Volume 27, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0142-5471
  • E-ISSN: 1569-979X



This paper presents research on creating interactive prototypes for visualizing temporal spatial relationships in fictional literary texts. Developed within the context of the Chronotopic Cartographies project, a practice-led inquiry yielded dynamic visualizations from literary texts, the research explores the development and application of interactive three-dimensional environments illustrating the ‘chronotopic’, time-space relationships across a series of fictional literary texts. Expert feedback highlights the potential of the interaction model as a useful visual paradigm for supporting methods of reflective inquiry hypothesis making. The work also represents a potential model for creating interactive temporal visualizations which support hypothesis making across a broader sphere of the humanities.

Available under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Aigner, W., Miksch, S., Schumann, H., Tominski, C.
    (2011) Visualization of Time-Oriented Data, Human-Computer Interaction Series. Springer London. 10.1007/978‑0‑85729‑079‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-85729-079-3 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alex, B., Grover, C., Tobin, R., & Oberlander, J.
    (2019) Geoparsing historical and contemporary literary text set in the City of Edinburgh. Language Resources and Evaluation, 53(4), 651–675. 10.1007/s10579‑019‑09443‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-019-09443-x [Google Scholar]
  3. Bach, B., Dragicevic, P., Archambault, D., Hurter, C., Carpendale, S.
    (2014) A Review of Temporal Data Visualizations Based on Space-Time Cube Operations. EuroVis 2014 Eurographics Conference on Visualization (pp.23–41).
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bakhtin, M.
    (1981) The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bostock, M.
    (2021) D3.js – Data-Driven Documents. D3js.org. https://d3js.org/
  6. Boyd Davis, S., & Kräutli, F.
    (2015) The idea and image of historical time: Interactions between design and digital humanities. Visible Language, 49(3), 100–119.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bushell, S.
    (2020) Chronotopic Cartographies. Lancaster University. https://www.lancaster.ac.uk/chronotopic-cartographies/. 10.1017/9781108635936
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108635936 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bushell, S., Butler, J., Hay, D., Hutcheon, R., & Butterworth, A.
    (2021) Chronotopic Cartography: Mapping Literary Time-Space. Journal of Victorian Culture, 26(2), 310–325. 10.1093/jvcult/vcab004
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jvcult/vcab004 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bushell, S., Butler, J. O., Hay, D., & Hutcheon, R.
    (2022) Digital Literary Mapping: II. Towards an Integrated Visual–Verbal Method for the Humanities. Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization, 57(1), 37–64. 10.3138/cart‑2021‑0007
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cart-2021-0007 [Google Scholar]
  10. Champion, E. M.
    (2017) Digital humanities is text heavy, visualization light, and simulation poor. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 32 (1), 25–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Donaldson, C., Gregory, I. N., & Murrieta-Flores, P.
    (2015) Mapping ‘Wordsworthshire’: a GIS study of literary tourism in Victorian Lakeland. Journal of Victorian Culture, 20(3), 287–307. 10.1080/13555502.2015.1058089
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13555502.2015.1058089 [Google Scholar]
  12. Drucker, J.
    (2011) Humanities approaches to graphical display. Digital Humanities Quarterly, 5(1), 1–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fry, B., & Reas, C.
    (2021) Welcome to Processing. Processing.org, https://processing.org/
  14. Goldfarb, D., Arends, M., Froschauer, J., & Merkl, D.
    (2011) Revisiting 3D information landscapes for the display of art historical web content. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology (1–8). 10.1145/2071423.2071480
    https://doi.org/10.1145/2071423.2071480 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gregory, I., Baron, A., Cooper, D., Hardie, A., Murrieta-Flores, P. & Rayson, P.
    (2014) Crossing boundaries: Using GIS in literary studies, history and beyond. InJuliette Hueber & Antonio Mendes da Silva (eds.) Keys for architectural history research in the digital era. l’Institut national d’histoire de l’art. 10.4000/books.inha.4931
    https://doi.org/10.4000/books.inha.4931 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hinrichs, U., Forlini, S., Moynihan, B.
    (2019) In defense of sandcastles: Research thinking through visualization in digital humanities. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities341, 80–99. 10.1093/llc/fqy051
    https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqy051 [Google Scholar]
  17. Jessop, M.
    (2008) The inhibition of geographical information in digital humanities scholarship. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 23(1), 39–50. 10.1093/llc/fqm041
    https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqm041 [Google Scholar]
  18. McCurdy, N., Lein, J., Coles, K., & Meyer, M.
    (2015) Poemage: Visualizing the sonic topology of a poem. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 22(1), 439–448. 10.1109/TVCG.2015.2467811
    https://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2015.2467811 [Google Scholar]
  19. Moretti, F.
    (2005) Graphs, maps, trees: abstract models for a literary history. Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nöllenburg, M.
    (2007) Geographic Visualization, in: Kerren, A., Ebert, A., Meyer, J. (Eds.), Human-Centered Visualization Environments. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 257–294. 10.1007/978‑3‑540‑71949‑6_6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-71949-6_6 [Google Scholar]
  21. Piatti, B., Bär, H. R., Reuschel, A. K., Hurni, L., & Cartwright, W.
    (2009) Mapping literature: Towards a geography of fiction. InCartography and art (1–16). Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑540‑68569‑2_15
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-68569-2_15 [Google Scholar]
  22. Posavec, S.
    (2006) Writing Without Words. www.stefanieposavec.com/writing-without-words
  23. Reuschel, A. K., & Hurni, L.
    (2011) Mapping literature: Visualization of spatial uncertainty in fiction. The Cartographic Journal, 48(4), 293–308. 10.1179/1743277411Y.0000000023
    https://doi.org/10.1179/1743277411Y.0000000023 [Google Scholar]
  24. Rydberg-Cox, J.
    (2011) Social networks and the language of Greek tragedy. Journal of the Chicago Colloquium on Digital Humanities and Computer Science, 1(3).
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Schöttler, S., Yang, Y., Pfister, H., & Bach, B.
    (2021) Visualizing and interacting with geospatial networks: A survey and design space. Computer Graphics Forum, 40 (6), 5–33. 10.1111/cgf.14198
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cgf.14198 [Google Scholar]
  26. Stange, J. E., & Dörk, M.
    (2016) Visualizing the spatiality in fictional narratives. Workshop on Visualization for the Digital Humanities. VIS4DH’16. IEEE VIS
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Three.js
    Three.js (2022) Three.Js -JavaScript 3D Libraryhttps://threejs.org/

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error