1887
Volume 19, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1568-1475
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9773
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Recent theories and neural models of co-speech gesture have extensively considered its cognitive role in language comprehension but have ignored the emotional function. We investigated the integration of speech and co-speech gestures in memory for verbal information with different emotional connotations (either positive, negative, or neutral). In a surprise cued-recall task, gesture boosted memory for speech with all three emotional valences. Interestingly, gesture was more likely to become integrated into memory of neutrally and positively valenced speech than negatively valenced speech. The results suggest that gesture-speech integration is modulated by emotional valence of speech, which has implications for the emotional function of gesture in language comprehension.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/gest.19029.lev
2020-12-31
2021-06-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adelman, James S. & Estes, Zachary
    (2013) Emotion and memory: A recognition advantage for positive and negative words independent of arousal. Cognition, 129, 530–535. 10.1016/j.cognition.2013.08.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2013.08.014 [Google Scholar]
  2. Baumeister, Roy F. , Bratslavsky, Ellen , Finkenauer, Catrin , & Vohs, Kathleen D.
    (2001) Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5 (4), 323–370. 10.1037/1089‑2680.5.4.323
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.5.4.323 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bohn, Annette & Berntsen, Dorthe
    (2007) Pleasantness bias in flashbulb memories: Positive and negative flashbulb memories of the fall of the Berlin Wall among east and west Germans. Memory & Cognition, 35 (3), 565–577. 10.3758/BF03193295
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193295 [Google Scholar]
  4. Borg, Céline , Bouazza, Zineb , Godeau, Marielle , Getenet, Jean-Claude , & Chainay, Hanna
    (2018) Effect of emotion and type of encoding on memory for actions: Verbal and subjected-performed tasks. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 45 (3/4), 162–179. 10.1159/000488103
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000488103 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bowen, Holly J. , Kark, Sarah M. , & Kensinger, Elizabeth A.
    (2018) NEVER forget: negative emotional valence enhances recapitulation. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25 (3), 870–891. 10.3758/s13423‑017‑1313‑9
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-017-1313-9 [Google Scholar]
  6. Broaders, Sara C. & Goldin-Meadow, Susan
    (2010) Truth is at hand: How gesture adds information during investigative interviews. Psychological Science, 21 (5), 623–628. 10.1177/0956797610366082
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610366082 [Google Scholar]
  7. Charles, Susan T. , Mather, Mara , & Carstensen, Laura L.
    (2003) Aging and emotional memory: The forgettable nature of negative images for older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132 (2), 310–324. 10.1037/0096‑3445.132.2.310
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.132.2.310 [Google Scholar]
  8. Church, R. Breckinridge , Alibali, Martha W. , & Kelly, Spencer D.
    (Eds.) (2017) Why gesture? How the hands function in speaking, thinking and communicating. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/gs.7
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gs.7 [Google Scholar]
  9. Church, R. Breckinridge , Garber, Phillip , & Rogalski, Kathryn
    (2007) The role of gesture in memory and social communication. Gesture, 7 (2), 137–158. 10.1075/gest.7.2.02bre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.7.2.02bre [Google Scholar]
  10. Cohen, Ronald L.
    (1989) Memory for action events: The power of enactment. Educational Psychology Review, 1 (1), 57–80. 10.1007/BF01326550
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01326550 [Google Scholar]
  11. Darwin, Charles
    (1872) The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London, England: John Murray. 10.1037/10001‑000
    https://doi.org/10.1037/10001-000 [Google Scholar]
  12. De Stefani, Elisa & De Marco, Doriana
    (2019) Gesture, language and emotional communication: An embodied view of social interaction. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2063. 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02063
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02063 [Google Scholar]
  13. Dewhurst, Stephen A. & Parry, Lisa A.
    (2000) Emotionality, distinctiveness, and recollective experience. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 12 (4), 541–551. 10.1080/095414400750050222
    https://doi.org/10.1080/095414400750050222 [Google Scholar]
  14. Ekman, Paul & Friesen, Wallace V.
    (1969) The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: Categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica, 1 (1), 49–98. 10.1515/semi.1969.1.1.49
    https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1969.1.1.49 [Google Scholar]
  15. (1972) Hand movements. Journal of Communication, 22 (4), 353–374. 10.1111/j.1460‑2466.1972.tb00163.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1972.tb00163.x [Google Scholar]
  16. Feyereisen, Pierre
    (2009) Enactment effects and integration processes in younger and older adults’ memory for actions. Memory, 17 (4), 374–385. 10.1080/09658210902731851
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210902731851 [Google Scholar]
  17. Gallese, Vittorio
    (2018) Embodied simulation and its role in cognition. Reti, saperi, linguaggi, 7 (13), 31–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Goldin-Meadow, Susan & Morford, Marolyn
    (1985) Gesture in early child language: Studies of deaf and hearing children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 31 (2), 145–176.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hirata, Yukari , Kelly, Spencer D. , Huang, Jessica , & Manansala, Michael
    (2014) Effects of hand gestures on auditory learning of second-language vowel length contrasts. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57 (6), 2090–2101. 10.1044/2014_JSLHR‑S‑14‑0049
    https://doi.org/10.1044/2014_JSLHR-S-14-0049 [Google Scholar]
  20. Holland, Alisha C. & Kensinger, Elizabeth A.
    (2012) Younger, middle-aged, and older adults’ memories for the 2008 Presidential election. Journal of Applied Research on Memory and Cognition, 1 (3), 163–170. 10.1016/j.jarmac.2012.06.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2012.06.001 [Google Scholar]
  21. Hostetter, Autumn B.
    (2011) When do gestures communicate? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137 (2), 297–315. 10.1037/a0022128
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022128 [Google Scholar]
  22. Hostetter, Autumn B. & Alibali, Martha W.
    (2008) Visible embodiment: Gestures as simulated action. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15 (3), 495–514. 10.3758/PBR.15.3.495
    https://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.15.3.495 [Google Scholar]
  23. (2018) Gesture as simulated action: Revisiting the framework. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26, 721–752. 10.3758/s13423‑018‑1548‑0
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-018-1548-0 [Google Scholar]
  24. Kelly, Spencer D.
    (2017) Exploring the boundaries of gesture-speech integration during language comprehension. In R. B. Church , M. W. Alibali , & S. D. Kelly (Eds.), Why gesture? How the hands function in speaking, thinking and communicating (pp. 243–266). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/gs.7.12kel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gs.7.12kel [Google Scholar]
  25. Kelly, Spencer D. , Barr, Dale J. , Church, R. Breckinridge , & Lynch, Katheryn
    (1999) Offering a hand to pragmatic understanding: The role of speech and gesture in comprehension and memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 40, 577–592. 10.1006/jmla.1999.2634
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1999.2634 [Google Scholar]
  26. Kelly, Spencer D. , Hirata, Yukari , Manansala, Michael , & Huang, Jessica
    (2014) Exploring the role of hand gestures in learning novel phoneme contrasts and vocabulary in a second language. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 673, 1–11. 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00673
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00673 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kelly, Spencer D. & Lee, Angela L.
    (2012) When actions speak too much louder than words: Hand gestures disrupt word learning when phonetic demands are high. Language and Cognitive Processes, 27 (6), 793–807. 10.1080/01690965.2011.581125
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2011.581125 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kendon, Adam
    (1972) Some relationships between body motion and speech. In Aron Wolfe Siegman & Benjamin Pope (Eds.), Studies in dyadic communication (pp. 177–210). New York: Pergamon Press. 10.1016/B978‑0‑08‑015867‑9.50013‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-015867-9.50013-7 [Google Scholar]
  29. (1980) Gesticulation and speech: Two Aspects of the. In Mary R. Key (Ed.), The relationship of verbal and nonverbal communication (pp. 207–227). The Hague: Mouton. 10.1515/9783110813098.207
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110813098.207 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kensinger, Elizabeth A.
    (2009) Remembering the details: Effects of emotion. Emotion Review, 1 (2), 99–113. 10.1177/1754073908100432
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073908100432 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kensinger, Elizabeth A. & Choi, Elizabeth S.
    (2009) When side matters: Hemispheric processing and the visual specificity of emotional memories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35 (1), 247–253.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kensinger, Elizabeth A. & Corkin, Suzanne
    (2004) Two routes to emotional memory: Distinct neural processes for valence and arousal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101 (9), 3310–3315. 10.1073/pnas.0306408101
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0306408101 [Google Scholar]
  33. Kensinger, Elizabeth A. , Garoff-Eaton, Rachel J. , & Schacter, Daniel L.
    (2006) Memory for specific visual details can be enhanced by negative arousing content. Journal of Memory and Language, 54, 99–112. 10.1016/j.jml.2005.05.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2005.05.005 [Google Scholar]
  34. Kensinger, Elizabeth A. & Schacter, Daniel L.
    (2006) When the red sox shocked the yankees: Comparing negative and positive memories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13 (5), 757–763. 10.3758/BF03193993
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193993 [Google Scholar]
  35. Krahmer, Emiel & Swerts, Marc
    (2007) The effects of visual beats on prosodic prominence: Acoustic analyses, auditory perception and visual perception. Journal of Memory and Language, 57 (3), 396–414. 10.1016/j.jml.2007.06.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.06.005 [Google Scholar]
  36. Levine, Linda J. & Bluck, Susan
    (2004) How emotions fade: valence, appraisals, and the emotional impact of remembered events. In S. P. Shohov (Ed.), Advances in psychology research (Vol.30, pp. 3–20). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Macedonia, Manuela , Müller, Karsten , & Friederici, Angela D.
    (2011) The impact of iconic gestures on foreign language word learning and its neural substrate. Human Brain Mapping, 32 (6), 982–998. 10.1002/hbm.21084
    https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21084 [Google Scholar]
  38. Matheson, Heath E. & Barsalou, Lawrence W.
    (2018) Embodiment and grounding in cognitive neuroscience. Stevens’ handbook of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience, 3, 1–27. 10.1002/9781119170174.epcn310
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119170174.epcn310 [Google Scholar]
  39. McNeill, David
    (1992) Hand and mind. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. McNeill, David & Levy, Elena
    (1982) Conceptual representations in language activity and gesture. In R. J. Jarvella & W. Klein (Eds.), Speech, place, and action: Studies in deixis and related topics (pp. 271–295). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. McNeill, David , Pedelty, Laura L. , & Levy, Elena T.
    (1990) Speech and gesture. Advances in Psychology, 70, 203–256. 10.1016/S0166‑4115(08)60650‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(08)60650-0 [Google Scholar]
  42. Nascimento, Juliana Maria Steffen do , Grüdtner Buratto, Luciano , Schaefer, Alexandre , & Milnitsky Stein, Lilian
    (2016) Emotional valence and perceived event frequency affect memory accuracy for a personally relevant life event. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 1020–1029. 10.1002/acp.3294
    https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3294 [Google Scholar]
  43. Nilsson, Lars-Göran & Bäckman, Lars
    (1989) Implicit memory and the enactment of verbal instructions. In Stephan Lewandowsky , John C. Dunn , & Kim Kirsner (Eds.), Implicit memory: Theoretical issues (pp. 173–183). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Ochsner, Kevin N.
    (2000) Are affective events richly recollected or simply familiar? The experience and process of recognizing feelings past. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129 (2), 242–261. 10.1037/0096‑3445.129.2.242
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.129.2.242 [Google Scholar]
  45. Post, Lysanne S. , van Gog, Tamara , Paas, Fred , & Zwaan, Rolf A.
    (2013) Effects of simultaneously observing and making gestures while studying grammar animations on cognitive load and learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 29 (4), 1450–1455. 10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.005 [Google Scholar]
  46. Pouw, Wim T. J. L. , de Nooijer, Jaqueline A. , van Gog, Tamara , Zwaan, Rolf A. , & Paas, Fred
    (2014) Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 359, 1–14. 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00359
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00359 [Google Scholar]
  47. Rozin, Paul & Royzman, Edward B.
    (2001) Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personality and social psychology review, 5 (4), 296–320. 10.1207/S15327957PSPR0504_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0504_2 [Google Scholar]
  48. Sekine, Kazuki , Sowden, Hannah , & Kita, Sotaro
    (2015) The development of the ability to semantically integrate information in speech and iconic gesture in comprehension. Cognitive Science, 39, 1855–1880. 10.1111/cogs.12221
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12221 [Google Scholar]
  49. Skipper, Jeremy I.
    (2015) The NOLB model: A model of the natural organization of language and the brain. In Roel M. Willems (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of natural language use (pp. 101–134). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781107323667.006
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107323667.006 [Google Scholar]
  50. Spranger, Tina , Schatz, Tanja R. , & Knopf, Monika
    (2008) Does action make you faster? A retrieval-based approach to investigating the origins of the enactment effect. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49 (6), 487–495. 10.1111/j.1467‑9450.2008.00675.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00675.x [Google Scholar]
  51. Straube, Benjamin , Green, Antonia , Weis, Susanne , Chatterjee, Anjan , & Kircher, Tilo
    (2009) Memory effects of speech and gesture binding: cortical and hippocampal activation in relation to subsequent memory performance. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21 (4), 821–836. 10.1162/jocn.2009.21053
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21053 [Google Scholar]
  52. Wang, Bo
    (2013) Facial expression influences recognition memory for faces: Robust enhancement effect of fearful expression. Memory, 21 (3), 301–314. 10.1080/09658211.2012.725740
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2012.725740 [Google Scholar]
  53. Wilson, Margaret
    (2002) Six views of embodied cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9 (4), 625–636. 10.3758/BF03196322
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196322 [Google Scholar]
  54. Yeo, Amelia , Ledesma, Iasmine , Nathan, Mitchell J. , Alibali, Martha W. , & Church, Ruth Breckinridge
    (2017) Teachers’ gestures and students’ learning: Sometimes “hands off” is better. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2 (1), 41, 1–11. 10.1186/s41235‑017‑0077‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-017-0077-0 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/gest.19029.lev
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/gest.19029.lev
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): emotion; emotional valence; gesture; language; memory; multimodal
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error