1887
Volume 8, Issue 2-3
  • ISSN 0302-5160
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9781
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Abstract

SUMMARYGrammatical and lexicographie studies of Hebrew began in Spain toward the middle of the 10th century, probably owing to the initiatives taken by Has-day Ibn Shaprut, who asked Menahem Ibn Saruq to compile a dictionary of biblical Hebrew (and Aramaic), the Mahberet. With the help of Hasday these studies were institutionalized, most probably through the creation of an official academy. The Mahberet follows the line of tradition established by the school of Tiberias^which, since 'Aharon ben 'Asher and Sacadya, distinguished between a stable element, the 'root', and a variable element, the pa-ragogic one. Menahem intends to compile a dictionary of the roots of biblical Hebrew together with their meanings. His work was criticized by Dunash ben Labrat on some 200 points. Subsequently, a controversy ensued between Menahem's and Dunash's students. The great debate between these two authors was centered on the identification of Hebrew roots and on the determination of their respective meanings. There had been little in terms of grammatical systematization going on at the time. Statements concerning textual differences between the Bible editions available in Spain and those of the Tiberias school are of interest. The same is true of remarks about vowel quantity. Indeed, it seems that the doctrine of vowel quantity had been derived by the Spanish grammarians from those of Tiberias. The critiques advanced against the new metre suggests that rhythm was established not only on the basis of combinations of yetedots (shwa + full vowel) and of tenucots (full vowels), but also with the aid of word accent.RÉSUMÉLes études de grammaire et lexicographie hébraïques en Espagne commencent vers la moitié du Xe siècle, probablement sur l'initiative de Hasday Ibn Shaprut, qui recommande a Menahem Ibn Saruq de faire un dictionnaire d'hébreu (et araméen) biblique, le Mahberet. A l'aide de Hasday ces études sont institutionalisées vraisemblament avec la création d'une académie officielle. Le Mahberet se situe dans la ligne de l'école de Tiberias qui dès 'Aharon ben 'Asher et Sacadya faisait distinction entre un élément stable du mot, la racine, et un élément variable, paragogique. Menahem se mit à compiler un dictionnaire des racines de l'hébreu biblique avec la description de tous ses significations. Son travail fut contesté par Dunash ben Labrat sur 200 points. C'est ainsi que nacquit une controverse entre les disciples de Menahem et les disciples de Dunash. La grande contestation entre ces auteurs fut centrée sur l'identification des racines de l'hébreu et la détermination de tous ses significations. Il y a encore très peu de systématisation grammaticale à l'époque. D'un certain intérêt sont quelques constatations comme les differences textuelles entre les Bibles de l'Espagne et celles de Tiberias et sur la quantité vocalique. Il est probable que la doctrine de la quantité vocalique a été reçue par les grammariens espagnoles des grammariens de Tiberias. Les critiques contre le nouveau mètre montrent que le rythme était obtenu non seulement par la combinaison des yetedot (schwa + voyelle pleine) et tênucot (voyelles pleines) dans les syllabes, mais aussi par l'accent.
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/content/journals/10.1075/hl.8.2-3.12rod
1981-01-01
2019-09-16
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References

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  • Article Type: Research Article
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