1887
Volume 11, Issue 1-2
  • ISSN 0302-5160
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9781
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Abstract

SUMMARYThe main thesis of this article is that a species of general linguistics arose in 16th-century western Europe as a result of the impact of Hebrew studies. Two features of traditional Hebrew grammatical practice produced this, effect: (1) the phonetic classification of consonants by point of articulation, and (2) the analysis of words in terms of roots and affixes. Two works from the early 16th century are cited at some length: a treatise on the pronunciation of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew by the great Spanish humanist Antonio de Nebrija (De vi acpotestate litterarum), which first appeared in Salamanca in 1503; and Johannes Reuchlin's Hebrew grammar, printed in Pforzheim in 1506. Nebrija exemplifies the impact of Hebrew phonetic theory, while Reuchlin expounds the traditional Hebrew morphological analysis, in the course of which he introduces the novel concept of the root. Moreover, in his treatment of Hebrew orthography he describes the sounds of the language both auditorily and physiologically.In the second part of the article, the subsequent influence of Hebrew grammatical and linguistic notions is discussed. Reference is made to a work by the French orientalist Guillaume Postel (De originibus), in which the author contrasts the Semitic languages with the two classical languages typologi-cally, calling the former 'natural' and the latter 'grammatical'. There then follows an analysis of a work by the Swiss Hebraist Theodor Bibliander (De ratione communi omnium linguarum), in which the suggestion is made that all languages can be grammatically analysed in a uniform fashion utilizing the Hebrew descriptive framework and then compared with one another. The acquaintance with Semitic languages also introduced Christian scholars for the first time to a paradigm case of a family of related languages. Thus, we see the tentative adumbrations in the 16th century of both typological and genetic classification.RÉSUMÉLe present article soutient en premiere ligne qu'une espece de Tinguisti-que generate' evolua en Europe occidentale, declenchee par le debut des etudes de la langue hebrai'que dans la premiere partie du XVIe siecle. Deux traits saillants de la pratique grammaticale traditionelle de l'hebreu en sont respon-sables: premierement, le classement phonetique des consonnes selpn leurs points d'articulation, et deuxiemement, l'analyse du mot en racine et affixes. Nous examinerons en profondeur deux oeuvres qui datent du debut du XVIe siecle: d'abord un traite de la prononciation du latin, du grec, et de l'hebreu, ecrit par l'illustre humaniste espagnol Antonio de Nebrija (De vi ac potestate litterarum), qui parut pour la premiere fois a Salamanque en 1503; et ensuite la grammaire hebrai'que de Johannes Reuchlin, qui fut imprimée a Pforzheim en 1506. Nebrija nous fournit un exemple de 1'influence des idees phonetiques des grammairiens juifs. Reuchlin, dans son manuel, expose l'analyse morphologique traditionnelle de l'hebreu et introduit le concept tout a fait nouveau de 'racine'. Par ailleurs, en traitant de l'orthographe, il parvient a decrire en detail les sons de l'hebreu d'un point de vue auditif et physiologique.La deuxieme partie de l'article examine l'influence ulterieure du schema grammatical hebreu au cours du seizieme siecle. Nous citerons d'abord une oeuvre capitale du celebre orientaliste frangais Guillaume Postel (De origini-bus), ou l'auteur met en opposition typologique d'une part les langues semiti-ques, qu'il appelle "naturelles", et d'autre part les deux langues classiques, qu'il appelle "grammaticales". Ensuite nous analyserons le traite du savant hebraïsant suisse Theodore Bibliander De ratione communi omnium lingua-rum dans lequel il avance que toutes les langues du monde se pre tent a un trai-tement grammatical uniforme selon le systeme hebreu, demarche qui permet en outre de les comparer les unes aux autres. Finalement nous avanÇons que les langues semitiques fournirent aux savants Chretiens du seizieme siecle un exemple-modele d'une famille de langues apparentees. Done le XVIe siecle prefigure dejà une linguistique a la fois typologique et genetique.
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/content/journals/10.1075/hl.11.1-2.03per
1984-01-01
2019-10-23
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  • Article Type: Research Article
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