image of Foreignizing the domestic
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Characterizing Venuti’s foreignizing and domesticating strategies as historically dependent, this article attempts to shed some new light on how such translations – especially the foreignizing ones – emerge in any language. After discussing the roots of Venuti’s thinking in the American context and redefining foreignization as a strategy that draws on domestic, yet marginalized, elements, we delve into the theory and practice of two Persian translators, Ahmad Shamlu and Mir Shamseddin Adib-Soltani. Although their translation practices are ostensibly domesticating, they possess underlying foreignizing qualities. The implications and intellectual origins of their practices are discussed in the Iranian context, giving rise to a theoretical perspective that allows for foreignizing in non-Anglophone cultures.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abrams, M. H., & Harpham, G.
    (2014) A glossary of literary terms. Cengage Learning.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adib-Soltani, M. S.
    (1999) Translator’s Preface. InM. S. Adib-Soltani. (Trans.), Aristotle’s Organon. Negah. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ahmadi, A.
    (2011) The formation of the early Iranian Writers’ Association. Radio Zamaneh. https://www.radiozamaneh.com/35516/ [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Amirkhani, G.
    (n.d.) Persian dictionaries. Enyclopedia of Library and Information Science. https://shorturl.at/bmyzH [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brannigan, J.
    (2016) New historicism and cultural materialism. Macmillan International Higher Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chesterman, A.
    (2014) Translation studies forum: Universalism in translation studies. Translation Studies, (), –. 10.1080/14781700.2013.828904
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14781700.2013.828904 [Google Scholar]
  7. Dryden, J.
    (1975) From “Dedication of the Aeneis” (1697). InEnglish Translation Theory 1650–1800 (pp.–), Brill. 10.1163/9789004486621_011
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004486621_011 [Google Scholar]
  8. Eoyang, E.
    (2019) East-West Symbioses: The Reconciliation of Opposites. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Farahani, A.
    (2005) What is Shamlu’s position in the Iranian culture. Gowharan, 9 & 10, –. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gholipoor, A.
    (2007, April5). Fear from the unknown. Etemaad, . [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Golkar, A.
    (2019) Some features of the translation of And Swift Runs the Don. Motarjem, (), –. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hatim, B., & Mason, I.
    (2005) The Translator as Communicator. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203992722
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203992722 [Google Scholar]
  13. Heidari, F., & Alizadeh, A.
    (2014) The role of translation strategies in preventing linguistic and cultural influence of the hegemonic source language on the subaltern source language. Language and Translation Studies, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hermans, T.
    (1996) Norms and the determination of translation: A theoretical framework. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. House, J.
    (2005) Overt and Covert Translation: Two Kinds of Saying the Same Thing in Another Language. Zeitschrift Für Literaturwissenschaft Und Linguistik, , –. 10.1007/BF03379444
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03379444 [Google Scholar]
  16. Jamadi, S.
    (2018) Translation as art. Farhang-e Emrooz. https://shorturl.at/inpI3 [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jeyhun, A.
    (2020) Was Shamlu a good poet but a bad translator?. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/persian/iran-features-53512582 [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Karimi Hakkak, A.
    (2000) The Autumn of the Patriarch: A partial translation from Marquez. Azadi, 22 & 23, –. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (2019) Bud o nemud-e sokhan. Namak. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Khazaeefar, A.
    (2005) Translation criticism: And Swift Runs the Don. Motarjem, , –. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (2023) Implicit word attractions: A survey of Adib Soltani’s translation style with reference to Hamlet’s translation. [Jazzabiatha-ye Penhan-e Kalame: Negahi be sabk-e tarjome-ye Adib Soltani ba erja’ be tarjome-ye Hamlet]. Motarjem Quarterly, (), –. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lefevere, A., & Bassnett, S.
    (1998) Introduction: Where are we in translation studies?InConstructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation (pp.–), Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781800417892‑003
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781800417892-003 [Google Scholar]
  23. Lewis, P. E.
    (2000) The measure of translation effects. The Translation Studies Reader, , –.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Libera Viezzer, M.
    (1980) Let me speak [in Persian] (A. Shamlu & A. Pashai. Trans.). Negah.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Mohammad, M.
    (1993) Interview with Ahmad Shamlu, Mahmud Dowlatabadi, and Mehdi Akhavan-Sales. Ghatreh. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Montrose, L.
    (1998) Introduction: Professing the Renaissance: The Poetics and Politics of Culture. Literary Theory: An Anthology, –.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Nealon, J. T.
    (1998) Refraining, Becoming-Black: Repetition and Difference in Amiri Baraka’s Blues People. Symploke, (), –. 10.1353/sym.2005.0085
    https://doi.org/10.1353/sym.2005.0085 [Google Scholar]
  28. Newmark, P.
    (1981) Approaches to translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Nida, E. A.
    (1970) Formal correspondence in translation. The Bible Translator, (), –. 10.1177/000608447002100301
    https://doi.org/10.1177/000608447002100301 [Google Scholar]
  30. Polizzotti, M.
    (2018) Sympathy for the traitor: A translation manifesto. MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/10744.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/10744.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Rad, N. F., & Marj, Z. F.
    (2019) A Study of the Strategies of Foreignization and Domestication in Two Persian Translation Versions of Lewis Caroll’s Alice in Wonderland. REVELL: Revista de Estudos Literários Da UEMS, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Rahimi, H.
    (2012) The Sunrise: Life, Thought, and a Selection of Ahmad Shamlu’s PoetryNavid-e Sobh. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Robinson, D.
    (2001) Who translates?: Translator subjectivities beyond reason. SUNY Press. 10.1515/9780791491171
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9780791491171 [Google Scholar]
  34. Roshaan, H.
    (2005) Music in Shamlui poetry. Sokhangostar. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Safi, E.
    (2022) A study of the Changes in the Language of Fiction Translations due to the Introduction of Modern American Literature into the Literary Translation System in Iran. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Schleiermacher, F.
    (1813) On the Different Methods of Translating. InL. Venuti. (Ed.), & S. Bernofsky. (Trans.), Translation Studies Reader (Fourth, pp.–). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sepanlu, M.
    (2005) Shamlu and Iranian Writers’ Association. Gowharan, 9 & 10. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Shakespeare, W.
    (1996) The Collection of Shakespeare’s Plays [Majmue asar-e nemayashi-e Shekspier] (A. Pazargardi. Trans.; Vol.). Sorush. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2006) Hamlet (M. S. Adib-Soltani. Trans.). Negah. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Shamlu, A.
    (2006) Translator’s note. InDon-e Aram (pp.–). Maziar. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. (2013) Sindbad on the journey of death: Interviews with Shamlu (1342–1358). Nashr-e Cheshme. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Sholokhov, M.
    (1965) Don-e Aram (M. Etemadzadeh. Trans.). Nil. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. (2006) Don-e Aram (A. Shamlu. Trans.) Maziar. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Tymoczko, M.
    (2006) Translation: Ethics, ideology, action. The Massachusetts Review, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Venuti, L.
    (2002) Translating Humour: Equivalence, Compensation, Discourse. Performance Research, (), –. 10.1080/13528165.2002.10871845
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13528165.2002.10871845 [Google Scholar]
  46. (2005) Translation, History, Narrative. Meta, (), –. 10.7202/011597ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/011597ar [Google Scholar]
  47. (2008) The translator’s invisibility: A history of translation (Second Edition). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. (2017) Introduction: Conditions of Possibility. InThe Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation (pp.–), Routledge. 10.4324/9781315098746
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315098746 [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error