Volume 11, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0302-5160
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9781
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SUMMARYIn 1910, a Division of Anthropology was created within the Geological Survey of Canada; it was the beginning of the Canadian National Museum. Its first chief was Edward Sapir, who had been strongly recommended by his former teacher Franz Boas. Sapir soon established two major objectives of his new post, namely, to introduce a professionalism into the hitherto amateurish manner anthropology had previously been practiced in Canada, and to engage in an extensive collection of linguistic and ethnographic data among the different indigenous peoples of Canada whose cultural heritage was threatened by Western civilization.In order to attain the first goal Sapir sought the employment of university trained researchers, mainly coming from Britain and the United States. He engaged himself in fostering contacts with the scientific community, both nationally and internationally, encouraging at the same time the establishment of departments of anthropology at Canadian universities.His second objective was probably his greatest success. In order to realize the broad and systematic collection of cultural material among the" American Indians and the Inuits of Canada, he hired a number of researchers, several of which became subsequently leading figures in North-American anthropology, Marius Barbeau, Harlan I. Smith, James A. Teit, and later Thomas F. McIlwraith collected data on West-Coast Indians. The Athabaskans of the North-West were visited by Diamond Jenness and J. Alden Mason, the Sioux and the Cris of the Prairies by Wilson D. Wallis and Leonard Bloomfield. Paul Radin and Albert B. Reagan were doing research on the Ojibwa of Ontario whereas Barbeau, Alexander Goldenweiser and Frederic Waugh concentrated their attention on the Hurons of Ontario and Quebec. Groups of the Eastern Provinces were studied by William H. Mechling and Cyrus MacMillan. Jenness, Christian Leden, and E. W. Hawkes took a particular interest in the customs of the Inuit.In 1925 Sapir relinquishes his post as chief of the Anthropological Division, but not before having firmly established the basis of what was to become the National Museum of Man in Ottawa, Canada.RESUMÉEn 1910, une division d'anthropologie est créée au sein de la Commission Géologique du Canada; elle sera å l'origine du Musée National du Canada. Edward Sapir en devient le premier directeur, suite å la recommandation de Franz Boas. Sapir se fixe deux grands objectifs par rapport å ses nouvelles fonctions: sortir l'anthropologie canadienne de l'amateurisme ou elle se cantonnait depuis toujours et entreprendre une vaste operation de cueillette de faits linguistiques et ethnographiques auprés des différents groupes autochtones du Canada dont les cultures traditionnelles sont menacées de disparition.Afin de hausser le niveau de la recherche anthropologique canadienne, le premier souci de Sapir fut d'engager des chercheurs compétents, formes dans les universités américaines et britanniques pour la plupart. Il s'employa å leur fa-ciliter les contacts avec la communauté scientifique internationale et å promou-voir les échanges entre chercheurs au Canada. Il encouragea du méme souffle l'enseignement de l'anthropologie dans les universités canadiennes.Son second objectif et peut-étre sa plus grande réussite fut de mettre sur pied un vaste programme de cueillette systématique de données de base sur les groupes amérindiens et Inuit du Canada. Pour ce faire, il engagea plusieurs chercheurs dont certains devinrent par la suite des figures dominantes de l'anthropologie nord-américaine. Marius Barbeau, Harian I. Smith, James A. Teit et plus tard Thomas F. Mcllwraith recueillirent des données auprés des groupes indiens de la cote du Pacifique. Les Athapaskans du Nord-Ouest furent visités par Diamond Jenness et J. Alden Mason, les Sioux et les Cris du centre par Wilson D. Wallis et Leonard Bloomfied. Paul Radin et Albert B. Reagan s'intéressérent aux Ojibwa alors que Barbeau, Alexander Goldenweiser et Frederic Waugh séjournérent chez les Hurons de l'Ontario et du Québec. L'étude des groupes de Test du pays fut confiée å William H. Mechling et å Cyrus MacMillan. Jenness, Christian Leden et E. W. Hawkes s'intéressérent aux coutumes des Inuit.En 1925, Sapir quitte son poste å la division d'anthropologie, aprés avoir solidement établi les bases de ce qui deviendra par la suite le Musée National de FHomme å Ottawa, Canada.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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