1887
Volume 13, Issue 2-3
  • ISSN 0302-5160
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9781
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Abstract

SUMMARYThe Stoic theory of loquia (lekta) contained a fairly explicit statement of formation rules. It is argued that one type of rule was called syntaxis (combination or phrase structure rule) by Chrysippus (e.g., "a subject in the nominative case and a complete predicate form a statement"). Two other types of rule were assignments of words to lexical categories ("Dion is a Noun Phrase") and subsumption rules ("Every elementary statement is a statement"), often formulated in the form of subdivisions of concepts. A fourth type of rule seems to have been the class of transformations (enklisis, e.g., "A statement transformed by the preterite transformation is a statement"). Every syntactic rule was accompanied by a semantic interpretation according to a version of the compositionality principle familiar in modern times since Frege and elaborated by Montague and his followers. Though the concrete example of a syntax was a fairly elaborate version of some sort of Montague type or definite clause grammar, there was no effort to introduce a theory of grammar in the style of Chomsky. But the texts show awareness of the problem of the infinity of structure generated and of the concept of structural ambiguity. The Stoic system has been transformed into the formulation of the Word and Paradigm Grammar of the technical grammarians — "transformation" {enklisis) was the historical antecedent of paragôge, declinatio, "inflection", etc. Some formulations have survived into modern times, e.g., the notion of government, for which Stoic type formulations like "a deficient predicate can be combined with a subject in the accusative case to form a complete predicate" are a historical antecedent.RÉSUMÉLa theorie stoi'que des loquia (lekta) comprenait un enonce assez de-taille de regies de formation. On affirme que Chrysippus appelait syntaxis (regie de cornbinaison ou de structure phrastique) un type particulier de regie (e.g., "un sujet nominatif et un predicatif complet forment un enonce"). Deux autres types de regies concernaient l'assignation de mots a des categories lexicales {Dion est un syntagme nominal) et des regies de presupposition ("Tout enonce elementaire est un enonce") presentees le plus souvent comme des subdivisions de concepts. Un quatrieme type de regie semble etre celui de la classe des transformations {enklisis, e.g., "Un enonce transforme par la transformation preterit est un enonce"). Toute regie syntaxique s'accompagnait d'une interpretation semantique selon une version du principe de la compositionalite, connue des temps modernes depuis Frege et elaboree par Montague et ses disciples. Bien que l'exemple con-cret d'un syntaxe ait ete une version plutot elaboree d'un type quelconque de grammaire Montague ou encore une grammaire des cas on ne trouve pas d'effort visant a introduire une theorie de la grammaire dans le style de Chomsky. Les textes laissent entrevoir cependant une sensibilisation au probleme de l'infinite des structures generees et au concept de l'ambiguite structurale. Le systeme stoïque a ete transforme dans la formulation de la grammaire du mot et du paradigme des grammairiens techniques — "la transformation" {enklisis) etait l'ancetre historique de la paragôge, declinatio, "inflection" etc. Quelques notions ont survecu jusqu'a nos jours, e.g., la notion de gouvernement pour lequel les formulations stoïques typi-ques comme "un predicat deficitaire peut etre combine avec un sujet a l'ac-cusatif pour former un predicat complet" sont un antecedant historique.
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/content/journals/10.1075/hl.13.2-3.09egl
1986-01-01
2019-10-21
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  • Article Type: Research Article
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