1887
image of Effects of changes in spacing on dual-script sign
legibility
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study examined changes to typographic variables in Chinese-English traffic signs. Particularly, it considered the effect of connecting spacing – the vertical distance between a Chinese legend and its English translation – on reading performance for participants who read English but not Chinese. Participants were shown driving video simulations, featuring four connecting space measures (1/6H, 1/3H, 1/2H, 3/4H where H is the height of one Chinese character) and asked to indicate directions. A threshold method with an accuracy check was applied. The study demonstrated that connecting spacing affected participants’ reading performance and is an important consideration for dual-script sign legibility.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/idj.21008.zha
2022-11-21
2022-11-30
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Anttila, V. , Luoma, J. , & Rämä, P.
    (2000) Visual demand of bilingual message signs displaying alternating text messages. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, (), –. 10.1016/S1369‑8478(00)00016‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-8478(00)00016-4 [Google Scholar]
  2. Calori, C. , & Vanden-Eynden, D.
    (2015) Signage and wayfinding design: a complete guide to creating environmental graphic design systems. John Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781119174615
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119174615 [Google Scholar]
  3. Cantin, V. , Lavallière, M. , Simoneau, M. , & Teasdale, N.
    (2009) Mental workload when driving in a simulator: Effects of age and driving complexity. Accident Analysis & Prevention, (), –. 10.1016/j.aap.2009.03.019
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.03.019 [Google Scholar]
  4. Capaldo, F. S.
    (2012) Driver eye height: Experimental determination and implications on sight distances. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, , –. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.04.111
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.04.111 [Google Scholar]
  5. Chahine, N.
    (2012) Reading Arabic: legibility studies for the Arabic script. PhD thesis. University of Leiden.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dudek, C. L.
    (1991) Guidelines on the use of changeable message signs. TRID database (Accession Number: 01405876)
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dyson, M. C.
    (2019) Legibility: how and why typography affects ease of reading. Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Diseño.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Eid, S.
    (2009) Bilingual Information Design in Saudi Arabia. (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Reading.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Elam, K.
    (2007) Typographic Systems of Design: Frameworks for Type Beyond the Grid (Graphic Design Book on Typography Layouts and Fundamentals). Princeton Architectural Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Frascara, J.
    (2015) Information Design As Principled Action : Making information accessible, relevant, understandable, and usable. Illinois. 10.18848/978‑1‑61229‑786‑6/CGP
    https://doi.org/10.18848/978-1-61229-786-6/CGP [Google Scholar]
  11. Garvey, P. M. , & Mace, D. J.
    (1996) Changeable message sign visibility. Federal Highway Administration. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, & Standardisation Administration of the PRC (2009) Road traffic signs and markings (道路交通标志和标线). (GB5768.3-2009). https://www.wdfxw.net/doc11265607.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Highsmith, C.
    (2012) Inside Paragraphs: Typographic Fundamentals. Font Bureau.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hochuli, J.
    (2008) Detail in typography: letters, letterspacing, words, wordspacing, lines, linespacing, columns. Hyphen Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jamson, S.
    (2004) Evaluation of techniques to improve the legibility of bilingual Variable Message Signs. Advances in Transportation Studies, , –.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jamson, S. , Tate, F. , & Jamson, A. H.
    (2005) Evaluating the effects of bilingual traffic signs on driver performance and safety. Ergonomics, (), –. 10.1080/00140130500142191
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130500142191 [Google Scholar]
  16. Kline, D. W. , & Fuchs, P.
    (1993) The Visibility of Symbolic Highway Signs Can Be Increased among Drivers of All Ages. Human Factors, (), –. 10.1177/001872089303500102
    https://doi.org/10.1177/001872089303500102 [Google Scholar]
  17. Lay, M. G.
    (2004) Design of traffic signs. In C. Castro & T. Horberry (Eds.), The human factors of transport signs (pp.–). CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. 10.1201/9780203457412.ch3
    https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203457412.ch3 [Google Scholar]
  18. Lesage, P. B.
    (1981) Design and comprehension of bilingual traffic signs. TRID database (Accession Number: 00370841).
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lu, X. , & Tang, T.
    (2016) Elements of Chinese typeface design. In Mary C. Dyson & Ching Y. Suen (Eds.), Digital Fonts and Reading (pp.–). World Scientific Publishing. 10.1142/9789814759540_0007
    https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814759540_0007 [Google Scholar]
  20. Luna, P.
    (1992) Understanding type for desktop publishing. Chapman & Hall, Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mandelbaum, J. , & Sloan, L. L.
    (1947) Peripheral Visual Acuity: with special reference to scotopic illumination. American Journal of Ophthalmology, (), –. 10.1016/0002‑9394(47)92311‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9394(47)92311-8 [Google Scholar]
  22. Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the PRC
    Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the PRC (2015) Code for layout of urban road traffic signs and markings (城市道路交通标志和标线设置规). (GB 51038 – 2015). https://www.wdfxw.net/doc20970684.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ministry of Transport of the PRC
    Ministry of Transport of the PRC (2009) Specification for Layout of Highway Traffic Signs and Markings (公路交通标志和飑线设置规范). (JTC D82 – 2009). https://www.waizi.org.cn/bz/116644.html
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mollerup, P.
    (2013) Wayshowing-> Wayfinding. BIS Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ng, A. W. Y. , & Chan, A. H. S.
    (2008) The effects of driver factors and sign design features on the comprehensibility of traffic signs. Journal of Safety Research, (), –. 10.1016/j.jsr.2008.02.031
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2008.02.031 [Google Scholar]
  26. Petretta, J.
    (2014) Arabic sign design: Right to left and left to right. Information Design Journal, (), –. 10.1075/idj.21.1.04pet
    https://doi.org/10.1075/idj.21.1.04pet [Google Scholar]
  27. Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport, & Beijing Communications Highway Survey and Design Institute
    Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport, & Beijing Communications Highway Survey and Design Institute (2007) Technical Guidelines for the Replacement of National Expressway Network Related Traffic Signs (国家高速公路网相关标志更换工作实施技术指南). China Communications Press. www.jianbiaoku.com/webarbs/book/13627/676677.shtml
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport, Highway Administration of Anhui Province, & Beijing Highway Survey and Design Institute
    Research Institute of Highway Ministry of Transport, Highway Administration of Anhui Province, & Beijing Highway Survey and Design Institute (2017) Technical Guidelines for the Adjustment of National Highway Network Traffic Signs (国家公路网交通标志调整工作技术指南). https://www.wdfxw.net/doc100277416.htm?fs=1
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rutley, K.
    (1972) An investigation into bilingual (Welsh/English) traffic signs. Transport and Road Research Laboratory.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sanocki, T.
    (1992) Effects of font-and letter-specific experience on the perceptual processing of letters. The American journal of psychology, (), –. 10.2307/1423197
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1423197 [Google Scholar]
  31. Samara, T.
    (2017) Making and breaking the grid, updated and expanded: A graphic design layout workshop. Rockport Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Smahel, T. , & Smiley, A.
    (2011) Evaluation of bilingual sign layout and information load before implementation of new signing system. Transportation research record, (), –. 10.3141/2248‑05
    https://doi.org/10.3141/2248-05 [Google Scholar]
  33. Standardization administration of China, & Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China
    Standardization administration of China, & Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China (2017) Guidelines for the use of English in public service areas (公共服务领域英文译写规范). (GB/T 30240.2 – 2017). wb.beijing.gov.cn/home/wswm/yyhj/bscx/gjbz/202002/P020200211586150202305.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tam, K. C.
    (2012) A descriptive framework for Chinese–English bilingual typography. Typographische Monatsblätter, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Tejero, P. , Insa, B. , & Roca, J.
    (2018) Increasing the default interletter spacing of words can help drivers to read traffic signs at longer distances. Accident Analysis & Prevention, , –. 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.028
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.028 [Google Scholar]
  36. The State Language Commission (国家语言文字工作委员会) (1989) High-frequency Category of Usage of Common Chinese Characters (现代汉语常用字频度统计). Language Press (语文出版社).
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Waller, R.
    (2007) Comparing typefaces for airport signs. Information Design Journal, (), –. 10.1075/idj.15.1.01wal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/idj.15.1.01wal [Google Scholar]
  38. Wertheimer, M.
    (1950) Gestalt theory. In W. D. Ellis (Ed.), A sourcebook of Gestalt psychology (pp.–). Humanities Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Yang, Y. , Chen, J. , Easa, S. M. , Zheng, X. , Lin, W. , & Peng, Y.
    (2020) Driving simulator study of the comparative effectiveness of monolingual and bilingual guide signs on Chinese highways. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, , –. 10.1016/j.trf.2019.11.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2019.11.008 [Google Scholar]
  40. Zhang, Y.
    (2021) Effects of text space of Chinese-English bilingual traffic sign on driver reading performance. Displays, , . 10.1016/j.displa.2021.102002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2021.102002 [Google Scholar]
  41. Zineddin, A. Z. , Garvey, P. M. , Carlson, R. A. , & Pietrucha, M. T.
    (2003) Effects of practice on font legibility. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting, (), –. 10.1177/154193120304701326
    https://doi.org/10.1177/154193120304701326 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/idj.21008.zha
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/idj.21008.zha
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error