 Grammaticalization of shuō ‘say’ in Beijing Mandarin: From lexical verb to subordinator (北京话里“说”的语法化——从言说动词到从句标记). Journal of Chinese Dialectology (《中国方言学报》) . –.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Frajzyngier, Zygmunt
    1995 A functional theory of complementizers. InJoan Bybee & Susanne Fleischman (eds.), Modality in grammar and discourse, –. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.32.21fra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.32.21fra [Google Scholar]
  19. Givón, T.
    1980 The binding hierarchy and the typology of complements. Studies in Language(). –. 10.1075/sl.4.3.03giv
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.4.3.03giv [Google Scholar]
  20. 2001Syntax: An introduction, Vol.. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/z.syn2
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.syn2 [Google Scholar]
  21. 2009The genesis of syntactic complexity: Diachrony, ontogeny, neuro-cognition, evolution. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/z.146
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.146 [Google Scholar]
  22. Grimes, Charles E.
    1991 The Buru language of Eastern Indonesia. Canberra: Australian National University PhD thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Guan, Wei ( 管玮
    ) 2014 A study of related discourse in spontaneous Chinese conversation (《汉语自然会话中的转述现象研究》). Hangzhou: Zhejiang University PhD thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Güldemann, Tom
    2005 The alleged grammaticalization of quotative~complementizers in Atlantic creoles: A West African substrate perspective. Creole language structure between substrates and superstrates, Leipzig (Germany), June 3–5, 2005.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2008Quotative indexes in African languages: A synchronic and diachronic survey. Berlin: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110211450
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110211450 [Google Scholar]
  26. Harris, Alice C. & Lyle Campbell
    1995Historical syntax in cross-linguistic perspective. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511620553
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620553 [Google Scholar]
  27. Haspelmath, Martin
    1993A grammar of Lezgian. Berlin: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110884210
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110884210 [Google Scholar]
  28. 1996 Complement clauses. InAlexandr E. Kibrik (ed.), Godoberi, –. Munich: Lincom.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Heine, Bernd, Ulrike Claudi & Friederike Hünnemeyer
    1991Grammaticalization: A conceptual framework. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hopper, Paul J. & Elizabeth Closs Traugott
    2003Grammaticalization, 2nd edn. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9781139165525
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525 [Google Scholar]
  31. Huang, Hui-ju
    2010 An integrative approach to grammaticalization of shuo in Taiwan Mandarin. (《论“说”在台湾国语中的整合模式语法化》). Hsinchu: National Tsinghua University PhD thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Huang, Shuanfan
    2003 Doubts about complementation: A functionalist analysis. Language and Linguistics(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 2013Chinese grammar at work. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/scld.1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scld.1 [Google Scholar]
  34. Huang, Yanxuan ( 黄燕旋
    ) 2016 Grammaticalization of the say verb da in the Jieyang dialect (揭阳方言言说动词“呾”的语法化). Studies of the Chinese Language (《中国语文》) (). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hwang, Jya-lin
    1998 A comparative study on the grammaticalization of saying verbs in Chinese. InChaofen Sun (ed.), Proceedings of the 10th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Vol., –. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kehayov, Petar
    2016 Complementation marker semantics in Finnic (Estonian, Finnish, Karelian). InKasper Boye & Petar Kehayov (eds.), –. 10.1515/9783110416619‑015
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110416619-015 [Google Scholar]
  37. Klamer, Marian
    2000 How report verbs become quote markers and complementisers. Lingua. –. 10.1016/S0024‑3841(99)00032‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3841(99)00032-7 [Google Scholar]
  38. Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju
    2003The Dravidian languages. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511486876
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486876 [Google Scholar]
  39. Kuteva, Tania, Bernd Heine, Bo Hong, Haiping Long, Heiko Narrog & Seongha Rhee
    2019World lexicon of grammaticalization, 2nd edn. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/9781316479704
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316479704 [Google Scholar]
  40. Lin, Huayong ( 林华勇 ) & Zhe Ma ( 马喆
    ) 2007 Grammaticalization of the speech verb kɔŋ25 in the Lianjiang dialect of Guangdong Province (廉江方言言说义动词“讲”的语法化). Studies of the Chinese Language (《中国语文》) (). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Liu, Danqing ( 刘丹青
    ) 2004 A complementizer for content objects in Chinese (汉语里的一个内容宾语标句词). Collections on the 50th anniversary of Studies of the Chinese Language (《庆祝<中国语文>创刊50周年学术论文集》), –. Beijing: Commercial Press (北京:商务印书馆).
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Liu, Hongyong ( 刘鸿勇 ) & Yang Gu ( 顾阳
    ) 2008 The reported speech marker and evidential marker in Nuosu Yi (凉山彝语的引语标记和示证标记). Minority Languages of China (《民族语文》) (). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Liu, Yizhi ( 刘一之
    ) 2006 A special sentence pattern “(shuō): ‘…’ shuō” in Beijing dialect. (北京话中的“(说):‘……’说”句式). Essays on Linguistics (《语言学论丛》) . –.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Lockwood, William B.
    1968Historical German syntax. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Long, Haiping ( 龙海平
    ) 2017 On the formation of Modern Chinese attention-getting wo shuō ‘I say’ (现代汉语表提醒“我说”的形成). In Fuxiang Wu ( 吴福祥 ) and Qianrui Chen ( 陈前瑞 ) (eds.), Grammaticalization and grammatical studies, VIII (《语法化和语法研究(八)》), –. Beijing: Commercial Press (北京:商务印书馆).
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Long, Haiping, Bernd Heine & Francesco Ursini
    2020 Formation of Modern Chinese parenthetical CTMP ni xiang ‘you think’: A conjoining pathway account. Australian Journal of Linguistics(). –. 10.1080/07268602.2020.1832441
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268602.2020.1832441 [Google Scholar]
  47. Long, Haiping, Bernd Heine, Guijun Ruan & Menyue Wu
    2018 The grammaticalizational relation between two Modern Chinese wo xiang ‘I think’ constructions. Language Sciences. –. 10.1016/j.langsci.2017.10.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2017.10.003 [Google Scholar]
  48. Long, Haiping, Fang Wu, Francesco Ursini & Zhijun Qin
    2021 On the formation of a conjecturing clause-taking predicate in Modern Chinese: A conjoining account of huaiyi. Functions of Language(). –. 10.1075/fol.19029.lon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/fol.19029.lon [Google Scholar]
  49. Long, Haiping, Xiaoxian Xu, Mengyue Wu & Francesco Ursini
    2019 Formation of Modern Chinese clause-taking imperative ni kan ‘you see’: A conjoining pathway account. Lingua. –. 10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102745
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102745 [Google Scholar]
  50. Long, Haiping, Xianhui Wang & Lei Wang
    2022 Formation of Modern Chinese speech-quotative nǐ shuō ‘you say’ and feedback-seeking nǐ shuō ‘you tell me’: Two grammaticalizational pathways. Language and Linguistics(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lord, Carol
    1993Historical change in serial verb constructions. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.26
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.26 [Google Scholar]
  52. Ma, Bosen ( 马博森 ) & Wei Guan ( 管玮
    ) 2012 Zero quotatives in Chinese conversations (汉语会话中的零转述现象). Journal of Foreign Languages (《外国语》) (). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Meng, Cong ( 孟琮
    ) 1982 Collections of shuo in spoken languages (口语“说”字小集). Studies of the Chinese Language (《中国语文》) (). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Miller, Catherine
    2000 The grammaticalisation of the verb ‘to say’ in Juba Arabic. InManwel Mifsud (ed.), Proceedings of The Third International Conference of Aïda, –.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Munro, Pamela
    1982 On the transitivity of ‘say’ verbs. InPaul J. Hopper & Sandra A. Thompson (eds.), Studies in transitivity, –. New York, NY: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Neukon, Lukas
    2001Santali. München: Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Nordström, Jackie
    2010Modality and subordinators. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.116
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.116 [Google Scholar]
  58. Nordström, Jackie & Kasper Boye
    2016 Complementizer semantics in the Germanic languages. InKasper Boye & Petar Kehayov (eds.), –. 10.1515/9783110416619‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110416619-007 [Google Scholar]
  59. Peyraube, Alain ( 贝罗贝 ) & Hilary Chappell ( 曹茜蕾
    ) 2013 On the diachronic developments of say verbs in Chinese (论汉语言说动词的历时发展). In Fuxiang Wu ( 吴福祥 ) & Xiangdong Xing ( 邢向东 ) (eds.), Grammaticalization and grammatical studies, VI (《语法化和语法研究(六)》), –. Beijing: Commercial Press (北京:商务印书馆).
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Sankaravelayuthan, Rajendran
    2019 Grammaticalization of verbs in Dravidian languages. Language in India(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Saxena, Anju
    1988 On syntactic convergence: The case of the verb ‘say’ in Tibeto-Burman. InShelley Axmaker, Annie Jaisser & Helen Singmaster (eds.), Proceedings of the fourteenth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, –. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society. 10.3765/bls.v14i0.1781
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v14i0.1781 [Google Scholar]
  62. Schmidtke-Bode, Karsten
    2014 Complement clauses and complementation systems: A cross-linguistic study of grammatical organization. Jena: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena PhD thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Searle, John R.
    1969Speech acts. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9781139173438
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173438 [Google Scholar]
  64. Serdobolskaya, Natalia
    2016 Semantics of complementation in Ossetic. InKasper Boye & Petar Kehayov (eds.), –. 10.1515/9783110416619‑011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110416619-011 [Google Scholar]
  65. Sohn, Ho-min
    1994Korean. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Stolz, Thomas
    1986Gibt es das kreolische Sprachwandelmodell? Vergleichende Grammatik des Negerholländischen. (Linguistik, 46.) Frankfurt/Bern/New York: Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Su, Lily I-wen
    2004 Subjectification and the use of the complementizer shuo. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Wang, Yu-Fang, Aya Katz & Chi-Hua Chen
    2003 Thinking as saying: Shuo (‘say’) in Taiwan Mandarin conversation and BBS talk. Language Sciences. –. 10.1016/S0388‑0001(03)00020‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(03)00020-2 [Google Scholar]
  69. Yang, Jiangling ( 杨将领
    ) 2004 On the category of mood in Derung Language (独龙语的情态范畴). Minority Languages of China (《民族语文》) (). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Zhang, Ansheng ( 张安生
    ) 2007 On the quotative markers shuozhe and shuo in the dialect of the Hui Muslims in Xi’ning, Qinghai (西宁回民话的引语标记“说着”、“说”). Studies of the Chinese Language (《中国语文》) (). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Zhang, Jinjuan ( 张金圈 ) & Renfei Xiao ( 肖任飞
    ) 2016 The repetition of quotation-introducing elements in conversational Chinese (汉语口语会话中引语管领词的复说现象). Studies of the Chinese Language (《中国语文》) (). –.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/fol.21023.den
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: quotative particle ; ‘say’ verb ; shuō ; complementizer
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error