Volume 19, Issue 2-3
  • ISSN 1568-1475
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9773
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This article discusses several arguments in favor of the hypothesis that the headshake as a gesture for negation has its origins in early childhood experiences. It elaborates on Charles Darwin’s observation that children inevitably shake their heads in order to stop food intake when sated, thereby establishing a connection between rejection and the head gesture. It is argued that later in life the semantics of the headshake extends from rejection to negation – just as it can be observed in the development of spoken language negation. While Darwin’s hypothesis can hardly be tested directly, this paper takes a novel perspective and looks at the predictions it makes taking a plethora of sources of evidence into account. The question of how head gestures are used in cultures where the headshake is not a sign for negation or where other negative head gestures are in use will also be discussed.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abercrombie, David
    (1954) Gesture. English Language Teaching, 9 (1), 3–12. 10.1093/elt/IX.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/IX.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  2. Acredolo, Linda P., Goodwyn, Susan W., Horobin, Karen D., & Emmons, Yvonne D.
    (1999) The signs and sounds of early language development. InLawrence Balter & Catherine Susan Tamis-Lemonada. (Eds.), Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues (pp. 116–142). New York: Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson, Diane. E. & Reilly, Judy S.
    (2002) The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Normative data for American Sign Language. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7 (2), 83–106. doi:  10.1093/deafed/7.2.83
    https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/7.2.83 [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson, Kate, Devitt, Jeannie, Cunningham, Joan, Preece, Cilla, & Cass, Alan
    (2008) “All they said was my kidneys were dead”: Indigenous Australian patients’ understanding of their chronic kidney disease. Medical Journal of Australia, 189 (9), 499–503. doi:  10.5694/j.1326‑5377.2008.tb02144.x
    https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2008.tb02144.x [Google Scholar]
  5. Andrén, Mats
    (2014) Multimodal constructions in children: Is the headshake part of language?Gesture, 14 (2), 141–170. doi:  10.1075/gest.14.2.02and
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.14.2.02and [Google Scholar]
  6. Andrew, Richard John
    (1963) Evolution of facial expression. Science, 142 (3595), 1034–1041. 10.1126/science.142.3595.1034
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.142.3595.1034 [Google Scholar]
  7. Antzakas, Klimis
    (2006) The use of negative head movements in Greek Sign Language. InUlrike Zeshan. (Ed.), Interrogative and negative constructions in sign languages (pp. 258–269). Nijmegen: Ishara Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baker-Shenk, Charlotte L.
    (1983) A microanalysis of the nonmanual components of questions in American Sign Language. PhD Dissertation, University of California.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Barakat, Robert A.
    (1973) Arabic gestures. The Journal of Popular Culture6 (4), 749–793. 10.1111/j.0022‑3840.1973.00749.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1973.00749.x [Google Scholar]
  10. Bates, Elizabeth, Bretherton, Inge, Camaioni, Luigia, & Volterra, Virginia
    (Eds.) (1979) The emergence of symbols: Cognition and communication in infancy. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Benazzo, Sandra & Morgenstern, Aliyah
    (2014) A bilingual child’s multimodal path into negation. Gesture, 14 (2), 171–202. doi:  10.1075/gest.14.2.03ben
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.14.2.03ben [Google Scholar]
  12. Bickel, Balthasar
    (2011) Absolute and statistical universals. InPatrick Colm Hogan. (Ed.), The Cambridge encyclopedia of the language sciences (pp. 77–79). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bloom, Lois
    (1970) Language development: Form and function in emerging grammars. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bruce, Susan M.
    (2005) The impact of congenital deafblindness on the struggle to symbolism. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 52, 233–251. doi:  10.1080/10349120500252882
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10349120500252882 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science
    Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science (Ed.) (2017) Teoretichno opisanie na gramatikata na bulgarskiya zhestov ezik [Theoretical Description of Bulgarian Sign Language Grammar]. Sofia: Nauka i obrazovanie.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cameron, A. L. P.
    (1881) Letter to A. W. Howitt. InHowitt Papers. Box 2, Folder 5, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Mimeo.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cartmill, Erica A. & Byrne, Richard W.
    (2010) Semantics of gestures: Intentional meanings of orangutan gestures. Animal Cognition, 13 (6), 793–804. doi:  10.1007/s10071‑010‑0328‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-010-0328-7 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chang, Ling-Hui & Wang, Jye
    (2009) A tough-love pedagogy in rehabilitation: Integration of rehabilitation ideology with local cultures. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 32 (3), 219–227. doi:  10.1097/MRR.0b013e328329823a
    https://doi.org/10.1097/MRR.0b013e328329823a [Google Scholar]
  19. Choi, Soonja
    (1988) The semantic development of negation: A cross-linguistic longitudinal study. Journal of Child Language, 15, 517–531. doi:  10.1017/S030500090001254X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S030500090001254X [Google Scholar]
  20. Clark, William Philo
    (1885) The Indian sign language with brief explanatory notes of the gestures taught deaf-mutes in our institutions for their instruction and a description of some of the peculiar laws, customs, myths, superstitions, ways of living, code of peace and war signals of our Aborigines. Philadelphia: Hamersly & Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Collett, Peter & Chilton, Josephine
    (1998) Laterality in negation: Are Jakobson and Vavra right?Semiotica, 35 (1/2), 57–70. doi:  10.1515/semi.1981.35.1‑2.57
    https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1981.35.1-2.57 [Google Scholar]
  22. Creider, Chet A.
    (1977) Towards a description of East African gestures. Sign Language Studies, 14, 1–20. 10.1353/sls.1977.0014
    https://doi.org/10.1353/sls.1977.0014 [Google Scholar]
  23. Darwin, Charles
    (1872) The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray. 10.1037/10001‑000
    https://doi.org/10.1037/10001-000 [Google Scholar]
  24. Deasy, Kathleen & Fiona Lyddy
    (2009) Exploring language and communication in an individual with congenital deafblindness: A case study. Report to the National Council for Special Education Research Initiative. Online: ncse.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Exploring_Language_and_Communication.pdf, receivedFebruary 6, 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. De Vries, Johanna I. P., Visser, Gerald H. A., & Prechtl, Heinz Friedrich Rudolf.
    (1982) The emergence of fetal behaviour. I. Qualitative aspects. Early Human Development, 7 (4), 301–322. doi:  10.1016/0378‑3782(82)90033‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3782(82)90033-0 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dimroth, Christine
    (2010) The acquisition of negation. InLaurence R. Horn. (Ed.), The expression of negation (pp. 39–71). Berlin & New York: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Irenäus
    (1973) The expressive behaviour of the deaf-and-blind born. InMario von Cranach & Ian Vine. (Eds.), Social communication and movement (pp. 163–194). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Emmorey, Karen
    (1999) Do signers gesture?InLynn Messing & Ruth Campbell. (Eds.), Gesture, speech, and sign (pp. 133–159). New York: Oxford University Press. doi:  10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524519.003.0008
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524519.003.0008 [Google Scholar]
  29. Eriksson, Marten & Berglund, Eva
    (1999) Swedish early communicative development inventories: Words and gestures. First Language, 19 (55), 55–90. doi:  10.1177/014272379901905503
    https://doi.org/10.1177/014272379901905503 [Google Scholar]
  30. Fenson, Larry, Dale, Philip S., Reznick, J. Steven, Bates, Elizabeth, Thal, Donna J., Stephen J. Pethick, Stephen J., Tomasello, Michael, Mervis, Carolyn B., & Stiles, Joan
    (1994) Variability in early communicative development. Ann Arbor: Society for Research in Child Development. doi:  10.2307/1166093
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1166093 [Google Scholar]
  31. Fischer, Susan D.
    (2006) Questions and negation in American Sign Language. InUlrike Zeshan. (Ed.), Interrogative and negative constructions in sign languages (pp. 167–197). Nijmegen: Ishara Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fusaro, Maria, Harris, Paul L., & Pan, Barbara A.
    (2012) Head nodding and head shaking gestures in children’s early communication. First Language, 32, 439–458. doi:  10.1177/0142723711419326
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723711419326 [Google Scholar]
  33. Genty, Emilie, Breuer, Thomas, Hobaiter, Catherine, & Byrne, Richard W.
    (2009) Gestural communication of the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla): repertoire, intentionality and possible origins. Animal Cognition, 12, 527–546. doi:  10.1007/s10071‑009‑0213‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-009-0213-4 [Google Scholar]
  34. Goldin-Meadow, Susan & Mylander, Carolyn
    (1984) Gestural communication in deaf children: The effects and none effects of parental input on early language development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 49 (3/4), 1–121. 10.2307/1165838
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1165838 [Google Scholar]
  35. Goodenough, Florence L.
    (1932) Expressions of the emotions in a blind-deaf child. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 27 (3), 328–333. doi:  10.1037/h0076099
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076099 [Google Scholar]
  36. Guidetti, Michele
    (2005) Yes or no? How do young children combine gestures and words to agree and refuse?Journal of Child Language, 32, 911–924. doi:  10.1017/S0305000905007038
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000905007038 [Google Scholar]
  37. Hamiru-aqui
    Hamiru-aqui (2008) 70 Japanese gestures: No language communication. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Harrison, Simon
    (2009) Grammar, gesture, and cognition. The case of negation in English. PhD Dissertation, University of Bordeaux.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2014) The organisation of kinesic ensembles associated with negation. Gesture, 14 (2), 117–140. doi:  10.1075/gest.14.2.01har
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.14.2.01har [Google Scholar]
  40. Heinen, H. Dieter
    (1972) Economic factors in marriage alliance and kinship system among the Winikia-Warao. Anthropologica, 32, 28–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Hendriks, Bernadet
    (2007) Negation in Jordanian Sign Language: A cross-linguistic perspective. InPamerla M. Perniss, Roland Pfau, & Markus Steinbach. (Eds.), Visible variation. Comparative studies on sign language structure (pp. 103–128). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi:  10.1515/9783110198850.103
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110198850.103 [Google Scholar]
  42. Hentschel, Elke
    (1998) Negation und Interrogation: Studien zur Universalität ihrer Funktionen. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110919028
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110919028 [Google Scholar]
  43. Hobaiter, Catherine & Byrne, Richard W.
    (2011) The gestural repertoire of the wild chimpanzee. Animal Cognition, 14 (5), 745–767. doi:  10.1007/s10071‑011‑0409‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-011-0409-2 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hummer, Peter, Wimmer, Heinz, & Antes, Gertraud
    (1993) On the origins of denial negation. Journal of Child Language, 20, 607–618. doi:  10.1017/S0305000900008503
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900008503 [Google Scholar]
  45. Ingram, David
    (1991) An historical observation on “Why ‘mama’ and ‘papa’?”Journal of Child Language, 18, 711–713. doi:  10.1017/S0305000900011326
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900011326 [Google Scholar]
  46. Iverson, M. Jana, Tencer, Heather L., Lany, Jill, & Goldin-Meadow, Susan
    (2000) The relation between gesture and speech in congenitally blind and sighted language-learners. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 24 (2), 105–130. doi:  10.1023/A:1006605912965
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006605912965 [Google Scholar]
  47. Jakobson, Roman
    (1962) Why mama and papa?InRoman Jakobson, Selected writings. VolumeI: Phonological studies (pp. 538–545). The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. (1970) Da i nyet v mimike. InVladimir Andreyevich Zvegintsev (Ed.), Yazyk i chelovek. Sbornik statej pamyati professora Petra Savvicha Kuznecova (1899–1968) (pp. 284–289). Moscow: Moscow State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. (1972) Motor signs for ‘yes’ and ‘no’. Language in Society, 1, 91–96. doi:  10.1017/S0047404500006564
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500006564 [Google Scholar]
  50. Kendon, Adam
    (1988) Sign languages of Aboriginal Australia. Cultural, semiotic and communicative perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. (2002) Some uses of the head shake. Gesture, 2 (2), 147–182. doi:  10.1075/gest.2.2.03ken
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.2.2.03ken [Google Scholar]
  52. (2004) Gesture: Visible action as utterance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511807572
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511807572 [Google Scholar]
  53. Kettner, Viktoria A. & Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.
    (2013) Developing gestures for no and yes: Head shaking and nodding in infancy. Gesture, 13 (2), 193–209. doi:  10.1075/gest.13.2.04ket
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.13.2.04ket [Google Scholar]
  54. Kita, Sotaro
    (2009) Cross-cultural variation of speech-accompanying gesture: A review. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24 (2), 145–167. doi:  10.1080/01690960802586188
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960802586188 [Google Scholar]
  55. Kortlandt, Adriaan
    (1969) Chimpansees. InBernhard Grzimek. (Ed.), Het Leven der Dieren (Vol.XI, pp. 14–49). Utrecht: Het Spectrum.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Kulovesi, Yrjo
    (1939) Die Ausdrucksbewegung der Bejahung und der Verneinung. Internationale Zeitschrift für Ärztliche Psychoanalyse, 24, 446–447.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Liebal, Katja, Pika, Simone, & Tomaseollo, Michael
    (2006) Gestural communication of orangutans. Gesture, 6 (1), 1–38. doi:  10.1075/gest.6.1.02lie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.6.1.02lie [Google Scholar]
  58. Li, Xiaoting
    (2019) Multimodal turn construction in Mandarin conversation: Verbal, vocal, and visual practices in the construction of syntactically incomplete turns. InXiaoting Li & Tsuyoshi Ono. (Eds.), Multimodality in Chinese interaction (pp. 181–212). Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter. doi:  10.1515/9783110462395‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110462395-008 [Google Scholar]
  59. Luef, Eva Maria & Liebal, Katja
    (2012) Infant-directed communication in Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla): Do older animals scaffold communicative competence in infants?American Journal of Primatology, 74 (9), 841–852. doi:  10.1002/ajp.22039
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22039 [Google Scholar]
  60. Masur, Elise Frank
    (1980) The development of communicative gestures in mother-infant interactions. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 19, 121–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Matsumoto, David & Hwang, Hyisung C.
    (2012) Cultural similarities and differences in emblematic gestures. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 37 (1), 1–27. doi:  10.1007/s10919‑012‑0143‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-012-0143-8 [Google Scholar]
  62. McClave, Evelyn
    (2000) Linguistic functions of head movements in the context of speech. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 855–878. doi:  10.1016/S0378‑2166(99)00079‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00079-X [Google Scholar]
  63. McClave, Evelyn, Kim, Helen, Tamer, Rita, & Mile, Milo
    (2007) Head movements in the context of speech in Arabic, Bulgarian, Korean, and African Vernacular English. Gesture, 7 (3), 343–390. doi:  10.1075/gest.7.3.04mcc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.7.3.04mcc [Google Scholar]
  64. Meek, Joan Younger
    (2017) The American Academy of Pediatrics new mother’s guide to breastfeeding. New York: Bantam.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Meier, Richard P.
    (2002) Why different, why the same? Explaining effects and non-effects of modality upon linguistic structure in sign and speech. InRichard P. Meier, Kearsy Cormier, & David Quinto-Pozos. (Ed.), Modality and structure in signed and spoken languages (pp. 1–25). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:  10.1017/CBO9780511486777.001
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486777.001 [Google Scholar]
  66. Morris, Desmond, Collett, Peter, Marsh, Peter, & O’Shaughnessy, Marie
    (1979) Gestures: Their origins and distribution. London: Stein and Day.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Murdock, G.
    (1959) Cross-language parallels in parental kin terms. Anthropological Linguistics, 1 (9), 1–5.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Pea, Roy D.
    (1980) The development of negation in early child language. InDavid R. Olson. (Ed.), The social foundations of language and thought: Essays in honor of Jerome S. Bruner (pp. 156–186). New York: W. W. Norton.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Pereira, Michael Eric, Seeligson, Martha L., & Macedonia, Joseph
    (1988) The behavioral repertoire of the Black-and-White Ruffed Lemur, Varecia variegata variegata (Primates: Lemuridae), Folia Primatologica, 51 (1), 1–32. doi:  10.1159/000156353
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000156353 [Google Scholar]
  70. Pfau, Roland
    (2012) Manual communication systems: Evolution and variation. InRoland Pfau, Markus Steinbach, & Bencie Woll. (Eds.), Sign language: An international handbook (pp. 513–551). Berlin & Boston: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110261325.513
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110261325.513 [Google Scholar]
  71. (2015) The grammaticalization of headshakes: From head movement to negative head. InAndrew D. M. Smith, Graeme Trousdale, & Richard Waltereit. (Eds.), New directions in grammaticalization research (pp. 9–50). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/slcs.166.02pfa
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.166.02pfa [Google Scholar]
  72. Pika, Simone
    (2007) Gestures in subadult bonobos (Pan paniscus). InJoseph Call & Michael Tomasello. (Eds.), The gestural communication of apes and monkeys (pp. 41–68). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Pika, Simone, Liebal, Katja, & Tomasello, Michael
    (2003) Gestural communication in young gorillas (Gorilla gorilla): Gestural repertoire, learning, and use. American Journal of Primatology, 60, 95–111. doi:  10.1002/ajp.10097
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.10097 [Google Scholar]
  74. Pinfield, Tom
    (2013) Gestural head movements in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus): Use, function and evolutionary implications. Canopy, 14 (1), 6–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Porac, Clare & Martin, William Lee Berdel
    (2007) A cross-cultural comparison of pressures to switch left-hand writing: Brazil versus Canada. Laterality, 12 (3), 273–291. doi:  10.1080/13576500701269462
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13576500701269462 [Google Scholar]
  76. Prechtl, Heinz Friedrich Rudolf
    (1989) Development of postural control in infancy. InCurt von Euler, Hans Forssberg, & Hugo Lagercrantz. (Eds.), Neurobiology of early infant behaviour (pp. 50–68). London: Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑349‑10735‑3_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-10735-3_7 [Google Scholar]
  77. Premavardhena, Neelakshi Chandrasena
    (2007) How diplomatic can a language be? The unwritten rules in a language: An analysis of spoken Sinhala. InMarion Grein & Edda Weigand. (Eds.), Dialog and culture (pp. 213–226). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/ds.1.15pre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ds.1.15pre [Google Scholar]
  78. Quer, Josep
    (2012) Negation. InRoland Pfau, Markus Steinbach, & Bencie Woll. (Eds.), Sign language: An international handbook (pp. 316–339). Berlin & Boston: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Reilly, Judy & Anderson, Diane E.
    (2002) FACES. The acquisition of non-manual morphology in ASL. InGary Morgan & Bencie Woll. (Eds.), Directions in sign language acquisition (pp. 159–181). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/tilar.2.10rei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.2.10rei [Google Scholar]
  80. Rose, H. A.
    (1919) The language of gesture. Folklore, 30 (4), 312–315. 10.1080/0015587X.1919.9719112
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0015587X.1919.9719112 [Google Scholar]
  81. Saitz, Robert L. & Cervenka, Edward J.
    (1962) Colombian and North American gestures: An experimental study. Bogota: Centro Colombo-Americano.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Sandler, Wendy
    (2009) Sign languages. InKeith Brown & Sarah Ogilvie. (Eds.), Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world (pp. 939–948). Oxford: Elsevier.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Sandler, Wendy & Lillo-Martin, Diane
    (2006) Sign language and linguistic universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:  10.1017/CBO9781139163910
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139163910 [Google Scholar]
  84. Saussure, Ferdinand de
    (1916) Cours de linguistique générale. Lausanne: Payot.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Schneider, Christel, Call, Joseph, & Liebal, Katja
    (2010) Do bonobos say NO by shaking their head?Primates, 51 (3), 199–202. doi:  10.1007/s10329‑010‑0198‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-010-0198-2 [Google Scholar]
  86. Smith, Wilbur L., Erenberg, Allen, Nowak, Arthur, & Franken, Edmund A.
    (1985) Physiology of sucking in the normal term infant using real-time US. Radiology, 156, 379–381. doi:  10.1148/radiology.156.2.3892576
    https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.156.2.3892576 [Google Scholar]
  87. Solanki, G. S., Kumar, Awadhesh, & Sharma, B. K.
    (2007) Reproductive strategies of trachypithecus pileatus in Arunachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Primatology, 28 (5), 1075–1083. doi:  10.1007/s10764‑007‑9204‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-007-9204-y [Google Scholar]
  88. Spitz, Ren A.
    (1957) No and yes: On the genesis of human communication. New York: International Universities Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Stern, Clara & Stern, William
    (1907) Die Kindersprache. Eine psychologische und sprachtheoretische Untersuchung. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Sugar, Nikola
    (1941) Zur Frage der mimischen Bejahung und Verneinung. Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse und Imago, 26, 81–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Tanner, Joanne E., Patterson, Francine G., & Byrne, Richard W.
    (2006) The development of spontaneous gesture in zoo-living gorillas and sign-taught gorillas: From action and location to object representation. Journal of Developmental Processes, 1, 69–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Tanner, Joanne E. & Perlman, Marcus
    (2017) Moving beyond ‘meaning’: Gorillas combine gestures into sequences for creative display. Language & Communication, 54, 56–72. doi:  10.1016/j.langcom.2016.10.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2016.10.006 [Google Scholar]
  93. Tomasello, Michael & Call, Josep
    (1997) Primate cognition. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Tuttle, Russell H.
    (2014) Apes and human evolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. doi:  10.4159/harvard.9780674726536
    https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674726536 [Google Scholar]
  95. Vaidyanathan, Raghunathan
    (1991) Development of forms and functions of negation in the early stages of language acquisition: A study in Tamil. Journal of Child Language, 18, 51–66. doi:  10.1017/S0305000900013295
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900013295 [Google Scholar]
  96. van Hooff, Jan A. R. A. M.
    (1973) A structural analysis of the social behaviour of a semi-captive group of chimpanzees. InMario von Cranach & Ian Vine. (Eds.), Social communication and expression in man and chimpanzee (pp. 75–162). London: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Vavra, Vlastimil
    (1976) Is Jakobson right?Semiotica, 17 (2), 95–110. doi:  10.1515/semi.1976.17.2.95
    https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1976.17.2.95 [Google Scholar]
  98. Waal, Frans de
    (1982) Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes. New York: Harper & Row.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Wagner, Petra, Malisz, Zofia, & Kopp, Stefan
    (2014) Gesture and speech in interaction: An overview. Speech Communication, 57, 209–232. doi:  10.1016/j.specom.2013.09.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2013.09.008 [Google Scholar]
  100. Wilbur, Ronnie B.
    (2003) Modality and the structure of language: Sign languages versus signed systems. InMarc Maschark & Patricia E. Spencer. (Eds.), Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education (pp. 332–346). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Wurtsburg, Susan & Campbell, Lyle
    (1995) North American Indian Sign Language: Evidence for its existence before European contact. Journal of American Linguistics, 61 (2) 153–167. doi:  10.1086/466249
    https://doi.org/10.1086/466249 [Google Scholar]
  102. Zeshan, Ulrike
    (2004) Hand, head, and face: Negative constructions in sign languages. Linguistic Typology, 8 (1), 1–58. doi:  10.1515/lity.2004.003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lity.2004.003 [Google Scholar]
  103. (Ed.) (2006) Interrogative and negative constructions in sign languages. Nijmegen: Ishara Press. 10.26530/OAPEN_453832
    https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_453832 [Google Scholar]
  104. Zlatev, Jordan & Andrén, Mats
    (2009) Stages and transitions in children’s semiotic development. InJordan Zlatev, Mats Andrén, Marlene Johannson Falck, & Carita Lundmark. (Eds.), Studies in language and cognition (pp. 380–401). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): backward head toss; embodiment; headshake; negation; refusal; speech accompanying gesture
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error